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1 





STANFORD UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



' 



THE WOKKS 



OK 



AUEELIUS AUGUSTINE, 

BISHOP OF HIPPO. 



A NEW TRANSLATION. 
REV. MARCUS DODS, M.A. 



VOL. II. 
THE CITY OF GOD, 

VOLUIIE II. 



EDINBUEGH: 
T. & T. CLAEK, 38, GEOEGE STEEET. 

HDOOOLXXL 



PRINTED BV HtTRRAY AND OIBEt, 

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THE 



1^1 



) I T Y OF GOD. 



Crantflatrti bp ti^r 

REV. MARCUS DODS, M.A 



VOLUME 11. 



EDINBUEGH: 
T. & T. CLAEK, 38, GEORGE STREET. 

HD0G0L2XL 



<L.2J 



e7^7^T 



Op the foHowing Work, Books IV. XYII. and XVIII. have been translated 
by the Rev. George Wilson, Glenluce; Books V. VI. VII. and VIII. by 
the Rer. J. J. Smith. 



CONTENTS. 



BOOK XIV. 

rxnm 
Of the punishment and resnits of nian*s first sin, and of the propaga- 
tion of nun withoat lust 1 



BOOK XV. 

^e prepress of the earthly and heavenly cities traced by the sacred 

historyi 49 



BOOK XVI. 

The history of the city of God from Noah to the time of the kings of 

Isiael, 104 



BOOK XVII. 

The history of the city of Ood from the times of the prophets to 

Christ, 166 

BOOK XVIIl. 

A parallel history of the earthly and hearenly cities from the time of 

Abraham to the end of the world, 217 



BOOK XIX 

A reriew of the philosophical opinions regarding the Supreme Good, 
and a comparison of these opinions with the Christian belief re- 
garding happiness, 298 

BOOK XX. 

Of the last judgment, and the declarations regarding it in the Old and 

Kew Tesitaments, 845 



VI CONTENTS. 

BOOK XXI. 

FAGR 

Of the eternal punishment of the wicked in hell, and of the varions 

objections vged against it, 413 



BOOK XXII. 

Of the eternal happiness of the saints, the resurrection of the l>ody, 

and the miraclefl of the early Church, 472 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



■ I. 



BOOK FOURTEENTH.' 

ARGUMEKT. 

AOAIX TREATS OF THE SIN OP THE FIRST VAX, AKD TEACIllffl THAT 
IT tS THE CAUSE OF THE CARXAL LIFE AND VlCIOrS AFFECTIONS OF MAN. 
JCSPECIALLT HE PROVES THAT TKESBAME WHICH ACCOMrANIKa LUST IS THE 
JUST PUNISHMENT OF THAT DIKOBEDJENL'E, ANIJ INyriKEfi HOW MAN, IF KB 
HAD 50T SINNED, WOULD HAVE SEEK AHLE WITUOITT LUST TO FROPADATK 
Hia KUn). 

1. T^at the disoht^enee of thfjirst man would have, plunged all men into tlie 
t»dlt** mittry o/the second deaths hud nut iJte yvace oj God rescued many. 

WE have already stated in tlie preceding books tliat God, 
desiiing not only that the human race might be able 
by tlieir similarity of nature to associate with one another, 
Lut also tliat they might be bound together in haimony and 
peace by the ties of relationship, was pleased to derive all 
men from one individual, and created man with such a 
nature that tlie niend)ei'S of the race sliould not have died, 
had not the two fu-st (of whom the one was created out of 
nothing, and the oilier out of him) merited this by their dis- 
bedience ; for by them so gre^it a sin was committed, that by 
it the human nature was altered for the worse, and was trans- 
mitted also to their posterity, liable to sin and subject to 
death. And the kingdom of death so reigned over men, that 
the deserved penalty of sin would have hurled all headlong 
even into the second death, of which there is no end, had not 
e nndeser\'ed grace of God saved some therefrom. And 

> TTiis took is referred to in Another work of Ati;^stine*8 {contra Advert 
Letjlt et Prophet, i. 18), which wes written about the year 4S0. 

rOL. IX. A 



TUE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XIV. 



thus it has come to pass, that though there are very many 
and great nations all over the earth, whose rites and customs, 
speech, arms, and diess, are distinguislif^d by marked tlitfer- 
ences, yet there are no more than two kinds of human society, 
which we may justly call two cities, according to tlie language 
of our Scriptures. The one consists of those who wish to live 
after the flesh, the other of those "who wish to live after the 
spirit ; and when they severally achieve wliat they wish, they 
live in peace, each after their kind. 

2. 0/ carnal K/e, ichlch m to he understood not only of Uvhtff in lodUj/ indulgence^ 
but also ofliwing in Me vices of the inner man. 

First, we must see what it is to live after the fiesh, and what 
to live after the spirit For any one who either does not 
recollect, or does not sufficiently weigh, the language of sacre4 
Scripture, may, on first hearing what we have said, suppose 
that the Epicurean philosophers live after the flesh, because 
tliey place man's highest good in bodily pleasui-o ; and that 
those others do so who have been of opinion that in some 
fonii or other bodily good is man's supreme good ; and that 
the mass of men do so who, without dogmatizing or philoso- 
phizing on the subject, are so prone to lust that thoy cannot 
delight in any pleasure save such as they receive from bodily 
sensations : and he may suppose that the Stoics, who place 
the supreme good of men in the soul, hve after the spirit ; for 
what is man's soul, if not spirit? But in the sense of the 
divine Scripture both are proved to live after the flesh. For 
by flesh it means not only the body of a terrestrial and mortal 
animal, as when it says, " All flesh is not the same flesh, 
but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of 
beasts, another of fishes, another of birds," ^ but it uses this 
word in many other significations; and among these various 
usages, a frequent one is to use flc.^h for man himself, the 
nature of man taking the part for the whole, as in the words, 
** By the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified;"' 
for what does he mean here by " no flesli " but " no man ? " 
And this, indeed, be shortly after says more plainly: "No man 
shall be justified by the law;''^ and in the Epistle to tlie 
Galatians, "Knowing that a man is not justified by the 

' 1 Cor. XV. 39. » Rom. iii. 20, » GaL iiL 11. 




»K XIV.] 



WIUT THE FLESH IS. 



s 



works of the law." And so we understand the words, " And 
the Woixl was made fleah,"' — that is, man, which some not 
accepting in its right sense, have supposed that Christ had not 
a human soul.^ Per as the whole is used for the part in the 
words of Mary Magdalene in the Gospel, " They have taken 
away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid Him/' ' 
by which she meant only the flesh of Christ, which she sup- 
posed had been taken from tlie tomb where it had been 
buried, so the part is used for the whole, flesh being named, 
while man is referred to, as in the quotations above cited. 

Since, then. Scripture uses the word flesh in many ways, 
which there is not time to collect and investigate, if we are to 
ascertain what it is to live after the flesh (which is certainly 
evil, though the nature of flesh is not itself evil), we must 
carefully examine that possof^c of the epistle which the 
Apostle Paul wrote to the Galatians, in which he says, " Now 
the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these : adultery, 
fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, 
hatred, variance, emulations, wiath, strife, seditions, heresies, 
envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like : of 
the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in tune 
past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the 
kingdom of God." * This whole ptissage of the apostolic 
epistle being considered, so far as it bears on the matter in 
hand, will be suflicient to answer the question, what it is to 
live after the flesh. For among the works of the flesh which 
he said were manifest, and which he cited for condemnation, 
we find not only those which concern the pleasure of the 
flesh, as fornications, uncleanness, lasciviousness, drunkenness, 
revellings, but also those which, though they be remote from 
fleshly pleasure, reveal the vices of the soul. For who does 
not see tlmt idolatries, witchcrafts, hatreds, variance, emula- 
tions, wrath, strife, heresies, envyings, are vices rather of the 
soul than of the flesh ? For it is quite possible tor a man to 
abstain from flesWy pleasures for the sake of idolatry or some 
heretical error; and yet, even when he does so, ho is proved by 
this ^)ostolic authority to be living after the flesh ; and in 



' John. i. 14. 
'John XX. 13. 



' Tlie ApolIinarUna. 
* Gal. y. lB-21. 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xtv. 



abstaining from flesldy pleasure, he is proved to be practising 
damnable works of the flesh. Who that has enmity has it 
not in his soul ? or who would say to his enemy, or to the 
man he thinks liis enemy, You have a bad fiesh towards me, 
and not rather, You have a bad spirit towards me ? In fine, 
if any one lieard of wliat I may call " carnalities," he would 
not fail to attribute them to the carnal part of man ; so no 
one doubts that " animosities " belong to the soul of man. 
Why then does the doctor of the Gentiles in faith and verity 
call all these and similar things works of the flesh, unless 
because, by that mode of speech w^hereby the part is used for 
the whole, he means us to understund by the word flesh tlie 
man himself? 

3. That tin ia caiu«2 not hy thcjlesli, but hy the taul^ and tliat the eomtjition 
corUracted from sin in not gin^ but «m*jt puuishvtfiU. 

But if any one says that the flesh la the cause of all vices 
and ill conduct, inasmuch as the soul lives wickedly only 
because it is moved by the flesh, it is certain he has not 
carefully considered the whole nature of man. For " tht.' 
corruptible body, indeed, wcigheth down the soul."^ Whence, 
too, the apostle, speaking of tlus corruptible body, of which 
he had shortly before said, " though our outward man perish,"^ 
says, " We know that if our eartldy house of this tabernacle 
were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made 
with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, 
earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is 
from heaven : if so be that being clothed we shall not be found 
naked. For we that aro in this tabernacle do gman, being 
burdened : not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed 
upon, that mortality might be swallowed up in life." * We 
are then burdened with this coiTuptible body ; but knowing 
that the cause of this burdensomeness is not the nature and 
substance of the body, but its corruption, we do not desire to 
be deprived of the body, but to be clothed with its immor- 
tality. For then, also, there will be a body, but it sliall no 
longer be a burden, being no longer corruptible. At present, 
then, " tlie corruptible body presseth down the soul, and the 
earthly tabernacle wei^heth down the mind that museth upon 

» "Wiad. ix. 15. » 2 Cor. iv. 16. " 2 Cor. v. 1-4. 




BOOK XIV.] 



THE SOUL AND THE FLESH. 




many tilings/* nevertheless they are in error Vfho suppose that 
aH the evils of the soul proceed from the body. 

Virgil, indeed, seems to expi-ess the sentiments of Plato in 
the beautiful lines, v?here he says, — 

"A fiery strength inspires their lircs. 
An essence that from hearen derives, 
Though closed in port by limbs of clay, 
And the dull 'vesture of decuy ;' "^ 

hut though he goes on to mention the four most common. 
roeutal emotions, — desire, fear, joy, sorrow, — with the inten- 
tion of showing that the body is the origin of all sins and 
rices, saj^ng, — 

^** Hence wild desires and grovelling fears. 
And hnmnn langhter, human tears, 
Immured in dungeon -seeming night, 
They look obroad, yet see no light,"' 

yet we believe quite otherwise. For the corruption of the 
body, which weighs down the soul, is not the cause but tlie 
puniahnient of the first sin ; and it was not llie con-uptible 
flesh that made the soid sinful, but the sinfvd soul that made 
the flesli corruptible. And thuiigli from this corruption of 
the flesh there arise certain incitements to vice, and indeed 
vicious desires, yet we must not attribute to the ilesli all 
the vices of a wicked life, in case we tliereby clear the devil 
of all these, for he lias no llasli. For though we cannot call 
the de\'il a fornicator or drunkard, or ascribe to him any 
aenffoal indulgence (though he is the secret instigator and 
prompter of those who sin in these ways), yet he is exceed- 
ingly proad and envious. And tliis viciousness has so pos- 
aessed him, that on account of it lie is i-eserved in chains of 
«<a>lmAflg to .everlasting punishment.^ Now these vices, which 
bare dominion over the devil, the apostle attributes to the 
flesh, which certainly the devil has not For he says 
"hatred, variance, emulations, strife, env^'ing" are the works 
of the flesh; and of all these evils pride is the origin and 
head, and it rules in the devil though lie has no flesh. For 
vho shows more hatred to the saints i who is more at 

» ^iitid, tL 730-32. • 76. 788, 734. 

> Ob the puniihmcnt of the deril, see the De Affcne ChriaO, 3-6, and Vt 




THE CITY OF COD. 



[book XIV. 



variance with them ? who more envious, bitter, and jealous ? 
And since he exhibita all these works, though he has no flesh, 
how are they works of the flesh, unless becaiiae they are the 
works of man, who is, as I said, spoken of under the name of 
flesh ? For it is not by having flesh, whicii the devil has not, 
but by living according to himself, — that is, according to 
man, — that man became like the devil. For the devil too, 
wished to live according to himself when he did not abide in 
the truth ; so that when he lied, this was not of God, but of 
him5?elf, who is not only a liar^ but the father of lies, he being 
the first who lied, and the originator of lying as of sin. 

4. What U U to Uoe accordui^ to man, atid what Co live according to Ood. 

When, therefore, man lives according to man, not accord- 
ing to God, he is like the doviL Because not even an angel 
might live according to an angel, but only according to God, 
if he was to abide in the truth, and speak God's truth and 
not his own lie. And of man, too, the same apostle says in 
another place, " If the truth of God hath more abounded 
through my lie;"^ — "my lie," he said, and '* God's Lrutk" 
When, then, a man lives according to the trutli, he lives not 
according to himself, but according to God ; for He was 
God who said, " I am the tnith."'' When, therefore, man 
lives according to himself, — that is, according to man, not 
according to God, — assuredly he lives according to a lie ; not 
that man himself is a lie, for God is his author and creator, 
who is certainly not the author and creator of a lie, but 
because man was made upright, that he might not live accord- 
ing to himself, but according to Him that made him, — in other 
words, that he might do His will and not his own ; and not to 
live as he was made to live, that is a lie. For he certainly 
desired to be blessed even by not living so that he may be 
blessed. And what is a lie if this desire be not ? Where- 
fore it is not without meaning said that all sin is a lie. For 
no sin is committed aave by that desire or will by which we 
desire that it be well with us, and shrink from it being ill 
■with U3. Tliat, therefore, is a lie which we do iu order tliat 
it may be well with us, but which makes us more miserable 

' Bom. iii. 7. ' John xit, 6. 




BOOK xrv.] ECRirruRAL USE OF THE "woKD rf.Ksn. 



tlian we were. And why is this, but because the source of 
's happiness lies only in God, whom he abandons when 
e sins, and not in himself, by living according to whom he 



^^&an 






In enunciating this proposition of ours, then, that because 
some live according to the flesh and others according to the 
Spirit there have arisen two diverse and conflicting cities, 
"^e might equally well have said, " because some live accord- 
iiig to man, others according to God." For Paul says very 
plainly to tlie Corinthians, " For whereas there is among you 
envying and strife, are ye not carnal, and walk according to 
2nan ?"^ So that to walk according to man and to be carnal 
are the same ; for by jlcsli, that is, by a part of man, man 
is meant. For before he said that those same persons were 
animal whom afterwards he calls carnal, saying, " For what 
man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man 
which is in him ? even so the things of God knoweth no 
man, but tlie Spirit of God Now we have received not the 
spirit of this world, but the Spirit which is of God ; that we 
might know the things which are freely given to us of God. 
Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's 
wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth ; com- 
paring spiritual things with spiritual. But the animal man 
perceiveth not the things of tlie Spirit of God ; for they are 
foolishness unto him."' It is to men of tliis kiud, then, that 
is, to animal men, he shortly after says, " And I, brethren, could 
not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto camaL" ' 
And this is to be interpreted by the same usage, a part being 
taken for the whole. For both the soul and the flesh, the 
component parts of man, can be used to signify the whole 
man ; and so the animal man and the carnal man are not two 
different things, but one and the same thing, viz, man living 
according to man. In the same way it is nothing else than 
men that are meant either in the words, " By the deeds of 
e law tliere shall no JUsJi be justified;"* or in the words, 
Seventy-five sotds went down into Egypt with Jacob." * In 
e one passage, " no flesh" signifies " no man f and in the 



1 Cor. iiL 3. 
* Rom. iii, 20. 




no flesh" signifies 
nCor. it n-H. 

'Gen. xlvi. 27. 



» 1 Cor. iii. 1, 



8 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xiy 



Other, by "seventy-five souls" seventy-five men are meant. 
And the expression, " not in woitI.s which man's wisdom 
teacheth/' might equally be " not in words which fleshly 
wisdom teacheth;" and the expression, "ye walk accoixiing to 
man," might be " according to the flesh." And this is still 
more apparent in the wonls which followed : " For while one 
saith, I am of Paul, and another I am of ApoUos, are ye not 
men 1 " The same thing which he had before expressed by 
" ye are animal," '* ye are carnal," he now expresses by " ye 
are men;" that is, ye live accordinc; to man, not according to 
God, for if you lived accoi-ding to llini, you shoidd be goda 

5. That the opinion of (he Piatonlsts rtgar<Uug tJiC nature ofhoihj and foul U 
not so censurable as thai o/Uie Manlcfiwaii^, hut thai even it u objectUmablff 
because it ascribes the origin of vices to ti\e nature of thefksh. 

Tlicre is no need» therefore^ that in our sins and vices we 
accuse the nature of the flesh to the injury of the Creator, for 
in its own Icind and degree the flesh is good ; but to desert the 
Creator good, and live according to the created good, is not good, 
wliether a man choose to live according to the flesh, or accord- 
ing to the soul, or according to the whole human nature, wliich 
is composed of flesh and soul, and which is therefore spoken of 
either by the name flesh alone, or by the name soul alone. For 
he who extols tlie nature of the soul as the cliicf good, and con- 
demns the nature of the flesh as if it were evil, assuredly is 
fleshly both in liis love of the soul and hatred of the flesh ; for 
these his feelings arise from human fancy, not from divine 
trutk The Platonists, indeed, are not so foolish as, with the 
Manichteans, to detest our present bodies as an evil natui'e ;* 
for they attribute all the elements of which this visible and 
tangible world is compacted, with all their qualities, to God 
their Creator. Nevertheless, from the death-infected members 
and earthly construction of tlie body they believe the soul is so 
affected, tliat there are thus originated in it the diseases of 
desires, and fears, and joy, and sorrow, under wliich four per- 
turbations, as Cicero^ calls them, or passions, as most prefer 
to name them with the Greeks, ia included the whole vicious- 
ness of human life. But if this be so, how is it that .-Eneas 
in Virgil, when he Iiad heaitl from his father in Hades that 
* 8«e Augtistine, Bt HtxrtM, 46, • Tiue, Quast. iv. fl. 




-BOO^ XIV.] FLESn NOT THE CAUSE OF ALL SIX. 9 

tlie souls should return to bodies, expresses surprise at tliis 
^claration, and exclaims : 

•' father ! And can thought conceive 
That happy 80ul8 this realm would leave, 

And seek the upper sky, 
With sluggish cl&y to reunite f 
This direful longing for the light. 

Whence comes it, say, and why I *' ' 

This direful longing, then, does it still exist even in that 

boasted purity of the disembodied spirits, and does it still 

proceed from the death-infected membera and eartlily limbs ? 

Does he not assert that, when they begin to long to return 

to the body, they have already been delivered from uU these 

80-called pestilences of thu body ? Ti-om which -we gather 

that, wej-e this endlessly alternating purification and defilemeDt 

of departing and returning suula as true us it is most certainly 

false, yet it could not be averred that all culpable and vicious 

lions of the soul originate in the earthly body; for, on their 

own showing, " this direful longing," to use the words of their 

noble exponent, is so extraneous to the tiody, that it moves 

the soul that is purged of all bodily taint, and is existing 

apart from any body whatever, and moves it, moreover, to be 

«nibodied again. So that even they themselves acknowledge 

that the soul is not only moved to desire, fear, joy, sorrow, by 

tte flesh, but that it can also be agitated with these emotions 

at its own instance. 

(• O/Oie character (^ the human wiil ivhich makes (fie n^tctiont of the toul 
right or ivronrj, 

Bnt the character of the Imman will is of moment ; because, 
if it is wrong, these motions of the soul will be wrong, but if 
It h right, they will be not merely blameless, but even praise- 
worthy. For the will is in Uiem all ; yea, none of them is 
anything else than will For what are desire and joy but a 
rohtion of consent to the things we wish ? And what are 
fear and sadness but a volition of aversion from tlie thinirs 
'Lich we do not wish ? But when consent takes the form of 

iking to possess the things we wish, this is called desire ; 
when consent takes the form of enjoying the things we 
^ ^neW, vL 719-21. 



mo 



THE CITY OF GOD 



wish, this is called joy. In like manner, -when we turn with 
aversion from that which we do not wish to liappen, this 
volition is termed fear ; and when we turn away from that 
which has happened against our will, this act of will is called 
sorrow. And generally in respect of all that we seek or shun, as 
a man*3 will is attracted or repelled, so it is changed and tia-ned 
into these different affections. "Wherefore the man who lives 
according to God, and not according to man, ought to he a lover 
of good, and therefore a liater of evil. And since no one is 
evil by nature, but whoever is evil is evil by vice, he who 
lives according to God ought to cherish towards evil men a 
perfect hatred, so that he shall neither hate the man because 
of his "vice, nor love the vice because of the man, but hate 
the vice and love the man. For the vice being cursed, all 
that ought to be luved, and nothing that ought to be hated, 
will remain. 

7. That iAe words Itrvf Of?rf regard (amor and Jilectio) are in Scripture tued 
indijirrentlif of good and evil affection. 

He who resolves to love God, and to love his neighbour as 
himself, not according to man but according to Grod, is on 
account of this love said to be of a good will; and this is in 
Scripture more commonly called charit)', but it is also, even 
in the same books, called love. For the apostle says that the 
man to be elected as a ruler of the people must be a lover of 
good' And when the Lord Himself had asked Peter. " Hast 
thou a regard for me (diligis) more than these ? " Peter re- 
plied, " Lord, Thou knowest that I love (cmo) Thee." And 
again a second time the Lord asked not whether Peter loved 
(amarci) Him, but whether he had a regard {diligtrei) for Him, 
and he again answei-ed, " Lord, Thou knowest that I love {amo) 
Thee." But on the tJiird interrogation the Lord Himself no 
longer says, " Hast thou a regard {diligis) for me," but " Lovest 
thou [amas) me ? " And then the evangelist adds, " Peter was 
grieved becaiise He said unto him the third time, Lovest thou 
(amas) me ?" though tlie Lord had not said three times but only 
once, "Lovest thou (amas) me?** and twice " Diligis Tnfl" from 
which we gather that, even when the Lord said "diligis^* He used 
an equivalent for " amas" Peter, too. throughout used one word 
' Tit. L 8, according to Greek uid VulgaU-. 




BOOK XIV.] 



AMOR AND DILKCnO. 



11 



far the one thing, and the third time also replied, " Lord, Thou 
kiKyirest all things, Thou knowest that I love {amo) Thee." ^ 

I have judged it right to mention this, because some are 
of opinion that charity or regard (dUcctio) is one thing, love 
fjonor) another. They say tliat diUctio is used of a good affec- 
tkm, atnor of an evil love. But it is very certain that even 
secular literature knows no such distinction. HowevcTj it is 
for tbe philosophers to determine whether and how they differ, 
thoi^i their own writings sufficiently testify that they make 
grett account of love (am^) placed on good objects, and even 
on God Himsell But we wished to show that the Scriptures 
of our religion, whose authority we prefer to all writings what- 
•oever, roako no distinction between amor, dilectio, and caritas ; 
and we have already shown that aTtwr is used in a good con- 
nBction. And if any one fancy that aTnor is no doubt used 
both of good and bad loves, but that dileetio is reserved for 
the good only, let him remember what the psalm says, " He 
that loveth {diligit) iniquity hateth his own soul ; " ^ and the 
worda of the Apostle John, " If any man love (diligere) the 
ivorld, the love {dileetio) of the Father is not in him." ' Here 
you have in one passage dileetio used both in a good and a bad 
•ense. And if any one demands an instance of amor being 
oaed in a bad sense (for we have already shoAvn ite use in a 
good sense), let him read the words, " For men shall be lovers 
(amanUs) of their own selves, lovers (amatores) of money." * 

The right will is, therefore, well-directed love, and the 
wrong will is ill-directed lova Love, then, yearning to have 
what is loved, is desire ; and having and enjoying it, is joy ; 
ileeiBg what is opposed to it, it is fear ; and feeling what is 
oppoaed to it, when it has befallen it, it is sadness. Now 
tfaeee motions are evil if the love is evil ; good if the love is 
good. What we assert let us prove from Scripture. Tlie 
iq>08tle "desires to depart, and to be with Christ."* And, 
•My soul desired to long for Thy judgments;"'' or it it is 
Bore appropriate to say, " My soul longed to desire Thy judg- 
Aenta" And, " The desire of wisdom bringeth to a kingdom."' 



* John xxi. 16-17. On these B)'nomyiiiA see the commentaries m toe 

• Pa. li. 5. "1 John ii. 16. * 2 Tim. iil 2. 
» Pha i 23. • Pb. cxix. 20. ' Wud. vL 20. 



THE CITY OF GOD, [bOOK XIV- 




Yet there Las always obtained the usage of understanding desire 
and concupiscence in a bad sense if the abject be nob defined. 
But joy is used in a good sense: "Be glad in the Lord, and 
rejoice, ye righteous." ^ And, ** Thou hast put gladness in my 
heart" * And, " Thou wilt fill me with joy with Thy counte- 
nance," ' Fear is used in a good sense by the apostle when 
he says, "Work out your salvation with fear and trembling."* 
And, " Be not high-minded, but fear." * And, " I fear, le^t by 
any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, 
so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is 
in Christ" *" But with respect to sadness, which Cicero pre- 
fei-s to call sickness {(rgriiudo)^ and Vir„'il pain (dolor) (as he 
says, " Doknt gaudentque" '), but which I prefer to call sorrow, 
because sickness and pain are more conunouly used to express 
bodily suffering, — with respect to tliis emotion, I say, the ques- 
tion whether it can be used in a good sense is more diflicult 

8. 0/ tfie three perturhatlow, tchich the Stoics admHttd \n the noul o/ the \ciat 
man to thft fxclusion<if ffrifj' or tadneiti, tchich the itutnly mind ought not 
io experience. 

Those emotions which the Greeks call einraOfuii, and 
which Cicero calls consfanticc, the Stoics would restrict to 
three ; and, instead of three " perturbations " in the soul of 
the wise man, they substituted sevemlly, in place of desire, 
will ; in place of joy, contentment ; and for fear, caution ; 
and as to sickness or pain, wliich we, to avoid ambiguity, 
preferred to call son-ow, they denied that it could exist in the 
mind of a wise man. Will, they say, seeks the good, for this 
the wise man does. Contentment has its object in good that 
is possessed, and this the wise man continually possesses. 
Caution avoids evil, and this the wise man ought to avoid. 
But sorrow arises from evil that has already happejied ; and 
as they suppose that no evil can happen to the wise man, 
there can be no representative of son-ow in his mind. Ac- 
cording to them, therefore, none but the wise man wills, is 
contented, uses caution ; and that the foo! can do no more 
than desire, rejoice, fear, be sad The former three affections 

1 Ps. ixxil 11. > Pa. iT. 7. * Ps. xvi. U. 

* Phil. i:. 12. » Rom. 3ti. 20. * 2 C^jr. xi 3. 

y jEneid, yi. 733. 



L 



)0K xn\] 



THE STOIC PERTURBATIOKS. 



13 






icero calls co.istaniicv, the last four pcrturhat tones. Many, 
wever, call these last passions ; and, as I have said, the 
Greeks call the former exnroBelaij and the latter irdBij. And 
vhen I made a careful exanunation of Scripture to find 
vhutber this terminology was sanctioned by it, I came upon 
this saying of the prophet : " There is no contentment to the 
wicked, saith the Lord ; " ^ as if the wicked might more pro- 
perly rejoice than be contented regarding evils, for content- 
luent is the property ot the good and godly. I found also 
at verse in the Gospel : " Whatsoever ye would that men 
uld do xmto you, do ye even so unto them;"* which seems 
to imply that evil or shameful things may be the object of 
I desire, but not of will. Indeed, some interpreters have added 
^^"good things" to make the expression more in conformity 
^nrith customary usage, and have given this meaning, " "VNTiat- 
^K|k>ever good deeds that ye would that mm should do unto 
^^tJU.** Por they thought that this would prevent any one 
from wishing otlier meu to provide him with unseemly, not to 
say shameful, gratifications, — luxurious banquets, for example, 
— on the supposition that if he returned the like to them he 
would be fuliUling this precept In the Greek Gospel, how- 
ever, from which the I^tin is translated, " good " does not 
occor, but only, " All things whatsoever ye would that men 
should do unto you, do ye even so imto them," and, as I 

Iteheve, because " good " is already included in the word 
Iwouid;" for He does not say " desire." 
\ Yet though we may sometimes avail ourselves of these 
Ipecise proprieties of language, we are not to be always 
■idled by them ; and when we read those writers against 
^bose authority it is unlawful to i-eclaim, we must accept 
!he meanings above mentioned in passages where a right 
^fijBnse can be educed by no other interpretation, as in those 
^BBtances we adduced partly from the prophet, partly from 
^Tne Gospel For who does not know that the wicked exult 
with joy ? Yet " there is no conlaiiviaii for the wicked, 
saitli the Lord." And how so, unless because contentment, 
when the woixl is used in its proper and distinctive signifi- 
canoe, means something different fi'om joy ? In like manner, 



^Im. tvii. 21, 



■ Matt Til 12. 



14 ' TUE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XIV" 




who would deny that it were wrong to enjoin upon men tha ' 
whatever they desire others to do to them they should them—-" 
selves do to others, lest they should mutually please one 
another by shameful and illicit pleasure ? And yet the pre- 
cept, " Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do 
ye even so to them," is very wholesome and just. And how is M 
this, unless because the will is in this place used strictly, and -! 
signifies that will wliich cannot have evil for its object ? But 
ordinary phraseology would not have allowed the saying, " Be 
unwilling to make any manner of lie,'* ^ had there not been 
also on evil will, whose wickedness separates it from that 
which the an^rels celebrated, " Peace on earth, of good will 
to men." ^ For " good " is superfluous if there is no other 
kind of will but good will. And why should the apostle have 
mentioned it among the praises of charity as a great tiling, 
that " it rejoices not in iniquity," unless because wickedness 
does so rejoice ? For even with secular writers these words 
are used indifferently. For Cicero, that most fertile of 
orators, says, "I desire, conscript fathers, to be merciful"* 
And who woidd be so pedantic as to say that he should have 
said " I will " rather than " I desire," because the word is used 
in a good connection ? Again, in Terence, the profligate 
youth, burning with wild lust, says, " I will nothing else than 
PJiilumena." * That this "will" \vas lust is sufficiently indi- 
cated by the answer of his old servant which is there intro- 
duced : " How much better were it to tiy and banish that love 
from your heart, than to speak so as uselessly to inllame your 
passion still more r And that contentment was used by secular 
writers in a bad sense, that verse of Yirj^ testifies, in which 
he most succinctly comprehends these four perturbations, — 

" Hence they I'ear and desire, grieve and arc content." ' 

The same author had also used the expression, " the evil 
contentments of the mind."' So that good and bad men 
alike wQl, are cautious, and contented ; or, to say the same 
thing in other words, good and bad men alike desire, fear, 
rejoice, but the former in a good, the latter in a bad fashion, 
according as the will is right or wrong. Sorrow itself, too, 

» Ecdm. vii. 13. • Lnke ii. 14. ' Cat. I 2. 

* Tcr. Amir. iL 1, 6. * jEntid, vi. 733. « ^neid, v. 278. 



THE STOIC APATUT. 



15 



the Stoics would not allow to be represented in the 
mind of the wise man, is used in a good sense, and especiaUy 
in our writings. For the apostle praises the Corinthians 
because they had a godly sorrow. But possihly some one 
may say that the apostle congratidated them because they 
were penitently sorry, and that such sorrow can exist only in 
thoBe who have sinned. For these are his words ; " Fox I 
j}erc8iTe that the same epistle hath made you soiry, though 
3i weane but for a season. !N"ow I rejoice, not that ye were 
made sorry, but that ye sorrowed to repentance ; for ye were 
made sorry after a godly manner, that ye might receive 
<lamage by us in nothing. For godly sorrow worketh iiipent- 
amce to salvation not to be repented of, but the sorrow of the 
"^JForld worketh deatk For, behold, this selfsame thing that 
ye aoxrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in 
"you ! " * Consequentl}' the Stoics may defend themselves by 
Replying,' that sorrow is indeed useful for repentance of sin, 
\]ut that this can have no place in the mind of the wise man, 
maamach as no sin attaches to him of which he could 
MTTOwfully repent, nor any other evil the endurance or expe- 
rience of which could make him sorrowful For they say 
that Alcibiades (if my memory does not deceive me), who 
believed himself happy^ shed tears when Socrates argued with 
him, and demonstrated that he was miserable because he was 
foolish. In his case, therefore, folly was the cause of this 
useful and desirable sorrow, wherewith a man mourns that he 
is what he otight not to be. 'But the Stoics maintain not 
tJiat the fool, but that the wise man, cannot be sorrowful 

0/ the perturiftuums qf thf soul which appear aa right affictions ui the 
i^t qftJu righlieiov$^ 

Bnt so far as regards this question of mental perturba- 
tions, we have aaswere<l these philosophers in the ninth book* 
of this work, showing that it is rather a verbal than a real 
dispute, and that they seek contention rather than trutL 
Among ourselves, according to the sacred Scriptures and 
sound doctrine, the citizens of the holy city of God, who live 
according to God in the pilgrimage of this life, both fear and 
desire, and grieve and rejoice. And because their love ia 

> 2 Cor. vii- fi-11. ' Tu«c. Ditip. iii. 32. * C 4, 6. 








CITY OF COD. I BOOK XT*^' 



rightly placed, all these aOfectiona of thoii's are right The,^' 
fear eternal punisliment, they desire eternal life ; they grie\^ • 
because they ihemselvea groan within themselves, waiting fo'^ 
the adoption, the redemption of their body ; ' they rejoice i*^ 
hope, because there " shall be brought to pass the saying tha^^ 
Ls written, Death is swallowed up in victory."^ In lik^^ 
manner they fear to sin, they desire to persevere ; they grieve^ 
in sin, they rejoice in good works. They fear to sin, because "^ 
they liear that " because iniquity shall abound, the love of 
many shall wax cold."^ They desire to persevere, because 
they hear that it is ^nitten, " He that endureth to the end 
shall l>e saved." * Tliey grieve lor sin, hearing that " If we say 
that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is 
not in us." * They rejoice in good works, bcc^iuso they hear 
that " the Lord loveth a cheerful giver." * In like manner, 
according as they are strong or weak, they fear or desire to 
be tempted, grieve or rejoice in temptation. They fear to be 
tempted, because they bear the injunction, " If a man be over- 
taken in a fault, ye which are spiritual restore such an one 
in the spirit of meekness ; considering thyself, lest thou also 
be tempted." ^ Tliey desire to be tempted, because they hear 
one of the heroes of the city of God saying, " Examine me, 
Lord, and tempt me : try my reins and my heart." ** Tliey 
grieve iji temptalJLuis, because they see Vetev weeping;' they 
rejoice in temptations, because tliey hear James saying, ** My 
brethren^ count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations."'* 
And not only on their own accoaint do they experience 
these emotions, but also on account of those whose deliver- 
ance they desire and whose perdition they fear, and whose 
loss or salvation affects them witli griel or with joy. For 
if we who have come into the Church from among the Gen- 
tiles may suitably instance that noble and mighty hei-o who 
glories in his infirmities, the teacher (iJoctor) of the nations 
in faith and truth, Avho also laboured more than all his fellow- 
apostles, and instructed the tribes of God's people liy his 

' Rom. viii. 23. * 1 Cor. xv. 64. ' Ifalt, xxiv. 12. 

* Matt I. 22. » 1 John i. 8. • 2 Cor. ix. 7. 

7 Gttl. vi. 1. « Pg. xxyi 2. » Mntt. xxvi. 76. 



10 



Jii3. I 2. 



XIV.] 



SOME EMOTIONS COMMENDABtE. 



which edified not only those of his own time, but 
those who were to be gathered in, — tliiit hero, I say, and 
of Christ, instructed by Him, anointed of His Spirit, 
with Him, glorious in Him, lawfully maintaining 
great conflict on the theatre of this world, and being 
spectacle to angels and inen,^ and pressing onwards 
far the prize of his high calling,* — very joyfuDy do we with 
eyes of faith behold him rejoicing with them that re- 
5, and weeping vnth them that weep ; ' though hampered 
ly %hting8 without and fears within ; * desiring to depait 
and to be with Christ;* longing to see the Eomans, that he 
ni^ have some fruit among them as among other Gen- 
tiles;' being jealous over the Corinthians, and fearing in that 
jodooay lest their minds should be corrupted from the chas- 
tity that is in Christ;' having great heaviness and continual 
aoirow of heart for the Israelites,^ because they, being ignorant 
of God's rigliteousne-ss, and going about to establish their 
_oim righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the 
;;hteot25ncss of God ; * and expressing not only his sorrow, 
it bitter lamentation over some who had formally sinned 
and had not repented of their uncleanness and fornications.*" 

If these emotions and afTections, arising as they do from 
the love of what is good and from a holy charity, are to 
be called vices, then let us allow these emotions which are 
traly vices to pass under the name of virtues. But since 
these aLfiFections, when they are exercised in a becoming way, 
follow the guidance of right reason, who will dare to say 
that they are diseases or vicious passions ? Wherefore even 
the Lord Himself, when He condescended to lead a human 
life in the form of a slave, had no sin whatever, and yet 
exercised these emotions where He judged they should be 
exercised. For as there was in Him a tnie human body and 
a trae human soul, so was there also a true human emotioiL 
When, therefore, we read in the Gospel that the hard-hcarted- 
of the Jews moved Him to soiTOwful indignation," that 



« 1 Cor. IT. 9. 
* 3 Cor, vii. 5. 
»lCor. li 1-3. 
M S Cor. xiL 21. 

TOL. n. 



»PhiL ui, 14. 

• Pha. i. 23. 

• Rom. ix. 2. 
» Uuk iii. 6, 



* Rom. xii. 15. 

« Rom. i. 11-13. 

* Bom. X. S. 






18 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK 3Cl^- 

He said, " I am glad for your sakes, to the intent ye in(*:y 
believe,"^ that when about to raise Lazarus He even she^ 
tears,' that He eftmestly desired to eat the passover witi^ 
His disciples,^ that as His passion drew near His soul \va-^' 
sorrowful,* these emotions are certainly not falsely ascribec^ 
to Htm. But as He becsame man when it pleased Him, w^'J 
in the grace of His definite puqiose, when it pleased Him H^ 
experienced those emotions in His human souL 

But we must further make the admission, that even wh 
these aflectiona are well regidated, and according to God's 
will, tliey are peculiar to this life, not to that future life we 
look for, and that often we yield to them against our wHL 
And thus sometimes we weep in spite of ourselves, being 
carried beyond ourselves, not indeed by culpable desire, but 
by praiseworthy charity. In us, therefore, these affections 
arise from human infiimity ; but it was not so with the Lord 
Jesus, for even His infirmity was the consequence of His 
power. But so long as we wear the infirmity of this Ufe, we 
are rather worse men than bettor if we have none of these 
emotions at all For the apostle vituperated and abominated 
some who, as he said, were " without natural affection."* 
The sacred Psalmist also found fault with those of whom he 
said, '* I looked for some to lament with me, and there was 
none."* For to be quite &ee from pain while we are in this 
place of misery is only purchased, as one of this world's 
literati perceived and remarked,^ at the price of blunted sen- 
sibilities both of mind and body. And therefore that which 
the Greeks call airdBeta, and what the Latins would call, if 
their language would allow them, " impasaibilitas/' if it be 
taken to mean an impassibility of spirit and not of body, or, 
in other words, a freedom from those emotions which are con- 
trary to reason and disturb the mind, then it is obviously a 
good and most desirable quality, but it is not one which is 
attainable in this life. For the words of the apostle are the 
confession, not of the common herd, but of the eminently 
pious, just, Eind holy men : " If we say we have no sin, we 

^ John XL 16. ' Jolm xi. 35. ^ Luke xxii. 15. 

* Matt, xxvl 38. » Horn. I 31. " Vs. ]xix. 20. 

T Cr&ntor, an Acadetoic pbaosopher quoted by Cicero, Ttmc. Qwett. HI 6. 




ftOOK XIV.] nrOTIOK manifested by CHRIST. 



» 



ceive ourselves, and tue trutli is not in us." ^ When tliere 
be no sin in a man, tlien there shall be this atrdOeta. 
At present it is enough if we live without crime ; and he 
vho thinks he lives without sin puts aside not sin, but 
on. And if that is to be called apathy, where the inind 
the subject of no emotion, then who would not consider 
his insensibility to be worse than all vices ? It may, indeed, 
reasonably be maintained that the perfect blessedness we 
liope for shall be free from all sting of fear or sadness ; but 
who that is not quite lost to truth would say that neither 
I X ove nor joy shall be expeiienced there ? But if by apathy a 
^BDndition be meant in which no fear terrifies nor any pain, 
^^nnoys, we must in this life renounce such a state if wb 
"Would live according to God's will, but may hope to enjoy 
it in that blessedness which is promised as our eternal con- 
dition. 

For that fear of which the Apostle John says, " There is 
no fear in love ; but perfect love casteth out fear, because 
fear hath torment He thnt feareth is not made perfect iu 
love,"* — that fear is not of the same kind as the Apostle 
Paul felt lest the Corinthians should be seduced by the 
subtlety of the serpent ; for love is susceptible of this fear, 
yea, love alone is capable of it. But the feoi" wluch is not in 
love is of tliat kind of which Paul himself says, " For ye 
have not received the spirit of bond^e again to fear." ' But 
AS for that " clean fear which endureth for ever,"* if it is to 
ist in the world to come (and how else can it be said to 
ure for ever ?), it is not a fear deterring us from evil 
ich may happen, but preserving us in the good which 
not be lost For where the love of acquired good is 
changeable, there certainly the fear that avoids evil is, if 
I may say so, iree from anxiety. For under the name of 
" clean fear" David signifies that will by which we shall 
necessarily shrink from sin, and guard against it, not with the 
anxiety of weakness, which fears that we may strongly sin, 
but with the tranquillity of perfect love. Or if no kind of 
fear at all shall exist in that most imperturbable security of 
tual and blissful delights, then the expression, " The fear 
1 John 18. M John iv. 18. > Rom. riil 15. * Pa. xix. 9. 




20 



THE err? OF GOD. 



BOOK XX 



of the Lord is clean, endurinj^ for ever," must be taken in th ^^ 
same sense as that other, " The patience of the poor shall no '^ 
perish for ever." ^ For patience, which is necessary onl>^ 
where ills are to be borae, shall not be eternal, but that which^ 
patience leads us to will he eternal So perhaps this " cleaiK- 
fear" is said to endure for ever, because that to which fear' 
leads shall endure. 

And since this is so, — since we must live a good life in 
order to attain to a blessed life, — a good life has all these 
affections right, a bad life has them wrong. But in the 
blessed life etoninl there will be love and joy, not only rights 
but also assured ; but fear and grief there will be none. 
Whence it already appears in some sort what manner of per- ^ 
sons the citizens of the city of God must be in this their 
pilgrimage, who live after the spirit, not after the flesh, — tliat 
is to say, according to God, not according to man, — and what 
manner of persons they shall be also in that immortality 
whither they are journeying. And the city or society of the 
wicked, who live not according to God, but according to man, 
and who accept the doctrines of men or devils in the worship 
of a false and contempt of the true divinity, is shaken with 
those wicked emotions as by diseases and disturbances. And 
if there be some of its citizens who seem to restrain and, as 
it were, temper those passions, they are so elated with un- 
godly pride, that their disease is as much greater as their 
pain is less. And if some, with a vanity monstrous in pro- 
portion to its rarity, have become enamoured of themselves 
because they can be stimulated and excited by no emotion, 
moved or bent by no affection, such persons rather lose all 
humanity than obtain true tranquillity. For a tiling is not 
necessarily right because it is inflexible, nor healthy because 
it is insensible. 

10. Whciher it is to be bdiered tliat our first parents in Paradise^ b^ore Ihty 
Hnned, tocre free from all perturb<UioH. 

But it is a fair question, wliether our first parent or first 

parents (for there was a marriage of two), berore they sinned, 

experienced in their animal body such emotions as we shall 

not experience in the spiritual body when sin has been 

> Pa, ix. 18. 



BOOK xrv,] 



EMOTIONS OF MAK UNFALLEN. 



21 



purged and finally abolished. For if they did, then how 
were they blessed in that boasted place of bliss, Punidise ? 
For who that is affected by fear or grief can be called abso- 
lutely blessed ? And what could those persona fear or suffer 
in such affluence of blessings, where neither death nor ill- 
health was feared, and where nothing was wanting which a 
good will coidd desire, and nothing present which could 
int«rrupt man's mental or bodily enjoyment ? Their love to 
God was unclouded, and their mutual affection was that of 
faithful and sincere marriage ; and from this love flowed a 
wonderful delight, because they always enjoyed what was 
kved. Their avoidance of sin was tranquil ; and, so long as 
it was maintained, no other ill at all could invade them and 
Ining sorrow. Or did they perhaps desire to touch and eat 
the forbidden fruit, yet feared to die j and thus both fear and 
deaire already, even in that blissful place, preyed upon those 
fiist of mankind ? Away with the thought that such could 
l>e the case where there was no sin I And, indeed, this is 
already sin, to desire those things which the law of God 
forbids, and to abstain from them through fear of punish- 
ment, not through love of righteousness. Away^ I say, with 
tlie thought, that before there was any sin, there should 
already have been committed regarding that fniit tlie very 



sin which our Lord warns us 



agamst 



regarding a woman 



" WTiosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath com- 
mitted adultery witli her already in his heart." ^ As happy, 
then, as were these our first parents, who were agitated by no 
mental perturbations, and annoyed by no bodily discomforts, 
happy should the whole human race have been, had they 
introduced that evil which they have transmitted t^ their 
ity, and had none of tlicir descendants committed 
[ility worthy of damnation ; but this original blessedness 
itinuing untilj in virtue of that benediction which said, 
Increase and multiply/' ^ the number of the predestined 
aaints should have been completed, there would then have 
been bestowed that higher felicity which is enjoyed by the 
most blessed angels,— ^a blessedness in wliich there should 
ive been a secure assurance that no one woidd sin, and no 

> Matt. T. 28. s Gcn« i. 28. 





22 THE CITY OF GOB. [BOOK XrVS] 

one die * and so should the saints have lived, after no taste 
labour, pain, or death, as now they shall live in the resi 
tion, after they have endured all these things. 

11. 0/ Oif. fall of the firtt man, m ur/iom naCttre waa crtaied good, and can 
restored only by its Author. 

But because God foresaw all things, and was therefore 
ignorant that man also would fall, we ought to consider tl 
holy city in connection with what God foresaw and ordainedj 
and not according to our own ideas, which do not embra( 
God's ordination. For man, by liis sin, could not disturb tli 
divine counsel, nor compel God to change what He ha< 
decreed ; for God's foreknowledge had anticipated both, — -tl 
is to say, both how evil the man whom He had created go( 
should become, and what good He Himself should even thus 
derive from him. For though God is said to change His 
determinalions (so that in a tix»pical sense the Holy Scripture 
says even that God repented ^), this is said with reference to 
man's expectation, or the order of natural causes, and not 
with reference to that which the Almighty had foreknown 
that He would do. Accordingly God, as it is ^\Titten, made 
man upright,^ and consequently with a good will For if 
he had not had a good will, he could not have been upright. 
The good will, then, is the work of God ; for God created 
him with it. But the first evil ^\'ill, which preceded all man's 
evil acts, was rather a kind of falling away from the work of 
Gi3d to its own works than any positive work. And there- 
fore the acts resulting were evil, not having God, but the will 
itself for their end ; so that the ^\t11 or the man himself, so 
far as his will is bad, was as it were the c\']l tree bringing 
forth evil fruit Moreover, the bad will, though it be not in 
harmony with, but opposed to nature, inasmuch as it is a vice 
or blemish, yet it is true of it as of all vice, that it cannot 
exist except in a nature, and only in a nature created out of 
nothing, and not in that which the Creator has begotten of 
Himself, as Ho begot the Word, by wliom all tilings were 
made. For though God formed man of the dust of the earth, 
yet the earth itself, and every earthly material, is absolutely 
created out of nothing ; and man's soxd, too, God created out 
^ Gen. tL 6, and 1 Sam. xv. 11. * Ecclea. rii. 20. 



BOOK XIV.] 



TUB PALL OF MAN. 



23 



of nothing, and joined to the body, when He made man. But 
evils are so thoroughly overcome by good, that though they 
are permitted to exist, for the sake of demonstrating how the 
most righteous foresight of God can make a good use even of 
them, yet good can exist without evil, as in thu true and 
supreme God Himself, and as in every invisible and visible 
celestial creature that exists above this murky atmosphere ; 
but evil cannot exist without good, because the natures in 
which evil exists, in so far as they are natures, are good. 
And evil is removed, not by removing any nature, or part of 
& nature, which had been introduced by the evil, but by 
healing and correcting that which had been vitiated and 
depraved. The will, therefore, is then tnily free, when it is 
not the slave of vices and sins. Such was it given ns by 
God ; and this being lost by its own fault, can only be restored 
by Him who was able at first to give it And therefore the 
truth says, " K the Son sliall make you free, ye shall be free 
indeed;"* which is equivalent to saying, If the Son shall save 
you, yc shall be saved indeed. For He is our liberator, 
^_ iDo^miuch as He is our Saviour. 

^B Man then lived with God for his rule in a paradise at once 
^^ physical and spiritual For neithor wns it a panuliso only 
^—^hysical for the advantage of the body, and not abo spiritual 
^Bbr the advantage of the mind ; nor was it only spii'itual to 
' afford enjojinent to man by his internal sensations, and not 
I also physical to afford him enjoyment through his external 
! aenaefi. But obviously it was both for both ends. But after 
■■lat proud and therefore envious angel (of whose fall I have 
PVlid as much as I was able in the eleventh and twelfth books 
of this work, as well as that of liis fuIlowSj who, fmm being 
■■od*s angels, became his angels), preferring to nile with a 
P^Dnd of pomp of empire rather Lhiui to be another's subject, 
fell from the spiritual Paradise, and essaying to insinuate his 
persuasive guile into the mind of man, whose unfallen condi- 
tion provoked him to envy now that himself was fallen, he 
chose the smpent as his mouthpiece in that bodily Paradise 
in which it and all the other earthly animals were living with 
rwo human beings, the man and his wife, subject to 

^ John Tiii. 30. 



24 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xrv^ 



them, and harmless ; and he chose the serpent hecause, beinj 
slippery, and moving in tortuous windings, it was suitable foi 
his pui-pose. And this animal being subdued to his wicke< 
ends by the presence and superior force of his angelic natmi 
he abused as his instrument, and first tned Iiis deceit upoi 
the woman, malcing bis assault upon the weaker part of thai 
human alliance, that he might ^^i-adually gain the wliole, am 
not supposing that the man would readily give ear to him, oi 
bo deceived, hut that he might yield to the error of the wouii 
For as Aaron was not induced to agree with the people whci 
they blindly wished him to make an idol, and yet yielded 
constraint ; and as it is not credible that Solomon was so blind] 
as to suppose that idols should be %vorshipped, but was draw] 
over to such sacrilege by the blandishments of women ; so w< 
cannot believe that Adam was deceived, and supposed tL< 
devil's word to be truth, and therefore transgressed God's law, 
but that he by the drawings of kindred yielded to the woraau^] 
the husband to the wife, the one liuman being to the only] 
other human being. For not without significance did th« 
apogtle say, "And Adam was not deceived, but the womaai 
being deceived was in the transgi-ession;"^ but he speaks 
thus, because the woman accepted as tnio what the serpent 
told her, but the man could not bear to be severed from his 
only companion, even thougli tlus involved a partnership in 
sin. He was not on this account less culpable, but sinned 
with liis eyes open. And so the apostle does not suy, " He did 
not sin," but " He was not deceived." For he shows that he 
sinned when be says, " By one man sin entered into the 
world," ^ and immediately after more distinctly, " In the like- 
ness of Adam's transgression." But he meant that those are 
deceived who do not judge that which they do to be sin ; but 
he knew. OtheiA\-ise how were it true ** Adam was not de- 
ceived 1 " But having as yet no experience of the divine 
severity, he was possibly deceived in so far as he thought Ida 
ain venial. And consequently he was not deceived as the 
woman was deceived, but ho was deceived as to tlie judg- 
ment which would be passed on his apologj' : "The woman 
whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me, and I did 
» 1 Tim. u. 14. • Rom. v. 12. 



BOOK XIV.] 



NATURE OF MAN S FIRST SIN. 



25 



eat" * What need of saying more ? Althoiigli they were 
Dot both deceived by credulity, yet both were entangled iu 
the snares of the devil, and taken by sin. 

18. 0/ the nature qfmaH^$frst tin. 

If any one finds a difficulty in understanding why other 
do not alter human nature as it was altered by the trans- 
don of those first human beings, so that on account of it 
lis nature is subject to the great corruption we feel and see, 
id to death, and is distracted and tossed with so tnany furious 
id contending emotions, and is certainly far different from 
"vhat it was before sin, even though it were then lodged in an 
aimual body, — if, I say, any one is moved by this, he ought 
not to think that that sin was a small and light one because 
it viBs committed about food^ and that not bad nor noxious, 
except because it was forbidden ; for in that spot of singidar 
felicity God couid not have created and planted any evil thing. 
13ut by the precept He gave, God commended obedience, which 
is, in a sort, the mother and guardian of all the virtiiesi in the 
^Jasonabie creaturej which was so created that aubmisaioa is 
ftdvaatageous to it, while the fulMnient of its own will in 
preference to the Creators is destruction And as this com- 
mandment enjoining abstinence from one kind of food in the 
inidat of great abundance of other kinds wa.s so easy to keep, — 
so light a burden to the memory, — and, above all, found no re- 
sistance to its observance in lust, which only afterwards sprung 
ap as the penal consequence of siUj the iniquity of violating 
it was all the greater in proportion to the ease with which ii 
it have been kept. 

IS. That in Adarjit sin an evil tctU preceded ifie evil act. 

Our first parents fell into open disobedience because already 
ley were secretly corrupted ; for the evil act bad never 
m done had not an evil will preceded it. And what is the 
of our evil will but pride ? For " pride is the begin- 
of sin." ' And what is pride but the craving for undue 
exaltation ? And this is undue exaltation, when the soul 
idons Him to whom it ought to cleave as its end, and 
1 Gen. ilL 12. ■ Ecclus. x. 18. 



THE CITY OF COD. 



[book xiv. 



becomes a kind of end to itself. This happens when it be- 
comes its own satisfaction. And it does so when it falls 
away from that tinchangeable good which ought to satisfy ^^ 
more than itsel£ This falling away is spontaneous ; for ^ 
the will had remained stedfast in the love of that higher ar*-^ 
changeless good by which it was illumined to mteHigQnO^ 
and kindled into love, it would not have turned away to fiiv^ 
sati.s faction in itself, and bo become frigid and benighted 
the woman woidd not have believed the serpent spoke th. 
inith, nor would the man have preferred the request of 
wife to the command of God, nor have supposed that it 
a venial transgression to cleave to the partner of his life eve 
in a partnership of ain. The wicked deed, then, — that is 
say, the transgression of eatuig the forLiddwn fruit, — was com 
mitted by persons who were already wicked. That " evil J 
fruit"* could be brought fortli only by "a corrupt tree." But -^ 
that the tree was evil was not the result of nature ; for cer- 
tainly it could become so only by the vice of the will, and 
vice is contrary to nature. Now, nature could not have been 
depraved by vice had it not been made out of nothing. Con- 
sequently, that it is a nature, this is because it is made by 
God; but tliat it faDs away from Him, this is because it is 
made out of nothing. But man did not so fall away ' as to 
become absolutely nothing ; but being turned towards himself, 
his being became more contracted than it was when he clave 
to Him who supremely is. Accordingly, to exist in himself, 
that is, to bo his own satisfaction after abandoning God. is 
not quite to become a nonentity, but to approximate to that. 
And therefore the holy Scriptures designate the proud by an- 
other name, " self-pleasers," For it is good to have the heart 
lifted up, yet not to one's self, for this is proud, but to the 
Lord, for this is obedient, and can be the act only of the 
humble. There is, therefore, something in humility which, 
strangely enough, exalts the heart, and something in pride 
which debases it. This seems, indeed, to be contradictory, 
that loftiness should debase and lowliness exalt. But pious 
humility enables us to submit to what is above us ; and 
nothing is more exalted above us than God; and therefore 

1 Uatt Til IS. * It^ceit, 






T XIV.] 



THE WILL EVIL BEFORE THE ACT. 



*1 A AU 



kunilitj, by makmg us subject to God, exalts ua. But pride, 
king a defect ot nature, by the very act of refusing subjection 
revolting from Him "who is supreme, falls to a low condi- 
»n ; and then comes to pass what is wTitten : " Thou castedst 
down when they lifted up themselves." ^ For he does 
say, " when they had been lifted up," as if first they were 
exalted, and then afterwards cast down ; but " when they lifted 
up themselves" even then they were cast down, — that is to say, 
ihe veiy lifting up was already a fall. And therefore it is 
that humility is specially recommended to the city of God as 
it sojourns in this world, and is specially exhibited in the city 
of God, and in the person of Christ its Kling ; whOe the con- 
trary vice of pride, according to the testimony of the sacred 
writings, specially rules his adversary the de\dL And certainly 
is the great difference which distinguishes the two cities 
which we speak, the one being the society of the godly 
inen, the other of the ungodly, each associated with the angels 
that adhere to their party, and the one guided and fashioned 
\ij love of self, the other by love of Grod. 

The devil, then, would not have ensnared man in. the open 

and manifest sin of doing what God had forbidden, had man 

not already begun to live for himself. It was this that made 

liim listen with pleasure to tho words, "Ye shall be as gods,"- 

which they would much more readily have accomplished by 

obediently adhering to their supreme and true end than by 

proudly living to themselves. For created gods are gods not 

by virtue of what is in themselves, but by a participation of 

the txue God. By craving to be more, man becomes less ; and 

by aspiring to be self-sufficing, he fell away from HLm who 

^tnxly suffices him. Accordingly, this wicked desire which 

^■irompts man to please himself as if he were himself light, and 

^Krhich thus turns him away from that light by which, had he 

^■bUowed it, he would himself have become light, — this wicked 

j desire, I say, already secretly existed in him, and the open 

ain was but its consequence. For that is true which is 

' written, " Pride goeth before destroctiou, and before honour 

is humility ;"' that is to say, secret ruin precedes open ruin,. 

while the former is not counted ruin. For who counts exal- 

> Pb. Uxiii. 18. * Gen. iii 6, » Pror. xriu. 12. 




tation ruin, though no soonei* is the Highest forsaken than a 
fall is begun ? But who does not recognise it as niin, when 
there occui's an evident aud ijidubitable transgression of the 
commandment ? And conseq^uently, Gods prohibition had 
reference to such an act as, when committed, could not be 
defended on any pretence of doing wliat was righteous.' And 
I make bold to say that it is useful for the proud to fall into 
an open and indisputable transgression, and so displease them- 
selves, aa already, by pleasing themselves, they had fallen. 
For Peter was in a healthier condition when he wept and was 
dissatisfied with himself, than when he boldly presumed and 
satisfied himself. And this is averred by the sacred Psalmist 
when he says, " Fill their faces with shame, that they may 
seek Thy name, O Lord;"^ tliat is, tlmt they who have pleased 
themselves in seeking their own glory may be pleased and 
satisfied with. Thee in seeking Thy glory. 



li. 0/0i€ pride in the Wn, wJiicJt wa« wone than the tin iUe\f, 

But it is a worse and more damnable pride which casts 
about for the shelter of an excuse even in manifest sins, as 
these oiir first parents did, of whom the woman said, "The 
serpent beguiled me, and I did eat ; " and the man said, " The 
Avoman whom Thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the 
tree, and I did eat." ^ Here there is no word of begging 
pardon, no word of entreaty for healing. For though they 
do not, like Cain, deny that they have perpetrated the deed, 
yet their pride seeks to refer its wickedness to another, — the 
woman's pride to the serpent, the man's to the woman. But 
where there is a plain transgression of a divine command- 
ment, this is rather to accuse than to excuse oneself. For 
the fact that the woman sinned on the serpent's perauaaion, 
and the man at the woman's offer, did not make the trans- 
gression less, as if there were any one whom we ought rather 
to believe or yield to than God 

15, QftheJMtice of the puniahment with which our Jirai parents were wttted for 
their d\4ohedience. 

Therefore, because the sin was a despising of the authority 

> That u to say, il was an obvioui and indisputuMc tranagreaaion, 
• P». Ixxjdit 1«. • Oca. ILL 12, 13. 




PTNISHMEXT OF MAKS DISOBEDIENCE. 



29 



—who had created man; who had made him in His own 
who had set him above the other animals ; who had 
piaced bim in Paradise ; who had enriched him with abundance 
of every kind and of safety ; who had laid upon him neither 
many, nor great, nor difficult commandments, but, in order to 
nake a wholesome obedience easy to him, had given him a 
sb^le very brief and very light precept by which He reminded 
that creature whose service was to be free that He was Lord, 
— it was just that condemnation followed, and condemnation 
sacfa that man, who by keeping the commandments ahuiUd 
bave been spiritual even hi his flesh, became fleshly even in 
his spirit ; and as in his pride he had sought to be his own 
Wtisfaction, God in His justice abandoned him to himself, 
aoi to live in the absolute independence he affected, but 
iiP«tAftH of the liberty he desired, to live dissatisfied with him- 
aeK in a hard and miserable bondage to him to whom by 
nnniDg he had jaelded himself, doomed in spite of himself 
to die in body as he had willingly become dead in spii-it, 
condemned even to eternal death (hod not the grace of God 
^■elivered him) because he had forsaken eternal life. "Wlio- 
^Hfver tliinks such punishment either excessive or unjust shows 
^^us inability to measure the great iniquity of sinning where 
'^Ein might so easUy have been avoided. For as Abraham's 
obedience is with justice pronounced to be great, because tho 
thing commanded, to kill his son, was very difficult, so in 
Paradise the disobedience was the greater, because the diffi- 
culty of that which was commanded was imperceptible. 
And as the obedience of the second Man was the moro 
laudable because He became obedient even " unto death," ^ so 
the diflobedience of the first man was the more detestable 
became he became disobedient even imto death. Por where 
the penalty annexed to disobedience is great, and the thing 
commanded by the Creator is easy, who can sufficiently esti- 
mate how great a wickedness it is, in a matter so easy, not to 
obey the authority of so great a power, even when that power 
deters with so terrible a penalty ? 

la short, to say all in a woni, what hut disobedience was 
the ponishment of disobedience in that sin ? For what else 

' Phil ii. 8. 



TfiB cirr OP god. 



is man's misery but bis own disobedience to himself, so UiB^ 
in consequence of his not being willing to do what he coul^ 
do, he now wills to do what he cannot ? For though 1^® 
could not do all things in Paradise before he sinned, yet J"** 
■wished to do only what he could do, and therefore he cou3-* 
do all things he wished- But now, as we recognise in h^^ 
offspring, and as divine Scripture testifies, " Man is like t^-^ 
vanity." ^ For who can count how many things he wish^^** 
which he cannot do, so long as he is disobedient to himseL^^ 
that ifl^ so long as his mind and his flesh do not obey 
will ? For in apite of himself Ids mind is both frequent 
disturbed, and his flesh suffers, and grows old, and dies ; 
in Bpite of ourselves we suffer whatever else we suffer, an 
which we woiild not suffer if our nature absolutely and in 
its parts obeyed our wiLL But is it not the in£nnities of the 
flesh which hamper it in its service ? Yet what does it 
matter how its service is hampered, so long as the fact remai 
that by the just retribution of the sovereign God whom 
refused to be subject to and serve, our flesh, which was sub- 
jected to us, now torments us by insubordination, although 
our disobedience brought trouble on ourselves, not upon God ? 
For He is not in need of our service as we of our body's ; 
and therefore what we did was no punishment to Him, but 
what we receive is so to us. And the pains which are called 
bodily are pains of the soul in and from the body. For what 
pain or desire can the flesh feel by itself and without the 
soul ? But when the flesh is said to desire or to suffer, it is 
meant, as wo have explained, that the man does so, or some 
part of the soul which is affected by the sensation of the 
flesh, whether a harsh sensation causing pain, or gentle, causing 
pleasure. But pain in the flesh is only a discomfort of the 
soul arising from the flesh, and a kind of shrinking from its 
suffering, as the pain of the soul which is called sadness is a 
shrinking from those things which have happened to us in 
apite of ourselves. But sadness is frequently preceded by 
fear, which is itself in the soul, not m the flesh ; whQe bodily 
pain is not preceded by any kind of fear of the flesh, whicli 
can be felt in the flesh before the pain. But pleasure is pre- 

^ Pfc cxUf. 4, 



XIV.] MAN PUNISHED BY LOSS OF SELF-CONTROL. 



31 



ceded by a certniu appetite which is felt in the flesh like a 
OBving, as hunger and thirst and that generative appetite 
"Which is most commonly identified Arith the name " lust/* 
thongh this is the generic word for all desires. For anger 
itself was defined by the ancients as nothing else than the 
Just of revenge ; ^ although sometimes a man is angry even at 

I iuuiimate objects which cannot feel his vengeance, as when 
<me breaks a pen, or crushes a quill that vmtes badly. Yet 
even this, though less reasonable, is in its way a lust of 
Tevenge, aijd iSj so to speak, a mysterious kind of shadow of 
{the great law of] retribution, that they who do evil should 
suffer evil. There is therefore a lust for revenge, which is 
called anger ; there is a lust of money, which goes by the 
name of avarice ; there is a lust of conquering, no matter by 
'what means, which is called opinionativeness ; there is a lust 
of applause, which is named boasting. There are many and 

t various lusts, of which some have names of their own, while 
others have not For who could readily give a naiue to the 

I Inst of ruling, which yet has a powerful influence in the 

V 8oul of tyrants, as civil wars bear witness ? 

^^ 18. 0/ the evil o/tust, — a xcord whkh^ though applicable to ituxnjf vke$, is 
^^M BpeciaXly appropriaitd to aexuai uncUamiest, 

^^ Although, therefore, lust may have many objects, yet when 

DO object is specified, the word liist usually suggests to the 

mind the lustful excitement of the organs of generation. 

And tiis lust not only takes possession of tlie whole body 

and outward members, but also makes itself felt within, and 

moves the whole man with a passion in which mental emotion 

is mingled with bodily appetite, so that the pleasure which 

lesolts is the greatest of all bodily pleasures. So possessing 

indeed is this pleasure, that at tlie moment of time in which 

it is consummated, all mental activity is suspended. Wliat 

friend of visdom and holy joys, who, being married, but 

knowing, as the apostle says, " how to possess his vessel in 

aanctification and honoiir, not in the disease of desire, as the 

Gentiles who know not God/'^ would not prefer, if this were 

possible, to beget children without this lust, so that in this 

* Cicero, Tvsc. Qutxit. UL 6 and iv. 9. So Aristotle. 

* 1 Theas. ir. 4. 




32 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[UOOK Xl\ 



functioa of begetting offspring the members created for th 
purpose should not be stimulated by the heat of lust, bi 
should be actuated by Ids volition, in the same way as 
other members serve him for their respective ends ? Bi 
even those who delight in this pleasure are not moved to 
at their own will, whether they confme themselves to lawfi 
or transgress to unlawful pleasures ; but sometimes this lust 
importunes them in spite of themselves, and sometimes fails 
them when they desire to feel it» so that though lust rages in 
the mind, it stirs not in the body. Thus, stiungely enough, 
this emotion not only fails to obey the legitimate desire to 
bt^et ofTsjjring, but also refuses to serve lascivious lust ; and 
though it often opposes its whole combined energy to the 
soul that resists it, sometimes also it is divided against itself, 
and while it moves the soul, leaves the body unmoved. 

17. Ofilic J^akedne$9 ofourjirtt parents^ xehich they saw ajlar their ba$e and 

shameful sin. 

Justly is shame very specially connected with this hist ; 
justly, too, these members themselves, being moved and 
restrained not at om* will, but by a certain independent 
autocracy, so to speak, are called *' shameful" Their condi- 
tion was different before sin. For as it is written, " They 
■were naked and were not asliamed,"^ — not that their naked- 
ness was unknoMTL to them, but because nakedness was not 
yet shameful, because not yet did lust move those members 
without the will's consent ; not yet did the flesh by its dis- 
obedience testify against the disobedience of man. ¥ov they 
were not created blinds as the unenlightened "vnilgar fancy ; * 
for Adam saw the animals to whom he gave names, and of Eve 
we read, " The woman saw that the tree was.good for food, and 
that it was pleasant to the eyes."* Their eyes, therefore, were 
open, but were not open to this, that is to say, were not 
observant so as to recognise wliat was conferred upon them 
by the garment of grace, for they had no consciousness of 
their members warring against their will But when they 



' Gen. iL 25. 

"An error which arose from the words, "Theeyesof them both were opened," 
Gen. iii. 7. — Set Ve Oeneti ad lit. ii. 40. 
* Geu. iii. 8. 



miaht be 
veme^it of 



JOOK XIY.] NAKEDNESS OF OUR FIRST PARENTS. 

Stripped of this grace/ that their disobedience 
IBniflhed by fit retribution, there began in the mov 

ir bodily members a shameless novelty which made naked- 
indeccnt: it at once made them obsen'ant and made 
tbem ashamed. And therefore, after they violated Gnd'a 
command by open transgression, it is -mitten : " And the eyes 
of them botli were opened, and they knew that they were 
and they sewed fig leaves together, and made tliem- 
ivcs aprons."* " The eyes of tlieni both were opened/' not 
to see, for ab^eady they saw, but to discern between the good 
tbey had lost and the evil into which they had fallen. And ' 
therefore also the tree itself which they M'ere forbidden to 
touch 'yfsks called the tree of the knowledge of good and evil 
from thw circnmstance, that if they ate of it it would impart 
lo them this knowledge. For the discomfort of siekiiess 
TCTeols the pleasure of health. " Tiiey knew/* therefore, 
* tliat they were naked/' — naked of that grace which pre- 
vented them from being ashamed of bodily nakedness while 
the bkw of sin ofifered no resistance to their mind. And tlius 
they obtained a knowledge which they would have lived in 
blissful ignorance of, had they, in trustful obedience to God, 
decllAed to commit that o£fencc which involved them in the 
Axperieace of the hurtful effects of unfaithfulness and dis- 
lienca And therefore, being asliamed of the disobedience 
their own flesh, which witnessed to their disobeilience 
it punished it, " they sewed fig leaves together, and 
themselves aprons/' that is, cinctm-es for their privy 
jmstm ; for some interpreters have rendered the word by 
mmteuuioria. Campcsfria is, indeed, a Latin word, but it 
used of the dmwers or aprons used for a similar purpose 
the young men who stripped for exercise in the camjms ; 
those who were so girt were commonly called campcs- 
4- Sham*^ moilestly covered that which lust disobediently 
moved in opposition to the will which was thus punished 



> Thii doctrine unci phmseoloKV of AnRwstirio being important in connection 
TJih hift vliolr theory of the fall, we give some parallel passages to show that 
worli ore not tuetl at mndoin : De Oenesi ad fif. xi. 41 ; Dr CotTrpt. tt 
xu 31 ; and cspecmlty ConL JvUan, \v. 83. 
s Geo. JiL 7. 
TOL. U. 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xir. 



for its own disobedience. Consequently all nations, being 
propagated from that one stock, have so atrocg an instinct to 
cover the shameful pai*ts, that some barbarians do not un- 
cover them even in the bath, but wash with their drawera 
on. In the dark solitudes of India also, though some pliilo- 
sophers go naked, and are therefore called gj'mnosophists, 
yet they make an exception in the case of these membci's, 
and cover them. 



18. 0/ tht thame which attetuU all stxutU tntfrcoitrge. 

Lust requires for its consummation darkness and secrecy; 
and this not only when unlawful intercourse is desired, but 
even such fornication as the earthly city has legalized. 
Where there is no fear of punishment, tlicse permitted 
pleasures still shrink from the public eye. Even where pro- 
vision is made for this lust, secrecy also is provided ; and while 
lust found it easy to remove the prohibitions of law, shameless- 
ness found it impossible to lay aside the veil of retirement. For 
even shameless men call this shameful ; and thoiigh they love 
the pleasure, dare not display it. What ! does not even con- 
jugal intercourse, sanctioned as it is by law for the propaga- 
tion of children, legitimate and honourable though it be, does 
it not seek retirement from every eye ? Before the bridegroom 
fondles his bride, does he not exclude the attendants, and even 
the paranymphs, and such friends as the closest ties have 
admitted to the bridal chamber ? The greatest master of 
Roman eloquence says, that all right actions wish to he set in 
the light, ie. desire to be known. This right action, however, 
lias such a desire to be known, that yet it blushes to be seen. 
Who does not know what passes between husband and M'ife 
that children may be bom ? Is it not for this puri^ose that 
wives nre mairied with such ceremony ? And yet, wlien this 
well-understuod act is gone about for the procreation of chil- 
dren, not even the children themselves, who may already have 
been born to them, are suffered to be witnesses. This right 
action seeks the hght, in so far as it seeks to be knoM^n, but 
yet dreads being seen. And why so, if not because thai 
which is by nature fitting and decent is so done as to be 
accompanied with a sliame-begetting penalty of sin ? 



!V.] 



SHAMEFULNESS OP IT7ST. 




^^■19. That il U now necfsgarp^ tu it imm not hefort man »innfd^ to bridle anger 

^^M and lust by the rattraininfj iujlttence o/wisdom. 

^" Hence it is that even the philosophers who hnve approxi- 
[ xcated to the truth have avowed that anger and lust are vicious 
xnental emotions, because, even when exercised towards objects 
hich wisdom does not prohibit, they are moved in an im- 
remed and inordinate manner, and consequently need the 
tion of mind and reason And they assert that this third 
of the mind is posted as it were in a kind of citadel, to give 
e to these other parts, so that, while it rules and they serve, 
"mans righteousness is presers'ed without a breach/ These 
parts, then, which they acknowledge to be vicious even in a' 
wise and temperate man, so that the mind, by its composing! 
and restraining influence, must bridle and rpcnll tliem from 
tliose objects towards which they are unlawfully moved, and 
give them access to those which the law of wisdom sanctions, — 
that anger, e.g., may be allowed for the enforcement of a just 
authority, and lust for the duty of propagating oflspring, — 
these parts, I say, were not vicious in Paradise before sin, 
for they were never moved in opposition to a holy will towards 
any object from which it was necessary that they should be 
'Withheld by the restraining bridle of reason. For though 
now they are moved in this way, and are regulated by a 
bridling and restraining power, which those who live tempe- 
mtely, justly, and godly exercise, sometimes with ease, and 
sometimes mth greater difliculty, this is not the sound lieaUh 
of nature, but the weakness which results from sin. And how 
is it that shame does not hide the acts and words dictated by 
anger or other emotions, as it covers the motions of lust, 
lUilcBS because the members of the body which we employ for 
accomplishing them are moved, not by the emotions them- 
selves, but by the authority of the consenting will ? For he 
who in his anger rails at or even strikes some one, could not 
do 80 were not his tongue and hand moved by the authority 
of the wiD, as also they are innved when there is no anger, 
ut the oi-gans of generation are so subjected to the rule of 
t, that they have no motion but what it communicates. 
is this we are ashamed of; it is this which blushingly 

' Sec Plato's HepubliCt book ir. 



Tins cmr of ooi>. 



DOOK XII 



hides from the eyes of onlookers. And rather will a ma» 
eudure a crowd of witnesses Avhiin he is unjustly venting hi* 
anger on some one, than the eye of one man when he inno- 
cently copulates with his wife. 

30. 0/thf/ooluJi beatUincM of the Ci/nim. 

It is this which those canine or cynic ^ philosophers hai 
overloulied, when they luive, inviohition of the modest instincts 
of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameles* 
opinion, worthy indeed of dogs, viz., that as the matrimonial 
net is legitimate, no one should be ashamed to perform it> 
o^wnly, ill the street or iu any public place. Instinctive 
shame has overboviie tliis wild fancy. For though it is related * 
that Dio;^*ene3 once dared to put his opinion in practice, under 
the impn'ssion that his sect would be all the more famous if 
his egregious shamelessness were deeply graven in the memory 
of mankind, yet this example was not afterwai'ds followed. 
Shame had more intluence with them, to make them blush 
before men, than error to make them affect a resemblance to 
dog^ii. And possibly, even in the case of Diogenes, and those 
who did imitate him, there was but an appearance and pre- 
tence of copulation, and not the reality. Even at this day 
there are still Cynic philosophers to be seen ; for these are 
Cynics who are not content with being clad iu the pallium, 
but also carry a club ; yet no one of them dares to do this 
that we speak of. If they did, they would be spat upon, not 
to say stoned, by the mob. Human nature, then, is witliout 
doubt ashamed of this luat ; and justly so, for the insubordina- 
tion of these members, and their defiance of the will, are the 
clear testimony of the punishment of man's iii-st sin. jind it 
was fitting that this should appear specially Jn those parts 
by which is generated that nature which has been altered for 
the worse by that iinst and gi*eat sin,-^that aiu from whose evil 
connection no one can eacapej unless God's grace expiate in 
him individually that w^iicli was perpetnited to the destruc- 
tion of all in common, when aE were in one man, and which 
was avenged by God's justice. 

* TliP one wonl being the Latin fonn, the other the Greek, of the saxna adjoctirc. 
■ By Diogenes Laertius, vi. 00, and Cicero, De OJic. i. 41. 



BOOK XIV.] LUST NOT FELT BY MAN UNFALLEX, 



37 



21. Thai tftaii'ti trnnsyrffiion did not anntf/ thehlenting of freundUy pronounced 
vpon man br/orc he «in»c(/, but in/tcitd it Kith the dieeaae 0/ ttut. 

Far be it, then, from us to suppose that our first parents in 
Paradise felt that lust which caused theui ftftcrwaitls to Lluah 
and hide their nakedness, or that by its means they should 
have fulfilled the benediction of God, " Increase and multiply 
and replenish the earth;"* for it Avas after siji that lust 
Irogan. It was after sin tliat our nature, having lost tlxe power, 
it had over tlie whole body, but not liaving lost all shame, 
j>erceived, noticed, blushed at, aud covered it. But tliat 
blessing upon marriage, which encouraged them to increase 
and nuUtiply and replenisli the earth, thou^di it continued 
even after they had sinned, was yet given before they sinned, 
in order that the proerealion of children ruiglit be recognised 
as port of the glory of mnmagc, and not of the jinnishnicnt of 
sin. But now, men being ignorant of the blessedness of Vara- 
dise, suppose tliat children could not have been l>egotten there 
in. any other way than tlicy know them to be begotten now, 
i.c. by lust, at which even honourable marriage blushes ; some 
liot simply rejecting, but sceptically deriding the divine Scrip- 
tures, in which we read that our first parents, after tliey sinned, 
were ashamed of their nakedness, and coveVed it ; wliile 011161*3, 
though they accept and honour Scriitfcure, yet conceive that 
this expression, " Increase and multiply," refers not to carnal 
fecundity, because a similar expression is used of the soul in 
tlie wonls, ** Thou wilt multiply me with strength in my 
fKiiil;'" and so, too, in the words which fallow in Genesis, 
"And replenish the earth, and subdue it/' they understand by 
lh€ earth the Itody which the kouI fills with its presence, and 
wliich it rules over when it is multiplied in strength. And 
they hold that children could no more then than now be 
begotten without lust, which, after sin, was kindled, observed, 
blushed for, ami covered ; and oven that children would not 
ive been boni in Paradise, but only outside of it, as in fact 
turned out Por it was after tliey were expelled from it 
flat they came together to beget children, and begot tliem. 



* C«o. i. 28. 



* Vs. cxjt.WiU. 3. 



THF CTTT OF GOV. 



[no OK xrv. 



22. Of the conjugal union aa it »(M or^iiuzUy in«fi^u/rij and hhtaed by God. 

But we, for our part, have no manner of doubt tlint to in- 
crease and multiply and replenish the earth in virtue of the 
blessing of God, is a gift of marriage as God instituted it 
from the beginning before man sinned, when He created them 
male and I'emale.^in other words, two sexes manifestly dis- 
tinct. And it was this work of God on which His blessing 
was pronounced. For no sooner liad Scrijiture said^ " Male 
and female created He them," ^ than it immediately continues, 
" And God blessed them, and God said unto them. Increase, 
and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it," etc. 
And though all these things may not iinsuitahly be inter- 
preted in a spiritual sense, yet " male and female " cannot be 
understood of two things in one man, aa if therii were in him 
one thing which rules, another which is ruled ; but it is quite 
clear that they were created male and female, with bodies of 
different sexes, for the very purpose of begetting ofifspring, and 
so increasing, multipljdng, and replenishing the earth ; and it 
is great folly to oppose so plain a fact It was not of the 
spirit which commands and the body which obeys, nor of the 
rational soul which rules and the iiTationol desire .which is 
ruled, nor of the contemplative virtue which is supreme and 
the active which is subject, nor of the underatanding of the 
mind and the sense of the body, but plainly of the matri- 
monial ujoion by which the sexes are mutually bound together, 
that our Lord, when asked whether it were lawful for any 
cause to put away one's wife (for on account of the hardness 
of the hearts of the Israelites Moses pennitted a bill of 
divorcement to ho given), answered and said, " Have ye not 
read that He which made them at the beginning made them 
male and female, and said. For this cause shall a man leave 
father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they 
twain shall be one flc^h ? Wlierefore they are no more twain, 
but one flesh. What, therefore, God hath joined together, let 
not man put asunder."^ It is certain, then, that from the 
first men were created, as we see and know them to be now, 
of two sexes, male and female, and that they are called one, 
either on account of the matrimonial union, or on account of 

> Ccn. i. 27, 28. « ilutt. xix. 4, 6, 



>K XIV.] 



OF rROCKEATlON WITUOUT LUST. 



29 




le origin of the woman, who was created from the side of the 
And it is by this original example, which God Himself 
instituted, tliat the apostle admonishes all husbands to love 
tbeir own wives in particular.* 

21 Whether generation should have tttX'CH place even in Paradise had man no< 
•Imeti, or ichtlher Oiere ehould have been any eontmtion there hctwren 
ehtu^iy and last. 

But he who says that there should have been neither copu- 
lation nor generation but for sin, virtually says that mans 
sin was necessary to complete the niiraber of the saints. For 
if these two by not sinning should have continued to live 
alone, because, as is supposed, they could not have begotten 
children had they not sinned, then cei'tainly sin was necessary 
in order that there might be not only two but many righteous 
men. And if this cannot be maintained "without absurdity, 
*e must rather believe that the number of the saints fit to 
plete tliis most blessed city would have been as great 

ugh no one had sinm^, as it is now that the grace of God 
jnthers its citizens out of the multitude of sinners, so long as 
tlie children of this world generate and are generated.' 

And therefore that marriage, worthy of the happiness of 
Tamdise, should have had desirable fruit without the shame 
of lust, bad there been no sin. ]3ut how that coidd be, there 
is now no example to teach us. Nevertheless, it ought not to 
seem incredible that one member might serve the will without 
lost then, since so many serve it now. Do we now move our 
feet and hands when M'e will to do the things we would by 
tteans of these members? do we meet with no resistance in 
ihcm, but perceive that they are ready servants of the >vill, 
both in our own case and bi that of others, and especially of 

Jsans employed in mechanical operations, by which the 

s and clumsiness of nature become, through indus- 

e-tercise, wonderfully dexterous? and shall wc not believer 

t, like as all those members obediently serve the will, so 
should the members have discharged the function of 

eration, though lust, the award of disobedience, liad been 
Ling? Did not Cicero, in discussing the diflerence of 
uments in liis Dc liqmhlica, adopt a simile from human 



40 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XIT. 



nature, and say that we command our bodily members as- 
children, they are so obedient ; but that the vicious parts of 
the soul must be ti-eated as slaves, and be coerced with a more 
stringent authority ? And no doubt, in the order of nature^ 
the soul is more excellent tlian the body ; and yet the soul 
commands the body more easily than itself. Nevertheless 
this lust, of which we at present speak, is the more shameful 
on this account, because the soul is therein neither master of 
itseF, so as not to lust at all, nor of the body, so as to keep 
the members under the control of the will ; for il' they were 
thus mled, there should be no shame. But now the soul is 
ashamed that the body, which by nature is inferior and sub- 
ject to it, shoidd resist its authority. For in the resistance 
experienced by the soul in the other emotions there is less 
shame, because the resistance is from itself, and thus, when it 
is conquered by itself, itself is the conqueror, although the 
nouquest is inordinate and vicious, because accomplished by 
those parts of the soul which ought to be subject to reason, 
yet, being accomplished by iU own parts and energies, the 
conquest is, as I say, its owa For when the soul conquers 
itself to a due subordination, bo that its unreasonable motions 
are controlled by reason, whOe it again is subject to God, this 
is a conquest virtuous and praiseworthy. Yet there is less 
shame when the soul is resisted by its own vicious parts than 
when its will and order are resisted by the body, which is 
distinct fi*om and inferior to it, and dependent on it £or life 
itself. 

But so long as the will retains under its authority the other 
members, without which the members excited by lust to i-esist 
the will cannot accomplisli what they seek, chastity is pre- 
served, and the delight of sin foregone. And certainly, had 
not culpable disobedience been visited with penal disobedience, 
the marriage of Paradise shoidd have been ignorant of this 
struggle and rebellion, this quarrel between will and lust, that 
the wdl may be satislied and lust restrained, but those mem- 
bers, like all the rest, sliould have obeyed the will. The field 
of genei-ation' should have been sown by the organ created 
for this purpose, as the earth is sown by the liaud And 
» Stc Virgil, Oeorg. iil 136. 



BOOX Xrv.] NATURAL SUPREMACY OF THE WD.L. 



41 



whereas now, as we essay to investigate this subject more 
exactly, modesty hinders us, and compels us to ask pardon of 
chaste ears, there would have been no cause to do so, but we 
could have discoui-sed freely, and without fear of seeming 
obscene, upon all those points which occur to one who medi- 
tates on the subject. There would not have been even words 
which could be called obscene, but all tliat might be said of 
these members would have been as pure as what is said of 
the other parts of the body. Whoever, then, comes to tlie 
perosal of these pages with unchaste mind, let him blame liis 
disposition, not his nature ; let him brand the actings of his 
own impurity, not the words which necessity forces us to use, 
and for which every pure and pious reader or hearer will very 
readily partion me, while I expose the folly of that scepticism 
which argues solely on the ground of its own experience, and 
lias no fnitli in anything beyond. He wlio is not srandahxed 
i^at the apostle's censure of the horrible wickedness of the women 
^■liio " changed the natural use into that wliich is against 
^BiHare"^ will read all this without being shocked, especially 
^Ptt we are not, like Paul, citing and censuring a damnable un- 
<^leaDness, but are explaining, so far as we can, human genera- 
tion, while with Paul we avoid all obscenity of language. 

Jl- That if ntfn had remained innocent and obedient in Paradise, the fjenerativt. 
ofjant shQvid have been in subjection to tlie wiU as the olfier members art. 

The man, then, would have sown tlie seed, and the woman 
received it, as need required, the generative organs being 
moved by the will, not excited by lust. For we move at 
will not only those members which are furnished with joints 
<>f aohd bone, as the hands, feet, and fingers, but we move also 
at will those which are composed of slack and soft nerves: we 
can pnt them in motion, or stretch them out, or bend and 
twist them, or contract and stiffen tbem, as we do with the 
muscles of the month and face. The lungs, which are the 
very tenderest of the viscera except the bniin, and are there- 
fore carefully sheltered in the cavity of the chcbt, yet for all 
purposes of inhaling and exhaling the breath, and of uttering 
and modulating the voice, are obedient to the will when wo 
kvathe^ exhale, speak, shout, or sing^ just as the bellows obey 

^ RotD. i. 38. 



42 



THE Cmr OF GOD. 



[book XIV. 



the smith or the organist I will not press the fact that some 
animals have a natural power to move a single spot of the 
akin with wliich their whole body is covered, if they liave felt 
on it anything they wish to drive off, — a power so great, that 
by this shivering tremor of the skin they can not only shake 
off flies that liave settled on them, hut even spears that have 
fixed in their Hesh. Man, it is true, has not this power ; bat 
is this any reason for supposing that God conld not give it to 
snch creatures as lie wished to possess it ? And therefore 
man himself also might very well have enjoyed absolute 
power over his members had he not forfeited it by his dis- 
obedience ; for it was not difficidt for God to form him so 
that what is now moved in his body only by lust should have 
been moved only at will. 

We know, too, that some men are differently constituted 
from others, and have some rare and i-emarkable faculty of 
doing with theii* body what other men can by no effort do, 
and, indeed, scarcely believe when they hear of others doing. 
There are persons who ciin move their ears, either one at a 
time, or both together. There are some who, without moving 
tlie head, can bring the hair down upon the forehead, and 
move the whole scalp backwards and forwards at pleasure. 
Some, by lightly pressing their stomach, bring up an incredible 
quantity and variety of things they have swallowed, and pro- 
duce wliatever they please, quite whole, as if out of a bag. 
Some so accurately mimic the voices of birds and beasts and 
otlier men, that, unless they are seen, the difference cannot be 
told. Some have such command of theii- bowels, that they 
can break wind continuously at pleasure, so as to produce 
the effect of singing. I myself have known a man who was 
accustomed to sweat whenever he wished. It is well known 
that some weep when they please, and shed a flood of tears. 
But far more incredible is that which some of our brethren 
saw quite recently. There was a presbyter callod Eestitutus, 
in the parish of the Calamensian^ Church, who. as often as he 
pleased (and ho was asked to do this by those who desired to 

* The position of Ciiluuia is cli'scribt'd ty Augustine as between ConstAntine 
and HJ]>|>o, but nearer Hippo. — Contra Lit. Petii. ii. 228. A fall description 
of It is given in Poujoulut's IJietoin dt S. Avgustin, i. ZiO, who says it wai 





BOOK XIV.] EXAMPLES OF THE "Wnj/fi SUPREMA.CY. 



43 



itness so remarkable a phenomenon), on some one imitating 

wailings of mourners, became so insensible, and lay in n 

state so like death, that not only had he no feeling when they 

pinched and pricked him, but even when fire was applied to 

him, and he was burned by it, he had no sense of pain except 

afterwords from the wound. And that his body remained 

motionless, not by reason of his self-command, but because 

be was insensible, was proved by tlie fact that ho breathed 

so more than a dead man ; and yet he said that, when any one 

•poke with more than ordinary distinctness, he beard the voice, 

but as if it were a long way off. Seeing, then, that even in 

this mortal and miserable life the body serves some men by 

many remarkable movements and moods beyond the ordinary 

course of nature, what reason is tliere for doubting tliat, before 

man was involved by his sin in this weak and corruptible 

condition, his members might have served his will for the 

propagation of offspring without lust ? Man has been given 

over to himself because he abandoned God, while he sought 

to be self-satisfying ; and disobeying God, he could not obey 

even himself. Hence it is that he is involved in the obvioua 

aisery of being unable to live as he wishes. For if he lived 

M be wished, he would think himself blessed ; but he could 

be so if he lived wickedly. 



^^M 25. O/lrut hUuediitBSj which thit present life cannot enjoy. 

^H^ However, if we look at this a little more closely, we see 
^^pit no one lives as he wishes but the blessed, and that no 
one is blessed but the righteous. But even the righteous 
bimself does not live as he wishes, until he has arrived where 
be cannot die, be deceived, or injured, and until he is assiired 
that this shall be his eternal condition. For this nature de- 
mands; and nature is not fully and perfectly blessed till it 
attains what it seeks. But what man is at present able to 
live as he wishes, when it is not in bis power so much as to 
live? He \vishes to live, he is compelled to die. How, then, 
does he live as he wishes who does not live as long as he 

atu of the most important towns of Numidiu, eighteen Icogaca south of Hippo^ 
ad represented by the modem Qhclma. It is to its bishop, Poswdliu, wl* owa 
tbfl eootemporaTy Ll/c of A wjuetine. 



44 



TUE crry of god. 



[book XIV. 



wishes ? or if he wishes to die, how can he live as he wishes, 
since lie does not wish even to live ? Or if he wishes to die, 
not beuatise lie dislikes life, but that after death he may live 
better, still he is not yet living as he wishes, but only has the 
prospect of so living when, through death, he roaches that 
which he wishes. But admit that he lives as he wishes, 
because he has done violence to himself, and forced himself 
not to wish what he cannot obtain, and to wish only what he 
can (as Terence has it, " Since you cannot do what you will, 
•will what you can"^), is he therefore blessed because he is 
patiently wTCtched ? For a blessed life is possessed only by 
the man who loves it. If it is loved and possessed, it must 
necessarily be more ardently loved than all besides ; for what- 
ever else is loved must be loved for the sake of the blessed 
life. And if it is loved as it deserves to be, — and the maa 
is not blessed who does not love the blessed life as it deserves, 
— then he who so loves it cannot but wish it to be eternal 
Therefom it sludl then only be blessed when it is eternaL 

20. That ux are to btUece tItcU in Faradige ourfrsi parents be^at offtpring 
icxOiOUt bItuJtiny. 

In Paradise, then, man lived as he desired so long as he 
desired what God liad commanded. He lived in the enjojTnent 
of Got!, and was good by God's goodness ; he lived without any 
want, and had it iu his power so to live eteraally. He had 
food that he might not hunger, drink that he might not thirsty 
the tree of life that old age might not waste him. There was 
iti lus body no coiTuption, nor seed of comiption, which could 
produce in him any unpleasant sensation. He feared no in- 
ward disease, no outward accident. Soundest liealth blessed 
his body, absolute tranquillity his souL As in Paradise there 
was no excessive heat or cold, so its inhabitants were exempt 
from the vicissitudes of fear and desire. No sadness of any 
kind was there, nor any foolish joy j tnie gladness ceaselessly 
flowed from the presence of God^ who was loved " out of a 
pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned."^ 
The honest love of husband and wife made a sure harmony 
between them. Body and spirit worked harmoniously to- 
getlier, and the commandment was kept without labour. No 
^ Andr. iL 1, 5. ■ 1 Tiiii. i, 6. 



WOK XIV.] WILL KATtnUATXT RTTimEWE 1^ GENT.HATJON. 



linguor made their leisure 'wearisome ; no sleepiness inter- 
rupted tlieir desire to labour.^ In tauta facilitate renim et 
felicitate hominum, absit nt suspicemur, nan potuisse pTolem 
•en sine libidinis morlx) : scd co voluntatis nutu moverentur 
ilia membra quo ciutera, et sine ardoria illecebroso stimuln 
cum iranquiUitate aninii et coi-poris nulla corruptione intogri- 
Utis inl'onderetur gremio maritus uxoris. Neque enim quia 
experieutia probari non potest^ ideo credondum nnn list; quando 
illas corporis partes non ageret turbidus color, sed spontanea 
potestas, sicut opus esset^ adliiberet ; ita tunc potulsso uten> 
oonjogis salva integritate feminei genitalis virile semen im- 
mittij sicut nunc potest eadeni intej^itate salva ex utero 
yirgiais fluxus menstrui cruoris emitti. Eadem quippe via 
poaset illud injici, qua hoc potest ejici. Ut enim ad parien- 
dnm non doloris gemitus, sed maturitatis impulsus feniinea 
-viocera relasaret : sic ad fcetandum et concipiendum non libi- 
dinis apj)etitus, sed voluntarius usus naturani utramque con- 
jungeretw "NVe sx)eak of things whicii are now shameful, and 
althoagb we tiy, as well as we are able, to conceive them as 
thej wei-e before they became shameful, yet necessity com- 
pels us rather to limit our discussion to the bounds set by 
modesty than to extend it as our modemte faculty of dis- 
COorae might suggest. For since that which I have been 
speaking of was not experienced even by those who might 
bave experienced it, — I Inean our first parents (for sin and ita 
^ffp'fflgj banishment from Paradise anticipated this passionlej^s 
gBDCrfttion on their part), — wlicn sexual intercourse is spoken 
of now, it suggests to men's thoughts not such a placid obe- 
dleooe to the will as is conceivable in our first parents, but 
soch violent acting of lust as they themselves have exi>cnenced. 
And dierefore modesty shuts my mouth, although my mind 
ooDceives the matter clearly. But Almiglity God, the supreme 
aod supremely good Creator of all natures, who aids and re- 
Wards good wills, w*hile He abandons and condemns the bad, 
aod rules both, was not destitute of a plan by which He 
might people His city with the iixed number of citizens which 
His wisdom had foreordained even out of the condemned 

' Compare Biuil's Homily on Paradittf and John Damascene, Dt Fide 
Oniwl. ii. 11. 



40 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XIV. 



human race, discriminating tbem not now by merits, since 
the whole mass was condemned as if in a vitiated root, but 
by grace, and showing, not only in tlie case of the redeemed, 
but also in those who were not delivered, how much grace 
He has bestowed upon them. For every one acknowledges 
that he has been rescued from evil, not by deserved, but by 
gratuitous goodness, when he ia singled out from the company 
of those with whom he might justly have borne a conmion 
punishment, and is allowed to go scathless. Why, then, 
should God not have created those whom lie foresaw would 
sin, since He was able to show in and by them both what their 
guilt merited, and what His grace bestowed, and since, under 
His creating and disposing liand, even the perverse disorder 
of the mcked could not pervert the right order of things ? 

27. 0/thf angtU and ftien vyho nnntd^ and that thrir ttiehednas did not 
disturb the tjrder 0/ God's providence. 

The sins of men and angels do nothing to impede the 
"great works of the Lord wliich accomplish His will." ' For 
He who by His providence and omnipotence distributes to 
every one his own portion, is able to make good use not only 
of the good, but also of the wicked. And thus making a 
good use of the wicked angel, who, in punishment of liis first 
wicked volition, was doomed to an obduracy that prevents 
him now from willing any good, why should not God have 
permitted him to tempt the first man, who had been created 
upright, that is to say, with a good will ? For he had been 
so constituted, that if he looked to God for help, man's good- 
ness should defeat the angel's wickedness ; but if by proud 
self-pleasing he abandoned God, his Creator and Sustainer, 
he should be conquered. If his will remained upright, 
through leaning on God's help, he should be rewarded ; if it 
became wicked, by forsaking God, he shoidd be punished. 
But even this trusting in God's help cotdd not itself be 
accomplished without God's help, although man had it in his 
own power to relinquish the benefits of divine grace by pleas- 
ing himself For as it is not in our power to live in this 
world without sustaining ourselves by food, while it is in our 
power to refuse this nourishment and cease to live, as those 

^ Vb. cxi. 2. 



BOOK XIT.] PRlMlXn'E DIVEBGENCE OF TItE TWO ClTiES. 47 

'io who kill themselves, so it was not in man's power, even in 
Paradise, to live as he ought without God's help ; but it waa 
in his power to live wickedly, though thus he should cut 
short his happiness, and incur very just punishment Sinc«, 
then, God was not ignorant that man would fall, why should 

tnot have suffered him to bo tempted by an angel who 
d and envied him ? It was not, indeed, that He was 
ware that he should be conquered, but because He foresaw 
that by the man's seed, aided by divine grace, this same devil 
himself should be conquered, to the greater glory of the 
saints. All was brought about in such a manner, that neither 
did any future event escape God';^ foreknowledge, nor did His 
foreknowledge compel any one to sin. and so as to demon- 
strate in the experience of the intelligent creation, human 
tad angelic, how great a difference 'there is between the 
private pi*esumption of the creature and the Creator's protec- 
tion. For who will dare to believe or say that it was not in 
God's power to prevent both angels and men from sinning ? 
But God preferred to leave this in thf^ir power, and thus to 
show both what evil could be wrought by their pride, and 
what good by His grace. 

k28. Of the nature qf the two dtia, the, tartMy and the heacmhj. 
Accordingly, two cities have been formed by two loves : 
e earthly by the love of self, even to the contempt of God ; 
i^e heavenly by the love of God, even to the contempt of 
wit The former, in a word, glories, in itself, the latter in 
the Lord. For the one seeks glory from men ; but the 
greatesfc glory of the other is God, the witness of conscience. 
The one lifts up its head in its own gloiy; the other 
says to its God, "Thou ait my glory, and the lifter up of 
mine head." * In the one, the princes and the nations it 
subdues are ruled by the love of ruling ; in the other, the 
princes and the subjects serve one another in love, the latter 
^^)eying, while the former take thought for all. The one 
^■blights in its own strength, represented in the persons of its 
^tnlers ; the other says to its God, " I will love Thee, Lord, 
ly strength."* And therefore the wise men of the one 




48 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XIV. 

city, living according to man, have sought for profit to their 
own hodies or souls, or both, and those who have known 
God " glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful, but 
became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was 
darkened ; professing themselves to be wise," — that is, glory- 
ing in their own wisdom, and being possessed by pride, — " they 
became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God 
into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and 
four-footed beasts, and creeping things," For they were 
either leaders or followers of the people in adoring images, 
"and worshipped and served the creature more than the 
Creator, who is blessed for ever." * But in the other city 
there is no human wisdom, but only godliness, which offers 
due worship to the true God, and looks for its reward in the 
society of the saints,* of holy angels as well as holy men, 
" that God may be all in alL" * 

1 Rom, i. 21-25, • 1 Cor, xv. 23. 



BOOK XV.] 



THE TWO COMMCXITTER. 



40 



BOOK FIFTEEXTH. 

ARGUMENT. 

BAVIKO treated in the Four. PnECKDlXO BOOKS OF THE OniGI!? OF THE TWO 
CITIES, TUE EAHTHLT A\D THE HEAVENLY, AVCUSTIXE EXPLAINS THEIU 
liHOWlfl AND rr.UCKEKS IN THE FOUT. B(K)KS WHICH FOLLOW ; AND, IN 
OBDBRTO DO SO, HE EXPLAINS THE CHIEF PAfiSACES OF THE HACUKD HIS- 
TOnT WHICH BEAU UPON THIS HUDJECT. IN THIS FIFTEENTH BOOK HE 
OPENS THIS PAHT OF HIS WORK BV EXPLAINING THE KVRSTS HKCOUVl'.Ti IN 
GENESIS FROM THE TIME UF CAIN AND .UlEL TO THE DELl'GE. 



O 



1. 0/ tfiC two lm€4 of the Human race which from fir^ to last dmde U* 

Fai-adiso itself, and of the 



the bliss of Paradise, 

of our first parents tliere, and of their sin and pnnisli- 
nientj many have thon;;ht inuchj spoken much, written mucli. 
^Vft ourselves, too, have spoken of these t]iin;;s in tliti fore- 
J?oing books, and have written either what we read in the 
Holy Scriptures, or what we could reasonably deduce from 
t-hem. And were we to enter into a more detailed investiga- 
tion of these matters, an endless number of endless questions 
■^oiild arise, which would involve us in a larger work than tlie 
pwsent occasion admits. We caimot be expected to iind 
^«»m for replying to every question that may be started by 
yaoccupied and captious men, who are ever more ready to a-sk 
'lutiitions than capable of imderstanding the answer. Yet I 
^^Ust we have already done justice to these great and difficult 
inestions reganling the beginning of the world, or of the .soul, 
w of tlic human i-ace itself. Thi.s race we liave distrilmtcd 
uiUi two parts, tlie one consisting of those who live according 
to niun, the other of those who live according to God. And 
liiese -we also mystically call the two cities, or the two com- 
tonnitics of men, of which tlie one is predestined to reign 
«temally with God, and the other to suffer eternal punish- 
ianent with the devil. This, however, is their end, and of it 
we are to speak afterwards. At present, as we have said 
VOL n. D 



50 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



enough about their origin, whether among the angels, whose 
numbers we know not, or in the two first human beings, it 
seems suitable to attempt an account of their career, from the 
time when our two first parents began to propagate the race 
until all human generation shall cease. For this whole time 
or world-age, in which the dying give place and those who 
are born succeed, is the career of these two cities concerning 
which we treat 

Of these two iirat parents of the human race, then, Cain 
was the first-born, and he belonged to the city of men ; after 
him was bom Abel, who belonged to the city of God. For 
as in the individual the truth of the apostle's statement is 
discerned, " that is not first which is spiritual, but that which 
is natural, and afterward that which is spiritual," ^ whence 
it comes to pass that each man, being derived from a con- 
demned stock, is first of all bom of Adam evil and carnal, 
and becomes good and spiritual only afterwards, when he is 
graffed into Christ by regeneration : so was it in the huiunn 
race as a whole. When these two cities began to run their 
course by a series of deatha and births, the citizen of this 
world was the first-born, and after him the stranger in this 
world, the citizen of the city of God, predestinated by grace, 
elected by grace, by grace a stranger below, and by grace a 
citizen above. By grace, — for so far as regards himself he is 
sprung from the same mass, all of which is condemned in its 
origin ; but God, like a potter (for this comparison is intro- 
duced by the apostle judiciously, and not without thought), 
of the same lump made one vessel to honour, another to dis- 
honour.* But first the vessel to dishonour was made, and 
after it another to honour. For in each individual, as T have 
already said, there Is first of all that which is reprobate, that 
from which we must begin, but in which wo need not neces- 
sarily remain ; afterwards is that which is well-approved, to 
which we may by advancing attain, and in which, when we 
have reached it, we may abide. Not, indeed, that every 
wicked man shall be good, but that no one will be good who 
was not first of all wicked ; but the sooner any one becomes 
a good man, the more speedily docs he receive tliis title, and 
UCor. XV. 46. •Rom. ix. 21. 






BOOK XT.] CHILDREN OF TIIK FLESH .V3JD OK THE PHOMHK. r»l 



abolish the old name in the new. Accordingly, it is recorded 
of Cain that he built a city/ but Abel, being a sojourner, 
built none. For the city of the saints is above, although 
here below it begets citizenff/ in whom it sojourns till the 
time of its reign anives, when it shall gather together all in 
the day of the resuiTection ; and then shall the promised 
i| kingdom be given to them, in which they shall reign with 
^^leir Prince, the King of the ages, time without end. 

^^^ 2. Of (he ehUdrfn ofthejksh and tkt children qf the promise. 

^™ There was indeed on earth, so long as it was needed, a 
symbol and foreshadowing image of this city, which served 
the purpose of reminding men that such a city was to be» 
rather than of making it present ; and this image was itself 
called the holy city, as a symbol of the future city, though 
not itself the reality. Of this city which served as an image, 
and of that free city it typified, Paul writes to the Galatians 
in these tenns : " Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, 
ye not hear the law ? For it is written, that Abraliam 
two sons, the one by a bond maid, the other by a free 
man- But he who was of the bond woman was born after 
flesh, but he of the free woman was by promise. Which 
tluDgs are an allegory:* for these are t!ie two covenants; 
fte one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, 
which is Agar. For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, an<l 
answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is h^Jiiinda^e-^itli 
fcw children. But Jenisalem which is above is free, wliich is. 
the mother of us all. For it is written, Rejoice, thou bairen 
ihat bearest not ; break forth and cry, thou tliat travailest not : 
for the desolate hath many more children than she which hath 
4n husband. Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the ehil- 
tfren of promise. But as then he that was bom after the 
teh persecuted him that was bom after the Spirit, even so it 
is now. Neveitheless, what saith the Scripture ? Cast out 
the bond woman and her son : for the son of the bond woman 
shall not be heir with the son ot the free woman. And 
we, brethren, are not children of the bond woman, but ol' 
the free, in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us frea"* 

» Gen. It. 17. ' Comp. De TVm. xr. c. 15. » Gal ir. 21 -SI. 



no 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



This interpretation of the passage, handed down to us with 
apostolic authority, shows how we ought to understand the 
Scriptures of the two covenants — tlie old and the new. One 
portion of the earthly city became an image of the heavenly 
tity, not having a significance of its own, but signifying 
another city, and therefore sending, or." being in bondage." 
For it was founded not for its own sake, but to prefigure 
another city ; and this shadow of a city was also itself tore- 
sliadowed by another preceding figure. For Sarah*s liandmaid 
Agar, and her son^ were an image of thus image. And ns the 
shadows were to pass away when the full liglit came. Sarah> 
the froG woman, who prefigured the free city (wliich again was 
also preligui-ed in another way by that shadow of a city Jeru- 
salem), therelurt! said, " Citst out the bond woman and her son ; 
for the son of the bond woman shull not be heir with my 
son Isaac," or, as the apostle says, "with the son of the free 
woman." In the earthly city, then, we find two tilings — its 
own obvious presence, and its symbolic presentation of the 
heavenly city. Now citizens are begotten to the earthly city 
by nature ^Htiated by sin, but to the heavenly city by grace free- 
ing nature fi*t>m sin ; whence the former ai-e called " vessels of 
wrath,** the latter " vessels of mercy." ^ And tliis was tj'pified 
in the two sons of Abmham, — Islimael, the son of Agar the 
handmaid, being born according to the flesh, while Isaac was 
bom of the fi*ce woman Sarah, according to the promise. Both. 
indeed, wei-e ot Abraham's seed ; but the one was begotten by 
natiiPiil law, the other was given by gracious promise. In the 
one birth, human action is revealed ; in the other, a divine 
kindness comes to lifjlit. 



3. That A'arah's Utrrenn€S9 was made productive by OofVs ffrace. 

Samh, in fact, was barren ; and, despairing of offspring, and 
being resolved that she would have at least through her hand- 
maid Umt blessing she saw she could nut in her own person 
procure, she gave her handmaid to her husband, to whom she 
herself had been unable to bear children. From him she re- 
quired this conjugal duty, exercising her owm right in another's 
womb 

* Rom. UL 22, £3. 



And thus Ishmael was bom according to the common 





W>OK XV,] 



SARAUS DARREN'NESS. 



55 



W of human generation, by sexual intercourse. Therefore it 
is said that he was bom " according to the flesh/'^not because 
such births are uot the gifts of God, nor His handiwork, whose 
creative wistlom " reaches," as it is WTitteu, " from one end to 
another mightily, and sweetly doth she order all things,"* 
but Iwcause, in a case iu wliich the gift of God, which was 
not due to men and was the gratuitoiw lai^ss of grace, was 
to be conspicuous, it was requisite that a sou be given in 
a way which no ettbrt of nature could compass. Nature- 
denies children to persons of the age which Abraham and 
Sarah had now reached ; besides that, in Sarah's case, she was 
biirren even in her prime. This nature, so constituted that 
offspring could not be looked for, symbolized the nature of 
the human race vitiated by sin and by just consequence con- 
demned, which deser\'es no future felicity. Fitly, therefore, 
does Isaac, the child of promise, typify the children of grace, 
the citizens of the free city, who dwell ti»gether in everlasting 
peace, in which self-love and seK-will have no place, but a 
ministering love tliat rejoices in the conimon joy of all, of 
many hearts makes one, that is to say, secures a perfect 
concord. 

4. Of tite conjlict and pf ace of the airUdy cUtj, 

But the earthly city, which shall not be everlnsUng (for it 
will no longer be a city when it lias been committed to the 
extreme penalty), has its good in this world, and rejoices in 
it with such joy as .such things can affonl But as this is 

. not a good whirli can discharge its devotees of all distresses, 

^HSiis city is often divided against itseli by litigations, wtirs, 
^^puarrels, and such victories as are either life-destroying or 
^fviort-lived. For each part of it that arms against another 
part of it seeks to triumph over the nations through itself in 
^^>andage to vice. If, when it has conquered, it is iiiHated with 
^^■ride, its victory is life-destroying ; but if it turns its thoughts 
^^Bpon the common casualties of our mortal condition, and is 
^■mther anxious concerning the disasters that may befall it 
^^han elated with the successes ali*eady aclueved, this victory, 
^though of a higher kind, is still only short-lived ; for it enu- 
abidingly rule over those whom it has victoriously sub- 

* WiaJom viii. 1. 



n 



54 



THK CITY OF GOP. 



[book XV. 



JTigated. But the tilings w^faich this city desires cannot justly 
be said tx) be evU, for it is itself, in its own kind, better than 
nil other human good. For it desires earthly peace for the 
sake of enjoying earthly goods, and it makes war in order to 
attain to this peace ; since, if it has conquered, and there 
remains no one to resist it, it enjoys a peace which it had not 
■while there were opposing parties who contested for the en- 
jojTnent of those things which were too small to satisfy both. 
Tliis peace is purchased by toilsome wars ; it is obtained by 
what they stj'le a glorious victory. Now^ when victory re- 
mains with the pnrty wliich had the juster cause, who hesitates 
to congratulate the victor, and style it a desirable peace ? 
These things, then, are good things, and >vithout doubt the 
gifts of God. But if they neglect the better things of the 
heavenly city, which are secured by eternal victory and peace 
never-ending, and so inoi-dinately covet these present good 
things that they believe them to be the only desirable tilings, 
or love them better than those tilings wliich are believed to 
be better, — if this be so, then it is necessary that misery 
follow and ever increasa 

5. 0/ the fratricidal act oj tke/oundtr qfthe cartMy dty, and Me corre- 
sponding crime o/the/ounder of Home. 

Thus the founder of the earthly citj^ was a fratricide. 
Overcome with t'nvy, he slew his own brother, a citizen of 
the eternal city, and a sojourner on earth. So that we cannot 
he Burj>rised tlutt this Jirst specimen, or, as the Greeks say, 
archet}7je of trime, should, long idlerwards, find a correspond- 
ing crime at the foundation of that city which was destined 
to reign over so many nations, and be the head of this earthly 
city of which we speak. For of tliat city also, aa one of their 
poets has mentioned, "the first walls were stained with a 
brother's blood,"' or, as Roman histor}' records, Remus was 
slain by liis brother Romulus. And thus lhei*e is no diffe- 
rence between the foundation of this city and of the earthly 
city, iinless it be that Romulus and Remus were both citizens 
of the earthly city. Eoth desired to have the glory of found- 
ing the Roman republic, but both could not have as much 
glory as if one only cLiimed it ; for he who wished to have 

' Liican, P/tar. i. 9&. 



ROOK XV.] 



CAIN AXD ABEL. 



55 



the glory of ruling -would certainly rule less if his power were 
ilttxed by a living consort In order, therefore, that the 
whole glory might be enjoyed by one, his consort was re- 
moved ; and by tJiis crime the empire was made larger indeed, 
bttt inferior, while otherwise it would have been less, but 
better. !N"ow these brothers, Cain and Abel, were not botli 
nnnated by the same earthly desires, nor did the murderer 
eary the other because he feared that, by both ruling, his own 
domiaion would be curtailed, — for Abel was not solicitous to 
rale in that city which his brother buOt, — he was moved by 
that diabohcal, envious hatred with which the evil regard the 
gpod. fur no other reason than because they are good while 
ttflDselves are evil For the pos.session of goodness is by no 
neans diminished by being shared with a partner either per- 
nanent or temporarily assumed ; on the contnuy, the posses- 
idon c.if goodness is increased in proportion to the concord and 
diarity of each of those who sliare it. In short, he who is 
unwilling to share this possession cannot have it ; and he who 
is most willing to admit others to a share of it will have the 
greatest* abundance to himself. The quarrel, then, between 
Bomolus and licmus shows how the earthly city is divided 
^jainst itself; that which feU oat between Cain and Abel 
ted the hatred that subsists between the two cities, that 
and that of men. The -racked war with the wicked ; 

good also war with the wicked. But with the good, good 
men, or at least perfectly good men, cannot war; though, 
while only going on towards perfection, they war to this ex- 
lent, that every good man resists others in those points in 

ch he i*eHists himself. And in each individual *'the tiesli 
th against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh."* 
spiritual lusting, thereiore, can be at war wiUi the carnal 
of another man; or carnal lust may be at war with tlie 

itual desires of another, in some such way as good and 
wicked men are at war ; or, still more certainly, the carnal 
fante of two men, good but not yet perfect, contend together, 
jnai aa the wicked contend with the wicked, until the healtli 
of Xhoee who are under the treatment of grace attains hnal 





victor}' 



> GaL T. 17. 




THE CITY OF GOD. 



[DOOK XV. 



C. Of the wcaJbnfiseg which even the citizent of the city qf Ood nnfftr during thin 
earthiy pilgrima'je in punishmeni o/ain, and o/which ihey are heaUd by 
Ood'a care. 

This sickliness — that is to say, that diisobedience of which 
we spoke in the foui-teenth book — is the punishment of the 
fet disobedience. It is tlierefore uot nature, but vice ; and 
thei*efore it is said to the good who are growing in grace, and 
lining in this pilgrimage by faith, " Bear ye one another's 
bunlens^ and so fulfil the law of Christ." * In like manner it 
is said elsewhere, "Warn them that are nnruly, comfort the 
feeble-minded, support the weak, be patient toward all men. 
See that none render evil for evil unto any man." ' And in 
another place, " If a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which 
are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit of meekness ; 
C(nisidtMin%' thyself, lest thou also be tempted."^ And elsc- 
wiiere, "Let not the sun go down npon your WTath."* And 
in the Gospel, "If thy brother shall trespass against thee, go 
and tell him his fault between thee and him alone."* So too 
of sina which may create scandal the apostle says, " Them 
tliat sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear."' For 
this pnrpose, and that we may keep that peace without which 
no man can see the Lord/ many precepts are given which 
carefully inculcate mutual forgiveness ; among which we may 
number that terrible word in which the servant is ordered to 
pay his formerly remitted debt of ten thousand talents, because 
ho did not remit to his fellow-seiTant his debt of two hundred 
]>ence. To which parable the Lord Jeaua added the woixls, *' So 
likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from 
yoiu* heai*ts forgive not every ouo bis brother" ^ It is thus 
the citizens of the city of God are healed wliile still they so- 
journ in this earth and sigh for the peace of their heavenly 
country. The Holy Spirit, too, worlcs within, that the medi- 
cine externally appUed may have some good result. Other- 
wise, even though God Himself make nse of the creatures 
that are subject to Him. and in some human fonn address our 
human senses, whether we receive those impressions in sleep 



> Gal. vi. 2, 

* Epb. iv. 26. 
7 Ueh. xii. li. 



« 1 Thess. V. U. 15. 
» Mfttl. xviii. 15. 
" MAtt xriii. 36, 



' Gal. vi. 1. 
• 1 Tim. y. 20. 



>K XV.] 



cain'.s crime. 



^r in some external appearance, still, if He does not by His 
own inward grace sway and act upon the mind, no preaching 
of the truth is of any avail But this God does, distingiiiah- 
ing between the vessels of wn-ath and the vessels of mercy, by 
His own very secret but verj' just jjrovidence, Wlien He 
Himself aids the soul in His own hiddon and wonderful ways, 
and tlie sin which dwcUa in our members, and is, as the 
apostle teaches, rather the punishment of sin, does not reign 
in our moilal body to ol^y tlic lusts of it, and when we no 
longer yield our members as instruments of unrighteousness/ 
theu the soul is converted from its own evil and selfish de- 
sires, and, God possessing it, it possesses itself in peace even 
in tliis life, and afterwards, with perfected health and endowed 
with immortality, will reign without sin in peace everlasting. 



^ 



T. 0/ the cause of Cain** crime and hi* ohtttinacij, lehich not even the utord of 
God could tulKlue. 



Bat though God made wae of this very mode of address 
Tphich we have been endeavouring to explain, and spoke to 
Cain in that form by which He was wont to accommodaU* 
Himself to our first parents and converse with tliem as a 
winpanion, what good influence had it on Cain ? Did he not 
fuM his wicked intention of killing his brother even after 
he was warned by God's voice ? for when God had made a 
distinction between tlieir sacrifices, neglecting Cain's, regard- 
ing Abel's, wlu'ch was doubtless intimated by some visible 
aign to that effect ; and when God had done so because the 
TTOrka of the one were evil but those of his brother good, Cain 
Was very wroth, and his countenance felL For thus it is 
written : "And tlie Lord said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth, 
and why is thy countenance lullen ? 11 thou offerest rightly, 
but dost not riglitly distinguish, hast thou not sinned ? Fret 
not thyself, for unto thee shall be his turning, and thou shalt 
wle over him," ^ In tliis ailnionition adniiiustered by God to 
Cflin, that claiwe indeed, " If tliou ofi'orest rightly, but dost 
Dot rightly distinguish, hast thou nut sinned ? " is obscm-e, in- 
asmuch aB it is not apparent for what reason or purpose it was 
spoken, and many meanings Iiave been put upon it, as each 

who discusses it attempts to interpret it according to the 
' nom. vL 12, 13. » Gen. U. 6, 7. 




I 



mlc of faitL Tlie truth is, that a sacrifice is " rightly offered ** ' 
when it is offered to the true God, to whom alone we must 
sacrifice. And it is " not rightly distinguished " when we do 
not rightly distin^ish the places or seasons or materials of 
the offering, or the person offering, or the person to whom it 
is presented, or those to wht>m it is distiibuted for food after 
the oblation. Distinguishing^ is here used for discriminating, — 
whether when an olfering is made in a place where it ought 
not or of a material which ought to be offered not there but 
elsewhere ; or when an offering is made at a wrong time, or 
of a material suitable not then but at some other time ; or when 
that is offered which iji ik> place nor any time ought to be 
offered ; or when a man keeps to himself choicer specimens 
of the same kind than he offei-s to God ; or when he or any 
other who ma}- not lawfully pailake profanely eata ol the obla^ 
tion. In which of these particulars Cain displeased God, it is 
difficult to determine. But the Apostle John, speaking of 
Lliuse brothers, says, " Not as Cain, who was of that wicked 
one, and slew his brother. And wherefore slew he him 1 Be- 
cause his own works were evil, and his brother's righteoua" ■ 
He thus gives us to understand that God did not respect his 
offering because it was not rightly " distinguished " in this, that 
he gave to God something of his own but kept himself to him- 
sell For this all do who follow not God's will but their 
own, who live not with an upright but a crooked heart, and 
yet offer to God such gifts as they suppose will procure from 
Him that He aid them not by healing but by gratifying their 
evil passions. And this is the characteristic of the earthly 
city, that it worehips God or gods who may aid it in reigning 
victoriously and peacefully on earth not through love of doing 
good, but through lust nf rule. The good use the world that 
tliey may enjoy God : the wicked, on the contrary, that they 
may enjoy the world would fain use God,— those of them, at 
least, who have attained to the belief that He is and takes an 
interest in human afi'oirs. For they who have not yet attained 
even to this belief are still at a much lower level Cain, then, 
when he saw that God had respect to his brother's sacnfioe, 
but not to his own, should have humbly chosen his good 

1 Literally, "diviaion." ■ 1 Johu iu. 12. 





fiOOK XV.] 



CAIS^S CONDEAINATIOS. 



59 



brother as his example, and not proudly counted him his 

TivaL But he was wroth, and his countenance fell This angry 

y r egret for another person's goodness, even liis brother's, was 

^^^larged upon him by God as a great sin. And Ho accused him 

^^ it in the interrogation, " Why art thou viTotb. and why is thy 

countenance faDen '{ " For Grod saw that he envied his brother, 

ind of this He accused him. For to men, from whom the 

beart of their fellow is hid, it might be doubtful and quite 

tmoertain whether that sadness bewailed his own wickedness 

by which, as he had learned, he had displeased God, or his 

brother's goodness, which had pleased God, and won His 

faTourable regard to his sacrifice. But God, in giving the 

reason why Ho refused to accept Cain's offering and why 

Cain should rather have been displeased at liimself than at 

hia brother, shows him that though he was unjust in "not 

rightly distinguishing," that is, not rightly living and being 

unworthy to have his offering received, he was more unjust by 

ilar in hating his just brother without a cause. 

^^k Yet Ho does not dismiss him without counsel, holy, just, 

^Tnd good. " Fret not thyself,'* He says, " for unto thee shall 

j be his turning, and thou shalt rule over him." Over his 

broUier, does lie mean ? Most certainly not. Over what, then, 

bat sin? For He had said, "Thou hast sinned," and then 

He added, " Fret not thyself, for to thee shall be its turning, 

and thou shalt rule over it," ^ And the " turning " of sin to 

i the man can be understood of his conviction that the "wUt of 
I 

rin can be laid at no other man's door but his own. Fur this 
' . 

is the health-giving medicine of penitence, and the fit plea 

for pardon ; so that, when it is said, "' To thee its turning," we 

mnst not supply " shall be," but we must read, " To thee let its 

turning be," understanding it as a command, not as a pre- 

^^iction. For then shall a man rule over his sin when he does 

^Hot prefer it to himself and defend it, but subjects it by re- 

^Hentance ; otherwise he that becomes protector of it shall surely 

^^ecome its prisoner. But if we understand this sin to be that 

canial concupiscence of which the apostle says, " The flesh 

i loeteih against the spirit," * among the fruits of which lust he 

' Wc alter the pronomi to siiit Augustine's iuter}>rt;tattoii. 
•Gal. V. 17. 




THE CITY OF COD. 



Bcxnc 



names envy, by which assuredly Cain was stiuig and exci 
to destroy his "brother, then we may properly supply th 
words " shall be," and i-ead, " To thee shall be its turning, an 
thou sholt rule over it." Per when the carnal part which th^ 
apostle calls sin, in that place wlioro he says, "It is not I who- 
do it, but sin tliat dwelleth in mc/'^ that part which the 
philosophers also call vicious, and wliich ought not to lead the 
mind, but "flhich the mind ou^ht to rule and i-estmin by reason 
from illicit motions, — when, then, this part has been moved U* 
perpetrate any wickedness, if it be curbed and if it obey the 
wai\l of the. apostle, " Yield not your members instruments of 
unrifihteousness unto sin,""* it is turned towards the mind and 
subdued and conquered by it, ao that reason rules over it as 
a subject. It was this which God enjoined on liini who was 
kindled with tbo fu-e of envy agiiinst his bmther, so that he 
souglit to put out of tlie way him whom he should have set 
as an example " Fret not thyself," or compose thyself, He 
says : withhold thy hand from crime ; let not sin reign in 
your mortal body to fiiljil it in the lusts thereof, nor yield 
your meml>ei"3 instruments of unrighteousness unto sin. " For 
to tliee shall be its turning," so long as you do not encouiuge 
it by giving it the rein, but bridle it by quenching its fira 
" And thiju shalt ride over it ; " for when it is not allowed any 
external actings, it yields itself to the rule of the governing 
mind and righteous will, and ceases from even internal mo- 
tion??. There is something similar said in the same divine 
book of the woman, when God questioned and judged them 
after their sin, and pronounced sentence on them all, — the devil 
in the form of the serpent, the woman and lier husband in 
their own persons. For when He had said to her, " I will 
greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception ; in sorrow 
shalt thou bring forth children," then He added, " and thy 
turnin;4 shall be to thy husband, and he shall nde over thee."* 
WliaL is said to Cain about his sin, or about the vicious con- 
cupiscence of bis flesli, is here said of the woman who had 
sinned ; and we art; to understand that thti husband is to rule 
his wife as the soul rules the ileah. And therefore, says the 
apostle, " He tliat loveth iiis wife, loveth himself; for no man 
* Kom. fii. 17. ' llom. vi. 13. > Gra. lit. 16. 





CAW S CITY. 



61 



ever yet liated bis own flesh."* This Jlesb, then, is to ho 
healed» because it belongs to oui*selvos : is not to be abandoned 
Jp destruction as if it were alien to our nature. But Cain rc- 

red that counsel of God in the spirit ot one who did not 
to amend. In fact, the vice nf envy gp-ew stronger in him ; 
ud, having entrapped his brother, he slew him. Such was 

founder of the earthly city. He was also a figure of the 
who slew Christ the Shepherd of the flock of men, pre- 
^gued by Abel the shepherd of sheep : but as tliis is an nlle- 

ical and proj>hetical matter, I forbear to explain it now ; 

ides, I reuieutber that I have made some remarks upon it 
i& writing agaijist Faustus the Manicha^an." 

$. WfMf Cain't rtMoa wufor bititdhy <t dty to earftf in the hietoi-t/ 
Hfthe humati race. 

At present it is the history which I aim at defending, that 

ipture may not be reckoned incxedible when it relates that 

in built a city at a time in whieh tluire seem to have 

but inur men upon earth, or rather indeed but three, 

one brother slew the oUier, — to wit, the first man the 

of all. and Cain himself, and his Son Enoch, by M-hose 

the city was itself called, iiut they who are moved by 

this consideration forgot to take into account that the writer 

of the sacred lastory does not necessarily mention idl the 

men who might be alive at that time, but those only \vhori> 

'•lie Bcope of his work required liini to name. The design of 

it writer (who in this matter was the instniracnt of the 

jly Ghost) was to descend to Abraham through the succcs- 

of ascertained generations propagated from one man, 

id then to pass from Abraham^s seed to the people of God, 

in whom, sepanited as they were from other nations, was 

{mi^;uTed and predicted all that relates to the city whose 

i;^ is eternal, and to its king and founder Christ, which 

igs were foreseen in the Spirit as destined to come ; yet 

ithcr is this nlyect so effected as that nothing is said of the 

society of men which we call the earthly city, but 

»n is made of it so far as seemed needftil to enhance 

tb« glory of the heavenly city by contrast to its opposite. 

Accordingly, when the divine Scripture, in mentioning the 

' Eph. T. 28, 29, ■ C Faufium. Man. xii. c. 9. 



62 



THE CITY OF GOD, 



[book 



number of years which those men lived, concludes its accoun 
of each man of whom it speaks, with the words, " And hi 
begat sons and daughters, and all his days were so and so^ 
and he died/' are we to understand that, because it does not^ 
name those sons and daughters, therefore, during that long- 
term of years over which one lifetime extended in those early 
days, there might not have been bom very many men, by 
whose united numbers not one but several cities might have 
been built ? But it suited the purpose of God, by whose 
inspiration these histories were composed, to arrange and dis- 
tinguish from the iirst tliese two societies in their several 
generations, — that on tlie one side the generations of men, 
that is to say, of those who live according to man, and on the 
other side the generations of the sons of God, that is to 
say. of men living according to God, might bo traced down 
together and yet apart from one another as far as the deluge, 
at which point their dissociation and association are exhibited : 
their dissociation, inasmuch as the generations of both lines 
arc recorded in separate tables, the one line descending horn 
the fratricide Cain, the other from Soth, who had been bom to 
Adam instead of him whom liis brother slew ; their association, 
inasmuch as the good so deteriorated that the whole race 
became of such a character that it was swept away by the 
deluge, ^^'ith the exception of one just man, whose name was 
Noah, and his wife and tliree sons and tliree daughters-in-law. 
which eight persons were alone deemed worthy to escape 
trom that desolating visitation which destroyed all men. 

Therefore, although it is written. " And Cain knew his wife, 
and she conceived and bare Enoch, and he builded a city and 
called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch,"* 
it does not follow that we are to believe this to have been 
his first-bom ; for we cannot suppose that this is proved by 
the expression " he knew his wife/' as if then for the first 
time he had had intercourae with her. For in the case of 
Adam, the father of all, this expression is used not only when 
Cain, who seems to have been his first-born, was conceived, 
but also afterwards the same Scripture says, " Adam knew 
Eve his wife, and she conceived and bare a son, and 

^ Gen. It. 17. 





BOOK XV.] 



CAJN'3 descenoaxts. 



S3 



called hifl name Setb.'* * Wheuce it is obvious tliat Scripture 
employs this expression neither always whea a birth is re- 
corded nor then only when the birth of a first-born is men- 
tioned. Neither is it necessary to suppose that Enoch was 
Cain's first-born because he named his city after him. For 
It ia quite possible that though he had other sona, yet for 
BOme reason the father loved him more than the rest. Judah 
-wms not the first-bom, though he gives his name to Judaea 
and the Jews. But even though Enoch was the first-bom of 
the city's founder, that is no reason for supposing that the 
father named the city after him as soon as he was bom ; for 
at that time he, being but a solitary man, could not have 
foxmded a civic community, which is nothing else than a 
multitude of men bound together by some associating tie. 
Bat when his family increased to such numbers that he had 
quite a population, then it became possible to him both to 
baild a city, and give it, when founded, the name of his son. 
For so long was the life of those antediluvians, that ho who 
fived the shortest time of those whose years are mentioned in 
Scripture attained to the age of 753 years.' And though no 
one attained the age of a thousand years, several exceeded the 
age of nine hundred. Who then can doubt that during the 
lifetime of one man the human race might be so multiplied that 
tbere would be a population to build and occupy not one but 
several cities ? And this mi^^ht very readily be conjectured 
from the fact tLat from one man, Abraham, in not much more 
than four hundred years, the numbers of the Hebrew race so 
increased, that in the exodus of that people from Egypt there 
are recorded to have been six hundred thousand men capable 
of bearing arms,' and this over and above the Idumscons, who, 
though not numbered with Israel's descendants, were yet sprung 
from, his brother, also a grandson of Abraham ; and over and 
above the other nations which were of the same stock of 
Abraham, though not through Sarah, — tlrnt is, his descend- 
by Ilagar and Keturah^ the Ishmaelites, Midianites, etc. 






9. 0/the tanrj S/fc and ffreater Bttdure of the anUdiluvicou. 

"Wherefore no one who considerately weighs facts will 

" Gen. it. 25. * Lamech, according to the LXX. 'Sx. xH. S7. 





fi4 



TUE CITY OF GOD, 



[cook XV. 



doubt that Cain might have built a city, and that a large 
une, "when it is observed how prolonged were the lives of 
men, unless perhaps some sceptic take exception to this very 
length of years vhich our authoi's ascribe to the antedi- 
luvians and deny that this is credible. And so, too, they do 
not believe that the size of men s bodies was larger then than 
now, though the most esteemed of their own poets, VirgiJ, 
asserts tlie same, when lie speaks of that huge stone which 
had been fixed as a lantbnark, and which a strong man of 
tliose ancient times snatched up as he fought, and ran, and 
hurledj and cast it, — 

" Scarce twelve strong Tnen of later mould 
Thtit weight could on their neck<i uphold ; ** ' 

thus declaring his opinion that the eartli tlicn produced 
mightier men. And if in the more recent times, how much 
more in the ages before the world-renowned deluge ? But 
the large size of the primitive human body is often proved to 
the incredidous by tlie exposure of sepulchres, either through 
the wear of time or the violence of torrents or some accident, 
and in wliich bonea of incredible size have been found or have 
rolled out. I myself, along with some others, saw on the 
shore at Utica a man's molar tooth of such a size, that if it 
were cut down into teeth such as we have, a hundred, I 
fancy, could have been made out of it. But that, I believe, 
belonged to some giant For though the bodies of ordinary 
men wei*e tlieu larger than ours, the giants surpassed all in 
stature. And neither in our omti age nor any other have 
there been altogether wanting instances of gigantic stature, 
though they may be few. The younger Pliny, a most learned 
man, maintains that the older the world becomes, tlie smaller 
will be the bodies of men.* And he mentions that Homer 
in Ids poems often lamented the same decline ; and this he 
docs not laugh at as a poetical figment, but in his character 
of a recorder of natural wonders accepts it as historically true. 
But, as I said, the bones which are from time to time dis- 

' Virgil, jEaeid, xii 89&» 900. Conip*rc Uic Itiadf v. 302, and Jiivonal, xv. 
65 et icci^. 

"Terra molos homines nunc cducot atque poMllos." 
» PUiL Hist. Nai. vii. JO. 



nooK XV.] 



AGE OP THE AKTEDILUVIAXS. 



65 



covered prove the size of the bodies of the ancients/ and will 
do so to future ages, for they are slow to decay. But the 
length of an antediluvian's life cannot now be proved by any 
«ich monumental evidence. But we are not on tliis account 
to withhold our faith from the sacred history, whose state- 
ments of past fact we are the more inexcusable in discreditiurj, 
as we see the accuracy of its prediction of what was future. 
And even that same Pliny ' tells us that there is still a nation 
in wliich men live 200 yeai*s. If, then, in places unknown 
to ua, men are believed to have a length of days which is 
iiuite beyond our own experience, why should we not belicjve 
Ihe same of times distant from our own ? Or are we to 
believe that in other places there is what is not here, while 
W9 do not believe that in other times there has been anything 
but what is now ? 

10. O/ Ote dijferait eomputntion of the age$ of the aHUdUuviatiA, ffiven fiy the 

liebrtio manuseripU and by our own.^ 

Wherefore, although there is a discrepancy for which I 
cumot account between our manuscripts and the Hebrew, in 
the very number of years assigned to the antediluvians, yet 
the discrepancy is not so great that they do not ar^^i-ee about 
their longevity. For the very first man, Adara^ before he 
begot his son Seth, is in our manuscripts found to have lived 
230 years, but in the Hebrew mss. 130. But after he begot 
Seth, our copies read that he lived 700 years, while the 
Hebrew give 800. And thus, when the two periods are taken 
together, the sum agrees. And so throughout the succeeding 
gjeneradons, the period before the father begets a son is always 
■ade shorter by 100 years in the Hebrew, but the period 
after his son is begotten is longer by 100 years in the 
Hebrew than in oiu copies. And thus, taking the two periods 
together, the rcsidt is the same in both. And in the sixth 

*Se« the account given by Herodotus (i. fi7) oC the discovery of tho bones of 
OntfM, wbieh, iLS the .story goes, gave a Etaturo of aevon cubits. 

* Ptioy. HUt. Xat. vii. 49, merely reporta what he had read in Hellanicua 
abont the Epirotes of Etolia. 

' " Our own MAS.," of wliich Augiistlno here apealca, were the Latin rcrsiona 
«f the Septnagint used by the Church Wforc Jerome's was received; the "Hfbri'vv 
aa.'* were the Tersions mode from the Hebrew text. Compare De DoeL ChriM, 
a. IS «t aeqq. 

▼OL U. X 



C6 



THE CITT OF GOD. 



[book xr- 



generation there is no discrepancy at alL In the seventh^ 
however, of wliicli Enocli is the representative, who is re- 
corded to have lieen transhiLed without death because he 
pleased God, there ia the same discrepancy as in the first 
five generations, 100 years more heing ascribed to him by 
our MS3. before he begat a son. But still the result agrees ; 
for according to both documents he lived before he was 
translated 365 years. In the eighth generation the discre- 
pancy is less than ia the others, and of a difterent kind For 
Methuselah, whom Enoch begat, lived, before he begat his 
successor, not 100 years less, but 100 years more, according 
to the Hebrew reading ; and in our Mss. again these yeais 
are added to the period after he begat his son ; so that in this 
case also the sum-total is the same. And it is only in the 
ninth genemtion, that is, in the age of Lamech, Methuselah's 
son and Noah's father, that there is a discrepancy in the sum- 
total ; and even in this case it ia slight For the Hebrew mss. 
represent him as living twenty-foiu: years more than ours 
assign to him. For before he begat his son, M'ho was called 
Noah, six years fewer ai-e given to him by the Hebrew mss. 
than by ours ; but after lie begat this sou, they give him thirty 
years more than ours ; so that, deducting the former six, there 
remains, as we said, a surplus of twenty-four. 

II. O/ Mtthmelah't age, which aeema to extend fourlixn years beyond the 

From this discrepancy between the Hebrew books and our 
own arises the well-known question as to the age of Methu- 
selah / for it is computed that he lived for fourteen years 
after the deluge, though Scripture relates that of all who 
were then upon the earth only the eight souls in the ark 
escaped destruction by the flood, and of these Methuselah was 
not one. For, according to our books, Methuselah, before ho 
Ijegat the son whom lie called Lamech, lived 1 G 7 years ; then 
Lamech himself, before his son Noah was bom, lived 188 
years, which together make 355 years. Add to these the 
age of Noah at the date of the deluge, 600 years, and this 
gives a total of 955 &om the birth of Methuselah to the 



' Jerome {De Qtttxit, Heb. in Qen.) ssya it 
tUarchai. — Vives. 



a questioii famoos In all tiie 




>0K XV,] 



METHUSELAH. 



67 



year of the flood. Now all the years of the lil'e of Methu- 
selah are computed to be 969 ; for wheu he hiul lived 167 
j'ears, and had begotten his son Laniech, he then lived ail^r 
"this 802 years, which makes a total, as we said, of 969 
^■ears. From this, if wc deduct 955 years from the birth of 
Hethuselah to the flood, there remain fourteen years, which 
lie is supposed to have lived after the flood. And therefore 
some suppose that, though he was not on earth (in which it 
xs agreed tliat every living thin^ which could not naturally 
Xive in water perished), he was for a time with his father, 
^<(nrho had been translated, and that he lived there till the flood 
l^ad passed away. Tliis hypothesis they adopt, that they may 
not cast a slight on the trustworthiness of versions wliicli the 
Church has received into a position of high authority/ and 
"because they believe that the Jewish MSS. rather than oar 
own are in error. For they do not admit that this is a mis- 
take of the translators, but maijitain that there is a falsified 
statement in the original, from which, thi'ough the Greek, the 
Sciipture has been translated into our own tongue. They say 
tbt it is not credible that the seventy translators, who simul- 
taneously and unanimously produced one rendering, could 
have erred, or, in a case in which no interest of theirs was 
involved^ could have falsIHed their ti'anslation ; but that the 
Jews, envying us our translation of their Law and Prophets, 
Imve made alterations in their texts so as to undermine the 
authority of ours. This opinion or suspicion let each man 
J ad opt according to bis own judgment. Certain it is that 
^Hletfaaselah did not survive the flood, but died in the very 
^Jear it occurred, if the numbers given in the Hebrew MS3. 
are true. My own opinion regarding the seventy trans- 

^rs I will, with God's help, state more caiefiUly in its 
I place, when I have come dovm (following the order 
which this work requires) to that period in which their 
translation was executed^ For the present question, it is 
enough that, according to our versions, the men. of that age 
had lives so long as to make it quite possible that, during 
the lifetime of the flrst-bom of the two sole parents then 

* ** Qaos in anctoritntem celebrioruia Ecclesia soBcepit." 

* Sec below, book x\*iii. c 12-i4. 




68 



Cl-n' OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



on earth, the human race multiplied sufficiently to form a 
community. 

12. Of tilt opinion of those mho do not htlieve that in these primitice times men 
lived 90 long (w w ttaUd. 

For they are by no means to be listened to who suppose 
thiit in those times years were diflerently reckoned, and were 
so short that one of our years may be supposed to 1>e equal 
to ten of tlieirs. So that they say, when we read or hear that 
some mau lived 900 years, we should understand ninety, — 
ten of those years making but one of ours, and ten of ours 
equalling lOQ of theirs. Consequently, as they supjwse. 
Adam was twenty-tluee years of age when he begat Seth, and 
Seth himself was twenty years and six mouths old when liia 
son Enos was born, though the Scripture calls these months 
205 years. For, on the hypothesis of those whose opinion we 
are explaining, it was customaiy to divide one such year as 
we have into ten parts, and to call each part a year. And 
each of these parts was composed of sL\ days squared ; because 
God iinished His works in six days, that He might rest the 
seventh. Of this I disputed according to my ability in the 
eleventh book.'" 'Now six squared, or six times six, gives 
thiiiy-six days; and this multiijlied by ten amounts to 360 
days, or twelve lunar months. As for the five i-emaining days 
wbicli are needed to complete the solar year, and for the 
fourth part of a day, which requires that into every fourth or 
leap-year a day be added, the ancients added such days as the 
Romans used to coll " intercalary " in order to complete the 
number of the years. So that Enos, Seth's son, was nineteen 
years old when his son Cainan was born, though Scripture 
caUs these vears 190, And so through all the venerations in 
which the ages of the antediluvians are given, we find in our 
versions that almost no one begat a sou at the age of 100 or 
under, or even at the age of 120 or thereabouts; but the 
youngest fathers are recorded to have been 160 years old and 
upwards. And the reason of this, they say, is that no ono 
can beget children when he is ten years old, the age spoken 
of by those men aa 100, but that sixteen is tlie age of puberty, 
and competent now to propagate offspring ; and this is the age 

»0.8. 



NOK XV-] ANTEDILITVIAK COMPUTATION OT TWrE. 



CO 



caUed by them 160. And that it may not be thought in- 
credible that in these days the year was differently computed 
from our own, they adduce what is recorded by several writers 
of liistor^', that the Egyptians had a year of four mouths, the 
AcanLanians of six, and the Lavinians of thirteen months.^ 
The younger Pliny, after ineutioiiing that some A\Titer3 re- 
ported that one man had lived 152 years, another ten more, 
others 200, others 300, that some had even reiiclied 500 and 
600, and a few 800 years of age, gave it as his opinion that 
all this must be ascribed to mistaken computation. Fur some, 
he says, make summer and winter oac!i a year ; others make 
each season a year, like the Arcadians, Avhose years, he says, 
were of three months. He added, too, that the Egyptians, of 
whose little years of four months we have spoken olreatly, 
sometimes teiininated their year at the wane of each moon ; 
•o that with them there are produced lifetimes of 1000 
jearsL 

By tliesc plausible arguments certain persons, with no de- 
«pe to weaken the credit of this sacred history, but rather to 
facilitate belief in it by removing the dilliculty of such in- 
credible longevity, have been themselves persuaded, and think 
they act wisely in persuading otliers, that in these days the 
year was so brief that ten of their years equal but one of fturs, 
vlule ten of ours equal 100 of theirs. Uut there is the 
plainest evidence to show tliat this is quite false. Before 
pxoducing this evidence, however, it seems right to mention 
• conjecture which is yet more plausible. From the Hebrew 
manascripLs w^e coidd at once refute this confident statement ; 
for in them Adam is found to Imve lived not 230 but 130 
years before he begat his third son. If, then, this mean 
thirteen years by our ordinary computation, then he must 
htve begotten his first son when he was only twelve or there- 
abemtSw Who can at this age beget children according to the 
inlinaiy and familiar course of nature ? But not to mention 
Idm, since it is possible he may have been able to beget his 
hke as soon as he was created, — for it is not credible that he wi\s 
anted so little as our infants arc, — not to mention him, his 

' On tliUsuliject ««e Wilkinson'."* note to the secoud book (appendix} of lUw- 
■ fferotIvttt4, whew all avoilaWe references are given. 



70 



THE Cnr OF GOD. 



[book TV. 



son was not 205 years old when he begat Enos, as our ver- 
sions have it, but 105, and consequently, according to this 
idea, was not eleven years old But what sliall I say of his 
son Cainan, who, though bj our version 170 years old, was by 
the Hebrew text seventy when he beget Malialaleel ? If 
seventy years in those times meant only seven of our years, 
what man of seven years old begets children ? 

18. Wicker, m comjmfin^ ytcvrti, we ouglU to folltno ihc Hdfrew or tht 
Septuagint. 

But if I say this, I shall presently be answered, It is one 
of the Jews* lies. This, however, we have di.sposed of above, 
showing that it cannot be that men of so just a reputation, as 
the seventy translators should have falsified their version. 
However, if I ask them which of the two is more credible, 
that the Je^vish nation, scattered far and wide, could have 
unanimously conspired to forge tins he, and so, through envy- 
ing others the authority of their Scriptures, have deprived 
themselves of their verity ; or that seventy men, who were 
also themselves Jews, shut up in one place (for Ptolemy king 
of Egypt had got them togetlier for tliis work), sboiild have 
envied foreign nations that same truth, and by common con- 
sent inserted these errors : who does not see which can be 
more naturally and readily believed ? But far be it from any 
prudent man to believe either that the Jews, however mali- 
cious and wrong-headed, could have tampered with so many 
and so widely-dispersed manuscripts ; or that those renowned 
seventy individuals had any common purpose to giiidge the 
truth to the nations. One must thei-eforo more plausibly 
maintain, that when first their laljoui-s began to be transcribed 
from the copy in Ptolemy's library, some such misstatement 
might find its way into the first copy made, and from it might 
be disseminated far and wide ; and that tliis might arise from 
uu fraud, but from a mere copyist's error. This is a sufficiently 
plausible account of the difficidty regarding Methiiselah's life, 
and of that other case in which there is a differeuce in the 
total of twenty-four yeai's. But in those cases in which there 
is a methodical resemblance in the falsification, so that uni- 
formly the one version allots to the period before a son and 
successor is born 100 years more than the other, and to the 



^^SSk : 



XV.] 



PITERSm* OF MAKUSCEIPTS. 



■ 100 



period subsequent 100 years less, and vice versa, so that tho 
totals may agree,— and this holds true of the first, second, 
third, fourtlij fifth, and seventh generations, — in these cases 
error seems to have, if "we may say so, a certain kind of con- 
stancy, and savours not of accident, but of design. 

Accordingly, that diversity of numbers which distinguishes 
the Hebrew from the Greek and Latin copies of Scripture, 
and which consists of a uniform addition and deduction of 
100 years in each lifetime for several consecutive genera- 
, is to be attributed neither to the malice of the Jews 
or to men so diligent and prudent as the seventy trans- 
lators, but to the error of the cop}'ist who was first allowed 
to transcribe the manuscript from the library of the above- 
mentioned king. For even now, in cases where numbers 
<ontribute nothing to the easier comprehension or more satis- 
;£actory knowledge of anything, they are both carelessly 
"transcribed, and still more carelessly emended. For who "svill 
"trouble himself to learn how many thousand men the neveral 
tnibes of Israel contained ? He sees no resulting benefit of 
such knowledge. Or how many men are there who are aware 
of the vast advantage that lies hid in this knowledge ? Eut in 
this case, in which during so many consecutive generations 
100 years are added in one manuscript where they are not 
reckoned in the other, and then, after the birth of the son 
and successor, the years which were wanting are added, it is 
obvious that the copyist who contrived tlus arrangement de- 
signed to insinuate that the antediluvians lived an excessive 
number of years only because each year was excessively brief, 
and that he tried to draw the attention to tliis fact by his 
statement of their age of puberty at which they became able 
to beget children. For, lest the incredulous might stumble 
at the difficulty of so long a lifetime, he insinuated that 
100 of their years equalled but ten of ours; and this in- 
uation he conveyed by adding 100 years whenever 
found the age below 160 years or thereabouts, de- 
these years again from the period after the son's 
birth, that the total might harmonize. By this means he 
intended to ascribe the generation of offspring to a fit age, 
witliout diminishing the total sum of years ascribed to the 





TIIE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



lifetime of the individuals. And the very fact that in the 
sixth generation he departed from this uniform practice, in- 
clines us all the rather to believe that when the circumstance 
we have referred to required his alterations, he made them ; 
seeing that when this circumstance did not exist, he made no 
alteration. For in the same generation he found in the Hehrew 
MS, that Jared lived before he begat Enoch 162 years, whicli, 
according to the short year computation, is sixteen years and 
somewhat less than two months, an age capable of procreation ; 
and therefore it was not necessary to add 100 short years^ 
and 80 make the age twenty-six yeare of the usual length ; 
and of course it was not necessary to deduct^ after the son's 
birth, years which he had not added before it. And thus it 
conies to pass that in this instance there is no variation 
between the two manuscripts. 

This is corroborated still fnrther by the fact that in the 
eighth generation, while the Hebrew books assign 182' 
years to Methuselah before Lamech's birth, ouw assign to 
liim twenty less, though usually 100 years are added to this 
period ; then, after Lamech's birth, the twenty years are re- 
stored, so as to equalize the total in the two books. For if 
his design was that tliese 170 years be understood as seven- 
teen, so as to suit the age of puberty, as there was no need 
for him adding anytliing, so there was none for his subtracting 
anything; for in this case he found an age fit for the genera^ 
tion of children, for the sake of which he was in the habit of 
adding those 100 years in cases wliere he did not find the 
age already sufficient. This difference of twenty years we 
might, indeed, Imve supposed had liappcned accidentally, had 
he not taken care to restore them afterwards as he had 
deducted them from the period before, so that tlicre might 
be no deficiency in the total. Or are we perhaps to suppose 
that there was the still more astute design of concealing the 
delibcmte and uniform addition of 100 years to the first 
period and their deduction from the subsequent period,— did 
he design to conceal this by doing something similar, that is to 

* One hundred nnd eighty-seven is the number giTcn in the Hebrevr, and ono 
hundred and sixty-seven in thoSeptiinfrint ; but notwithatondin;; the confusion, 
the oTf^ument of Aagustiue is eaidjy followed. 



BOOK XV.] LENGTH OF ANTEDILUVIAN TEAR. 



73 



say, adding and deducting, not indeed a century^ but some 
years, even in a case in wliicii there wns no need for his 
doing so ? But whatever may be thought of this, whether 
it be believed that he did so or not, whether, in fine, it be 
so or not, I would have no manner of doubt that when any 
diversity is found in tlie books, since both cannot be true to 
fact, "we do well to believe in preference that language out 
of which the translation was made into another by translators. 
For there are tluree Greek Mss., one Latin, and one S}Tiac, 
which agree with one another, and in all of these Methuselah 
is said to have died six years before the deluge. 

14. yUat the years in those ancient times toert of the same Untfth at ovr own. 

Let us now see how it can be plainly made out that in the 
coormously protracted lives of those men the years were not 
flo short that ten of their years were equal to only one of ours, 
bbnt were of as great length as our own, which are measured 
the course of the sun. It is proved by this, that Scripture 
ites that the flood occurred in the six hundredth year of 
Kjah's life. But why in the same place is it also written, 
The waters of the flood were upon the earth in the six 
itmdredth year of Noah^s life, in the second month, the 
hrenty-seventh day of the month/* ^ if that very brief year (of 
which it took ten to make one of ours) consisted of thirty- 
rii days ? For so scant a year, if the ancient usage dignified 
with the name of year, either has not months, or its month 
mst be three days, so tliat it may have twelve of them. How 
then was it here said, " In the six hundredth year, the second 
month, the twenty-seventh day of the mnnth" unless the 
months then were of the same length as the months now ? 
Pot how else could it be said that the flood begnn on the 
rentj'-seventh day of the second month ? Then afterwards, 
Uie end of tlie Hood, it is thus wTitteu : " And the. ark rested 
in the seventh month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, 
the mountains of Anarat And the waters decreased con- 
lually until the eleventh month: on the first day of the 
month were the tops of the mountains seen."' But if the 

1 G«ii. Ttt. 10, 11 ^in our veruon the seTcnteenth <ky). 
* QeD. viii. 4, &. 



74 THE CITY Of C30D. [bOOK 2T. 

months ■were such as we have, then so were the years, And 
certainly months of three days each could not have a twenty- 
seventh day. Or if eveiy measure of time was diminished in 
proportion, and a thirtieth part of three days was then called 
a day, then that great deluge, which is recorded to have lasted 
forty days and forty nights, was really over in less than foiK 
of our days. Wlio can away with sucli foolisliness and ab- 
surdity ? Far be this error from us, — an error which seeks t« 
build up our faith in the divine Scriptures on false conjecture- 
only to demolish our faith at another point. It is plain th^^ 
the day then was what it now is, a space of four-and-twent?^ 
hours, determined by the lapse of day and night ; the mont-^ 
then equal to the month now, M'hich is defined by the ns 
and completion of one moon; the year then equal to the yea 
now, which is completed by twelve lunar months, with th 
addition of five days and a-fourth to adjust it with the 
of the sun. It was a year of this length which was reckon' 
the six hunda*edth of Noah's life ; and in the second month, 
the twenty-seventh day of the month, the flood b^an, — a 
flood which, as is recorded, was caused by heavy rains con- 
tinuing for forty days, which days had not only two hours 
and a little more, but four-and-twenty hours, completing a 
night and a day. And consequently those antediluvians lived 
more than 900 years, which were years as long as those 
which afterwards Abraham lived 175 of, and after him his 
son Isaac 180, and ]us son Jacob nearly 150, and some time 
after, Moses 120, and men now seventy or eighty, or not 
much longer, of which years it is said, " their strength is 
labour and sorrow."^ 

But that discrepancy of numbers which is found to exist 
between our own and the Hebrew text docs not touch the 
longe\ity of the ancients ; and if there is any diversity so 
great that both versions cannot be tnte, we must take our 
ideas of the real facts from timt text out of wliich our own 
version has been ti^nslated. However, though any one who 
l^leases has it in Ins power to correct this version, yet it is 
not unimportant to obsen^e that no one has presumed to 
emend the Septuagint from the Hebrew text in the many 

» Pa. xc 10. 




XV.] 



ANTEDttTJVIAy AGE OT FUBEKTY, 



rs 



plaoes where they seem to diBagree. For this difference has 
not been reckoned a falsification ; and for my own part I am 
peraaaded it ought not to be reckoned so. But where the 
difference is not a mtire copyist's error, and where the sense is 
agreeable to truth and illustrative of truth, we must believe 
that the divine Spirit prompted them to give a var}ang version, 
not in their function of translators, but in the liberty of pro- 
piieejring. And therefore we fiiid that the apostles justly 
sanction the Septuagint, by quoting it as well as the Hebrew 
-when they adduce proofa from the Scriptures. But as I have 
promised to treat this subject more carefully, if God help me, 
in A more fitting place, I will now go on with the matter in 
band. For there can be no doubt that, the lives of men being 
aolong, the first-born of the first man could have built a city, — 
a city, however, which was earthly, and not that which is 
called the city of God, to describe which we have taken in 
band this great work 

Iff Wheiher it w credible that the men of tlie primitive age abstained from 

ft9exual intercourse until ifiat date at which it is recorded tliat they begat 
Some one, then, will say. Is it to be believed that a man 
fao intended to beget children, and had no intention of con- 
■.atence, abstained from sexual intercourse a hundred years and 
znare, or even, according to the Hebrew version, only a little 
Joa. aay eighty, seventy, or sixty years; or, if he did not 
abstain, was unable to beget offspring ? This question admits 
of two solutions. For either puberty was so much later as the 
•whole life was longer, or, which seems to me more likely, it 
ll is not the firstrbom sons that are have mentioned, but those 
I wliose names were required to fill up tlie series until Noah 
was reached, from whom again we see that the succession is 
^Beontinned to Abraham, and after him down to that point of 
^Kime until which it was needful to mark by pedigree the 
cooTBe of the most glorious city, which sojourns as a stranger 
in this world, and seeks the heavenly countiy. That which 
is ondeniable is that Cain was the first who was born of man 
and woman. For had he not been the first who was added 
by birth to the two unborn persons, Adam could not have said 
vhat he is recorded to have said, " I have gotten a man by 




7G 



TriE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



tlie Lord.'^ ' He was followed by Abel, whom the elder 
bruther slew, and wlio was the first to show, by a kind of 
foreshadowing of the sojourning citj' of God, what iniquitous 
peraecutions tliat city would suffer at the hands of wicked 
and, as it were, earth-bom men, who love their eartlJy origin, 
and delif^ht in the earthly happiness of the earthly city. But 
how old Adam was wheu be begat these sons does not appear. 
After this the generations diverge, tlie one branch deriving 
from Cain, the other from him whom Adam begot in the room 
of Abel slain by his brother^ and whom he called Seth, saying, 
as it is written, " For God hath raised me Tip another seed for 
Abel whom Cain slew." ^ These two series of generations 
accordingly, the one of Cain, the other of Setli, represent the 
two cities in their distinctive ranks, the one the heavenly city, 
which sojourns on earth, the other the earthly, which gapes 
after earthly joys, and grovels in them as if they were tlie 
only joys. But though eight generations, including Adam, are 
registered before the flood, no man of Cain's line has his age 
recorded at which the son who succeeded him was begotten. 
For the Spirit of God refused to mark the times before the 
flood in the generations of the eartlUy city, but preferred to do 
so in the heavenly line, as if it were more worthy of being 
remembered. Fniiher, when Seth was born, ihe age of his 
father is mentioned; but already be hail begotten other sons, 
and who will presume to say that Cain and Abel were the 
only ones previously begotten ? For it does not follow that 
tliey alone Iiad been begotten of Adam, because they alone 
were named in order to continue the series of generations 
which it was desimble to mentioa For though the names of 
all the rest are buried in silence, yet it is said that Adam 
begot SODS and daughters ; and who that cares to be free from 
the chai-ge of temerity will dare to say how many his offspring 
numbered ? It was possible enouf;]t that Adam was divinely 
prompted to say, after Seth was born, " For God hath raised 
up to me another seed for Abel," because that son was to be 
capable of representing Abel's holiness, not because he was bom 
iirst after hhn in point of tima Then be&iuse it is WTitten, 
"And Seth lived 205 years," or, according to the Hebrew read- 
1 Gen. iv. 1. * Gca. iv. 25. 



BOOK XV.] OF THE AKTEDILUVIAN GENERATIONS. 



IT 




ix^" 105 years, and begat Enos,"* who but a rash man could 
affinn that tiiis was his first-born ? Will any man do so to 
excite our wonder, and cause us to inquire bow for so many 
years he remained free from sexual intercourse, though without 
any purpose of continuing so, or how. if he did not abstain, he 
yet had no children ? Will any man do so when it is written 
of him, " And he begat sons and daughters, and all the days 
i»f Seth were 912 years, and he died ?"* And similarly re- 
garding those whose years are afterwards mentioned, it is not 
disguised that they begat sons and daughters. 

Consequently it does not at all appear wlicther he who is 
named as the son was himself the iii*st begotten. Nay, since 
it is incredible that those fathers were either so long in attain- 
ing puberty, or could not get wives, or could not impregnate 
tbeiDy it is also incredible that those sons were their first-bom. 
Bat as the writer of the sacred history designed to descend by 
ell-inarked intervals through a series of generations to the 
h and lifi! of Koah, in whose time the Hood occurred, he 
mentioned not those sons who were first begotten, but those 
by whom the succession was handed down. 

Let me make this cleai'er by here inserting an example, in 
l e gaid to which no one can have any doubt that what I am 
ansM ting is true. The evangelist I^Iattbew, whore he designs 
^to commit to our memories the generation of the Lord's ilesh 
^^■y a scries of parents, beginning from Abraham and intending 
^^p reach David, says, " Al)raham begat Isaac ; " ^ why did he 
PRoi say Ishmael, whom he first begat ? Then " Isaac begat 
Jacob;" why did he not say Esau, who was the first-bom ? 
Simply because these sons -would not have helped him to 
preach David. Then follows, " And Jacob l)egat Judali nnd 
^Bis brctliren : " was Judah the fifst begotten ? " Judah/' he 
^Bays, " begat Pharez and Zsira ;" yet neitlier w^ere these twiris 
^nhe first-bom of Judali^ but before them he had begotten 
tiiTBe other sona And so in the order of the generations he 
retained those by whom he might reach David, so as to pro- 
ceed onwards to the end he Imd in view. And from this we 
may understand that the antediluvians who are mentioned 
were not the fii-st-bom, but those tlu'ough whom the order of 
* CtiL T. 9. ■ Gca. V. 8. . • Mmtt. i 




78 



THE crry or god. 



[book XT. 



the succeeding generations might be carried on to the patriarch 
NoaL We need not, therefore, weary ourselves with discussing 
the needless and obscure question as to their lateness of reach- 
ing puberty. 

16. Of marriage bettoten hlood-rfiaiiona^ m regard to wAidL fAi? pretent la/a 
couid not bind Uu. men of the earliest ages. 

As, therefore, the human race, subsequently to the first 
marriage of the man who was made of dust, and his wife who 
was made out of his side, required the imion of males and 
females in order that it might multiply^ and as there were no 
human beings except those who had been bom of these two, 
men took their sisters for wives, — an act which was as certainly 
dictated hy necessity in these ancient days as afterwards £*• 
was condemned by the prohibitions of religion. For it i^ 
very reasonable and just that men, among whom concord i 
honourable and useful, should be bound together by varioi 
relationships ; and that onu man should not himself sustain- 
many relationships, but that the various relationships should 
be distributed among several, and should thus ser\'e to bind 
together the greatest nximber in the same social interests. 
" lather" and " father-in-law" are the names of two rela- 
tionships. When, therefore, a man has one person for his 
fether, another for his father-in-law, friendship extends itself 
to a larger number. But Adam in his single person was 
obliged to hold botli relations to his sons and daughters, for 
brothers and sisters were united in marriage. So too Eve 
his wife was both moUicr and motlier-in-law to her children 
of both sexes ; while, had there been two women, one the 
mother, the other the mother-in-law, the family affection 
would have had a wider field Then the sister herself by 
becoming a wife sustained in her single person two relation- 
ships, which, had they been distributed among individuals, one 
being sister, and another being wife, the family tie wo\dd have 
embraced a greater number of persons. But there was then 
no material for effecting this, since there were no human 
beings but the brothers and sisters bom of those two first 
parents. Therefore, when an abundant popidation made ib 
possible, men ought to choose for wives women who were not 
already their sisters ; for not only would there then be no 





1X)0K XV.] MARniAGE AMONG ^ANTEDILUVIANS, 



70 



aeeesaity for marrying sisters, but, were it done, it would be 
meet abominable. For if the ^rrundchildren of the first pair, 
being now able to choose their cousins for wives, married 
their sisters, then it would no longer be only two but three 
relationships that were held by one man, while each of these 
EBlitiDnships ought to have been held by a separate individual, 
90 as to bind together by family affection a larger number. 
Far one man would in that case be both father, and fatlitjr-in- 
law, and uncle* to his own children (brother and sister now 
mtsa and wife) ; and liis wife would be mother, aunt, and 
mother-in-law to them ; and they tlieraselves would be not 
only brother and sister, and man and wife, but cousins also, 
bong the children of brother and sister. Now, all these 
relationships, which combined three men into one, would have 
eanfanced nine persons had each relationship been held by 
ooe individual, so that a man had one person for his sister, 
another his wife, another his cousin, another his father, another 
his unde, another liis father-in-law, another his mother, another 
his tamt, another his mother-in-law ; and thus the social bond 
would not have been tightened to bind a few, but loosened to 
embrace a larger numbed of relations 

And we see that, since the human race has increased and 
nutkiplied, this is so strictly obser\'ed even among the pro- 
file ^roishippers of many and false gods, that though their 
latWB perversely allow a brother to marry his sister,^ yet cus- 



with a finer morality, prefers to forego this licence ; and 
[h it was quite allowable in tlie earliest ages of the 
race to many one's sister, it is now abhorred as a 
tlung "which no circumstances could justify. For custom has 
\esrj great power either to attract or to shock human feeling. 
And in this matter, while it restrains concupiscence within 
doe bounds, the man who neglects and disobeys it is justly 
V— M^*w< m abominable. For if it is iniquitous to plough 
beyond oar own boundaries through the greed of gain, is it 
nmch more iniquitous to transgress the recognised boun- 
of morals through sexual lust ? And with regard to 
in the next degree of consanguinity, marriage be- 



' His own chUdren beinf; ihe children of his aister, and therefore hia nephews. 
' ThiA WM allowed by the Kg}'pLians and Athenians, never by the Rgmani. 




so 



THE CITT OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



tween cousins, %ve have obsen'ed tliat in our own time the 
customary morality has prevented tliia from being frequent, 
though the law allows it. It was not prohibited by divine 
law, nor as yet had hurarin law pmhibited it ; nevertheless, 
though legitimate, people shrank from it, because it lay so 
close to what was illegitimate, and in marrying a cousin 
seemed almost to marry a sister, — for cousins are so closely 
related that they are called brothers and sistex's/ and aro 
almost really so. But tlie ancient fatbers, feariug that near 
relntionsliip might gradually in the course of generations 
diverge, and become distant relationsliip, or cease to be rela- 
tionship at allj religiously endeavoured to limit it by the 
bond of marriage before it became distant, and thus, as it 
wei^, to call it back when it was escaping tltera. And on 
this account, even when the world was full of people, though 
they did not chooae wives from among their sisters or balf- 
elaters^ yet they prefeiTed them to bo of the same stock as 
themselves. But who doubta that the modem prohibition of 
the marriage even of cousins is the more seemly regulation, 
— not merely on account of tlie i-eason ive liave been urging, 
the multiplying of relationships, so that one person might not 
absorb two, wliich might be distributed to two persona, and 
so increase the number of people bound together as a family, 
but also because tliere is in human nature I know not what 
natural and praiseworthy shamefacedness whicli restrains us 
from desirin;:; that connection which, though for propagation, 
is yet lustful, and which even conjugal modesty blushes over, 
with any one to whom consanguinity bids us render respect ? 
The sexual intercourse of man and woman, then, is in the 
case of mortals a kind of seed-bed of the city; but while 
the earthly city needs for its population only generation, the 
heavenly needs also regeneration to rid it of the taint of 
generation. Whether before the deluge there was any bodily 
or visible sign of regeneration, such as was afterwards enjoined 
upon Abraham when he was circumcised, or what kind of 
sign it was, the sacred history does not inform us. But it 
does inform us that even these earliest of mankind sacrificed 

> Both in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, though not uniformly, uor iu Latin 
couimouly. 




BOOK XV. 



OF CAIN ASH) SETtr. 



to God, as appeared also in the case of the two first brothel's ; 
Xoah. too, is s;ucl to have offered .sacrifices to God when he 
had come fortli from the ark after tlie dehige. And concern- 
ing this subject we have already said in the foregoing boolcs 
that the devnls arrogate to themselves divinity, and require 
sacrifice that they may be esteemed gods, and delight in these 
honours on no other account than this, because they know 
that true sacrifice is due to the true God. 



17- Of the two fathers and leaders vho sprang from one progenitor* 

Since, then, Adam was the father of both lines, — the father, 
'that is to say, both of the line which belonged to the earthly, 
Und of that which belonged to the heavenly city, — when Abel 
Vas slain, and by his death exhibited a manxllous mystery, 
there were henceforth two lines proceeding Irom two fathers, 
Cain and Seth, and in those sons ot theirs, whom it behoved 
to register, the tolcens of these two cities began to appear 
^lore distinctly. For Cain begat Enoch, in whose name he 
lioilt a citj% an earthly one, which was not fi*om home in this 
"^vorld, but rested satisfied with its temporal peace and hap]n- 
xieas. Cain, too, means " possession ; " wherefore at liis birth 
either his father or mother said, " I have gotten a man through 
God." Then Enoch menns "dedication;" for the earthly city 
is dedicated in this world in which it is built, for in this 
^rld it finds the end towards which it aims and aspires. 
i^urther, Seth signifies "resurrection," and Enos his son sig- 
tdfies "man," not as Adam, which also signifies man but is 
QBed in Hebrew indifferently for man and woman, as it is 
Written, " Male and female created He them, and blessed thera, 
and called their name Adam/' * leaving no room to doubt that 
though the woman was distinctively called Eve, yet the name 
pAdam, meaning man, was common to both. But Enos means 
lan in so restricted a sense, that Hebrew linguists tell us it 
mot be applied to woman: it is the equivalent of the 
child of the resurrection," when they neither many nor are 
iven in marriage.' For there shall be no generation in that 
plaoe to which regeneration shall have brought us. Where- 
fore I tliiok it not immaterial to observe that in those gene- 

> Gen. T. 2. • Luke xx. 35, 36. 

VOL It P 




82 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV, 



rations which are propagated from him who is called Seth, 
although daughters as well as sons are said to have been 
begotten, bo woman is expressly registered by name ; but in 
those which sprang from Cain at the very termination to 
which the line runs, tho last jwrson named as begotten is a 
woman. For we read, '* Methusael begat Laraech. And 
Lamech took unto him two wives : the name of the one was 
Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. And Adah bare 
Jabal : he was the father of the shepherds that dwell in tenta 
And his brother's name was Jubal : he was the father of all 
such as handle the harp and organ. And Zillah, she also 
liare Tubal-Cain, an instructor of every artificer in brass and 
iron : and the sister ol Tubal-Cain was Naamah."^ Here ter- 
minate all the generations of Cain, being eight in niimber, 
including Adam, — to wit, seven from Adam to lamech, who 
married two wives, and whose children, among whom a woman 
also is named, form the eighth generation. "Whereby it is 
elegantly signified that the earthly city shaU to its termina- 
tion have carnal generations proceeding from the intercourse 
of males and females. And therefore the wives themselves 
of the man who is the last named father of Cain's line are 
registered in their own names, — a practice nowhere followed 
before the deluge save in Eve's case. Now as Cain, signify- 
ing possession, the founder of the earthly city, and his son 
Enoch, meaning dedication, in whose name it was founded, 
indicate that this city is earthly both in its beginning and in 
its end, — a city in which nothing more is hoped for t!»an can 
he seen in tliis world, — so Seth, meaning resurrection, and 
being tho father of generations registered apart from the 
others, we must consider what this sacred history says of 
his son. 



18. TV tigniJUatice ofAhd, Sffh, and EnoB to Chnti and. Hi» hodff 

Ui^CfMrch. 



4 



" And to Seth," it is said, " there was bom a son, and he 
called his name Euos : he hoped to call on the name of the 
Lord God.*"* Here we have a loud testimony to the truth. 
Man, then, the son of the resurrection, hves in hope : he 
lives in hope ua long as the city of God, which is begotten 

^ Ccn. iT. 13-32. « Gcu. iv. 26. 




by faith in the resurrection, sojourns in this world. For in 
two men, Abel, signifying " grief," and his brother Seth, 
fjdng " resurrection," the deatli of Christ and His life from 
the dead are prefigured. And by faith in these is begotten 
iu this world the city of God, that is to say, the man who has 
hoped to call on the name of the Lrinl. "Tor by hope," says 
the apoatle^ " we are saved : but liope tlial is seen is not 
bope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for? 
But if we hope for that we see not, Uien do we with 
istience wuit for it"* Who can avoid referring this to a 
profound mystery ? For did not Abol hope to call upon the 
name of the Lord God when his sacrifice is mentioned in 
Scripture as having been accepted by God? Did not Seth 
liiinself hope to call on the name of the Lord God, of whom 
it was said, "For God hath appointed me another seed in- 
stead of Abel?" Why then is this which is found to be 
common to all the godly specially attributed to £nos, unless 
Ijocause it was fit that in him, who is mentioned as llxe 
feat-born of the iather of those generations which were sepa- 
i-ated to the better part of the heavenly city, there should be 
a type of the man, or society ot men, who live not according 
to man in contentment with earthly felicity, but according to 
God in hope of everlasting felicity ? And it was not said, " He 
toped in the Lord God." nor " He called on the name of the 
Lord God," but " He hoped to call on the name of the Lord 
God." And what does this " lioped to call " mean, unless it 
is a prophecy that a people should arise who, according to the 
election of grace, would call on the name of the Lord God? 
It is this which has been said by another prophet^ and which 
the apostle interprets of tlie people who belong to the grace 
of GkMl : '* And it shall be that whosoever shall call upon the 
name of the Lord sliall bo saved" ' For these two expres- 
sions, "And he called his name Enos, which means man," and 
hoped to call on the name of the Lord God," are suffi- 
nt proof that man ought not to rest his hopes in hijnself ; 
as it is elsewhere written, " Cursed is the man tliat trustetli 
in man."' Consequently no one ought to trust in himself 
that he shall become a citizen of that other city wliitjh is not 
* Eom, riiL 24, 25. * Bom. x. 13. ■ Jcr. xvii. 6. 



^fiiona 
KHe 

^^ent 




84 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV- 



fledicated in tlie name of Cain's son in thia present time, that 
is to say, in the fleeting course of tliis mortal world, but in 
the immortality of perpetual blessedness. 

19. Ttie ^gnijteance of Enodi^a tratulaiioti. 

For that line also of which Seth is the father has th& 
name " Dedication " in the seventh generation from Adam, 
counting Adam. For the seventh from him is Enoch, that 
is, Dedication. But this is that man who was translated 
because he pleased God, and who held in the order of tho 
f^enerationB a remarkable place, being the seventh from Adam, 
a number signalized by the consecration of the Sabbatk But, 
counting from the diverging point of the two lines, or from 
Seth, he was the sixth. Xow it was on the sLtth day God 
made man, and consunmiated His works. But the transla- 
tion of Enoch prefigured our deferred dedication ; for though 
it is indeed already accomplished in Christ our Head, who 
so Tose i^in that He shall die no more, and who was Him- 
self also translated, 3'et there remains another dedication of 
the whole house, of which Christ Himself is the foundation, 
and this dedication is deferred till the end, when all shall 
rise again to die no more. And whether it is the house of 
God, or the tem])le of God, or the city of God, that is said to 
be dedicated, it is all the same, and equally in accordance with 
the usage of tho I-atin language. For Vii-gil himself calls the 
city of widest empire " the house of Assaracus,"^ meaning the 
Romans, wlio were descended through the Trojans from As- 
saracus. Pic also calls them t!ic house of ..Eneas, because 
Rome was built by those Trojans who had come to Italy 
under JFmghs? For that poet imitated the sacred writings, 
in which the Hebrew nation, though so numerous, is called 
the house of Jacob. 

20. How it is that Cain*$ tine trrminaUs in the eighth generaium^ yjlule Noah, 
tiioiiiih tlifgceitded from Me $ame faUterj Adanif it found to be the tenth 
from ftim. 

Some one will say. If the writer of tliia liistory intended, 
in enumerating the generations from Adam tlirough liis son 
(Seth, to descend through them to Noah, in whose time the 
' jEneid, i. 288. ' .£neid, m, 97. 



BOOK XV.] METHOB m REGISTERING CAJ^LTNE. 



deluge occurred, and from him again to trace the connected 
generations down to Abraham, with whom Matthew begins 
the pedij:^e of Christ the ctenial King of the city of God, 
what did he intend by enumerating the generations from Cain, 
and to what terminus did he mean to tmce them ? We 
reply, To the deluge, by which the whole stock of the earthly 
city was destroyed, but repaired by the sons of Koah. For 
the earthly city and conuaunity of men who live after the 
fleah will never fail until the end of this world, of wliicli our 
lord says. " The children of this world generate, and are gene- 
rated."^ But the city of God, which sojourns in this world, 
ii conducted by regeneration to the world to come, of which 
the children neither generate nor are generated In this 
^orld generation is common to both cities ; though even now 
the city of God has many thousand citizens who abstain from 
the act of generation ; yet the other city also has some citizens 
^*ho imitate these, though erroneously. For to that city be- 
long also those who have eired from the faith, and introduced 
livers heresies; for they live according to man, not accord- 
[,tO God. And the Indian gymnosophists, who are said to 
>phize in the eoUtudes of India in a state of nudity, are 
citizens ; and they abstain from mannagc. For continence 
not a good thing, except when it is practised in the faith of 
the highest good, that is, God. Yet no one is found to have 
"practised it before the deluge ; for indeed even Enoch himself, 
the seventh from Adam, who is said to have been translated 
■without dying, begat sons and daughters before lie was trans- 
lated, and among these was Methuselah, by whom the sue- 
tession of the recorded generations is maintained. 

Why, then, is so small a number of Cain's generations 
registered, if it was proper to trace them to the deluge, and 
if there was no such delay of the date of puberty as to pre- 
clude the hope of oSfspring for a hundred or more years ? For 
if the author of this book had not in view some one to whom 
he might rigidly trace the series of generations, as lie designed 
in those wliich sprang from Seth's seed to descend to Noah, 
and thence to start again by a rigid order, what need was 
iheire of omitting the first-born sons for tlie sake of descend- 

' Lake xx. 34. 





THK Cnr OF GOD. 



[book XV, 



ing to Lamech, in whose sons that line terminates, — that is 
to flay, in tlie eighth generation from Adiuu, or the aeventh 
from Cain, — as if from this point he had wished to pass on to 
another series, by which he might reach either the Israelitish 
people, among whom the earthly Jerusalem presented a pro- 
phetic figure of the heavenly city, or to Jesiis Christ, " accord- 
ing to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed for ever," ^ the 
Maker and Ruler of the heaveuly city ? What, I say, was the 
need of this, seeing that the whole of Cain's posterity wer« 
destroyed in the deluge ? From this it is manifest that they 
are the first-bom sons who are registered in this genealogy. 
Why, then, are there so few of them 1 Their numbers in the 
period before the deluge must have been greater, if the date 
of puberty bore no proportion to their longevity, and they had 
children before they were a hundred years old. For supposing 
they were on an average thirty yeai-s old when they began to 
beget children, then, as there are eight generations, inchiding 
Adam and Lamech's children, 8 times 30 gives 240 years; 
did they then produce no more children in all the rest of the 
time before the deluge ? With what intention, then, did he 
who wrote this record make no mention of subsequent geue- 
mtions ? For from Adam to the deluge there ai-e reckoned, 
according to our copies of Scripture, 2262 years,' and accord- 
ing to the Hebrew text, 1656 years. Supposing, then, the 
smaller number to be the tnie one, and subtracting -from 
1656 years 240, is it credible that during the remaining 
1400 and odd years until tlie deluge the posterity of Cain 
begat no children 7 41 

Bub let any one who is moved by this call to mind thft" 
wlien I discussed the question, how it is credible that those 
primitive men could abstain for so many years from begetting 
children, two modes of solution were found, — cither a puberty 
lato in proportion to then* longevity, or that the sons registered 
in the genealogies were not the first-born, but those through 
whom the author of the book intended to reach the point 

* Rom. ix. 6. 

* KuHobiuH, Jerome, Bede, and otKen, who follow the Scptoagint, reckon 
only 2242 yeara, whicli Vires explains by euppoaing Augustine to have made a 



copyist u error. 




OP OAlH'a POSTERITY. 






aimed at^ as he intended to reach Noah by the generations of 
Seth. So that, if in the generations of Cain there occura no 
one whom the writer could make it his object to reach by 
omitting the first-borns and inserting those who would serve 
such a purpose, then we must have recourse to the snpposi- 
tion of late puberty, and say that only at some age beyond a 
hundred years they became capable of begetting children, so 
chat the order of the generations ran tlirough the first-borns, 
aud tilled up even the whole period betbre the deluge, long 
though it was. It is, however, possible that, for some more 
&eci-et reason which escapes me, this city, which we say is 
earthly, is exliibited in all its generations down to Lamech 
d his sons, and that then the writer withholds from record- 
ing the rest wliich may have existed before the deluge. And 
without supposing so late a puberty in these men, there might 
be another reason for tracing the generations by sons who were 
not first-boms, viz. that the same city which Cain built, and 
named after his son Enoch, may have liad a widely extended 
dominion and many kings, not reigning simultaneously, but 
successively, the reigning king begetting always his successor. 
Cain himself would be the lirst of these kings ; his son 
Enoch, in whose name the city in which he reigned was built, 
would be the second ; the third Ii-ad, whom Enoch begat ; 
the fourth Mehujael, wliom Irad begat ; the fifth Methusael. 
whom Mehujael begat ; the sixth Lamech, whom Methusael 
begat, and who is the seventh from Adam through Cain. 
But it was not necessaiy tliat the lu*st-born should succeed 
their fathers in the kingdom, but those would succeed who 
were recommended by the possession of some virtue useful to 
the earthly city, or who were chosen by lot, or the son who 
was best liked by his father would succeed by a kind of 
hereditary right to the throne. And the deluge may have 
happened during the lifetime and rcigii of Lamech, and may 
have dcstroyt^d him along with all other men, save those who 
were in the ark. For we cannot be surprised that, during so 
long a period from Adam to the deluge, and witli the ages of 
individuals varying as they did, there should not be an equal 
number of generations in both lines, but seven in Cain's, and 
ten in Seth's j for as I have already saidj Lamech is the seventh 




88 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



from Adam, Noah tho tenth ; and in I^mecli's case not one 
son only is registered, as in tho former instances, but more. 
because it was uncertain which of them would have succeeded 
when he died, if there had intervened any time to reign 
between his death and the deluge. 

But in whatever manner the generations of Cain's line are 
traced downwards, whether it be by first-boni sons or by the 
heirs to the throne, it seems to nie that I must by no means 
omit to notice that, when Laincch hud been sot down as tlie 
seventh from Adam, there were named, in addition, as many 
of his children as made up tliia number to eleven, which is 
the number signifpng sin ; for three sons and one daughter 
arc added. The wives ol Lamech have another signification, 
different from that which I am now pressing. For at present 
I am speaking of the children, and not of those by whom the 
children were begotten. Since, then, the law is sj-mbolkcd 
by the number ten,— whence that memorable Decalogue^ — 
there is no doubt that the nunvber eleven, which goes beyond^ 
ten, sjrmbolizes the transgression of the law, and consequently 
sin. For this reason, eleven veils of goat's skin were ordered 
to be hung iu the tabernacle of the t(iatimony, which served 
in the wanderings of God's people as an ambulatory temple. 
And in that haircloth tliere was a reminder of aiiis, because 
the goats were to be set on the left hand of the Judge ; and 
theieiore, when we confess our sins, we prostrate ourselves in 
haircloth, as if wo were saying what is written hi the psalm, 
"My sin is ever before me."' The progeny of Adam, then, 
by Cain tho murderer, is completed in the niimber eleven, 
which symbolizes sin ; and this number itself is made up by 
a woman, as it was by the same sex that beginning was made 
of sin by which we all die. And it was committed that the 
pleasure of the flesh, wliich resists the spirit, might follow ; 
and so Naamah, the daughter of Lamech, means " pleasure.'* 
l^ut from Adam to Noah, in the line of Seth, there are ten 
genemtions. And to Noah three sons are added, of whom, 
while one fell into sin, two were blessed by their fiither; so 
that, if you deduct the reprobate and add the gracious sons to 
the number, you get tM'elve, — a number signalized in the case 
^ Tran^rtiiitur, " P«. IL 3. 




BOOK XV.] 



CAIN'S UNE. 



89 



of the patriarchs and of tlie apoBtJes, and made up of the parts 
the number seven toultiplied into one another, — for lliree 
les four, or four times three, give twelve. These things 
beinj so, I see that I must consider and mention how these 
two lines, which by their sepamte genealogies dt^pict the two 
cities, one of earth-bom, the otlier of regenerated persons, 
became after>vard3 so mixed and confused, that the whole 
liuman race, with the exception of eight persona, deserved to 
jrifih in the deluge. 

Whjf it M thalf as toon <u Cain's son Enoch has hren named, ike genealogy 
is forthicith continued as far as the deluge, tchile after tfte tn^ntion of 
£iKi», Hfth's ion, tine nar-rative returns atjain to the creittiun of man. 

We must first see why, in the enumeration of Cain's pos- 
terity after Enoch, in whose name the city was built, has 
Iwea first of all mentioned, the rest are at once enumerated 
down to that terminus of which I have spoken, and at which 
that race and the whole line was destroyed in the deluge ; 
"fliilc, after Enos the son of Seth has been mentioned, tlie 

t are not at once named down to the deluge, but a clause 

inserted to the following effect : " Tins is the book of the 
^aerations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in 
the likeness of God made He him ; mole and female created 
He them; and blessed them, and called tlieir name Adam, in 
the day when they were created."^ Tliis seems to me to bo 
inserted for this purpose, that here again the reckoning of the 
times may stait from Adam himself, — a puiiiosc which the 
writer had not in view in speaking of the earthly city, as if 
mentioned it, but did not take account of its duration. 

t why docs he return to tliis recapitulation after mention- 
ing tlie son of Seth, the man who hoped to call on the name 
of the Lord God, unless because it was fit thus to present 
these two cities, the one beginning with a murderer and 
ending in a murderer (for Lamcch, too, acknowledge? to his 
two wives that he had committed rauixler), the other built 
np by him who hoped to call upon the name of the Lord 
God? For the highest and complete terrestrial duty of the 
city of God, which is a stranger in tbis world, is that which 
as exemplified in the individual who was begotten by Lim 

< Cell. V. 1. 



w 



I w rit 
^^But 




90 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



who typified the resurrection of the murdered AbeL That 
one man is the unity of the whole heavenly city, not yet 
indeed complete, but to be completed, as this prophetic figure 
foreshows. The son of Cain, therefore, that is, the son of 
possession (and of what but an earthly possession ?), may have 
a name in the earthly city which was built in his name. It 
is of buch the Psalmist says, " They call their lands after their 
own names." ^ Wherefore they incur what is written in another 
psalm : " Thou, Lord, in Thy city wilt despise their image."* 
But as for the son of Seth, the son of the resurrection, let him 
hope to call on the name of the Lord God. For he prefigures 
that society of men which says, " But I am like a green olive- 
tree in the house of God : I have trusted in the mercy of 
God.'" But let him not seek the empty honours of a famous 
name upon earth, for " Blessed is the man that maketh the 
name of the Lord his trust, and respecteth not vanities nor 
lying follies."* After having presented the two cities, the one 
founded in the material good of this world, the other in hope 
in God, but both starting from a common gate opened in Adam 
into this mortal state, and both running on and running out 
to their proper and merited ends. Scripture begins to reckon 
the times, and in tliis reckoning includes other generations, 
making a recapitulation from Adam, out of whose condemned 
seed, as out of one mass handed over to merited damnation, 
God made some vessels of wrath to dishonour and others 
vessels of mercy to honour ; in punishment rendering to the 
former what is due^ in grace giving to the latter what is not 
due: in order that by the very comparison of itself with the 
vessels of wrath, the heavenly city, which sojourns on earth, 
may learn not to put confidence in the liberty of its own will, 
but may hope to call on the name of the Lord God. For "will, 
being a nature which was made good by the good God, but 
mutable by the immutable, because it was made out of notliing, 
can both decline from good to do evil, which lakes place when 
it freely chooses, and can also escape the evil and do good, 
which takes place only by divine assistance. 



> Ps. :d\x. 11. 
« Pb. lii. B. 



» Pa. Ixiiii 
• Pa. x]. 4. 



20. 



'K XV.] 



OF THE DAUGHTERS OF MEIT. 



91 



K^ 



3. 0/ the fall (^ the sons of Qod who tBtrt captivated hy 0^ daughtera of i»<n, 
wherebtf aU, uiith ihe exception oj eight penoM, detervtdly perUhed in 
ihedtiuge. 

When the hiunan race, in the exercise of this freedom of 
will, increased and advanced, there arose a mixture and con- 
fosion of the two cities by their participation in a common 
iuqoity. And this calamity, as well as the first, was occa^ 
lioned by woman, tliough not in the samo way ; for these 
women were not themselves betrayed, neither did they per- 
suade the men to sin, but having belonged to the earthly city 
and society of the earthly, they liad been of corrupt manners 
from the first, and were loved for their bodily beauty by the 
SODS of God. or the citizens of the other city which sojourns 
in this world. Beauty is indeed a good gift of God; but 
that the good may not think it a great good, God dispenses it 
even to the wicked. And thus, when the good that is great 
and proper to the good was abandoned by the sons of God, 
they fell to a paltry good which is not peculiar to the good, 
but common to the good and the evil ; and when they were 
captivated by the daughters of men. they adopted the manners 
of the earthly to win them as their brides, and forsook the 
godly ways they had followed in their own holy society. And 
thus beauty, which is indeed God's handiwork, but only a 
temporal, carnal, and lower kind of good, is not fitly loved in 
prelerence to God, the eternal, spiritual, and unchangeable 
good. When the miser prefers his gold to justice, it is through 
no fault of the gold, but of the man ; and so with every 
created thing. For though it be good, it may be loved with 

evil as well as with a good love : it is loved rightly when 

is loved ordinately ; evilly, when inordinately. It is this 
^hich some one has briefly said in these verses in praise of 
tile Creator : ' " These are Thine, they are good, because Thou 
■ft good who didst create them. There is in them nothing 
of ouis, unless the sin we commit when we forget the order 
of things, and instead of Thee love that which Thou hast 
made." 

But if the Creator is tnily loved, that is, if He Himself is 

' Or, according to another reading, 
ptiiM of a taper. " 



WliidtL I briefly said in these rencs in 




02 



THE City OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



loved and not another thing in His stead, He cannot be 
evilly loved ; for love itself is to be ordinately loved, because 
-vve do well to love that T\-hich, when we love it, makes us live 
well and virtuously. So that it seeius to me that it is a brief 
but true definition of virtue to say, it is the order of love ; 
and on this account, in the Cuuticles, the bride of Christ, the 
city of God, sings, " Order love within me," ^ It was the 
order of this love, then, tliis cliarity or attachment^ which the 
sous of God distuibed when they forsook God, and were en- 
amoured of the daugliters of men.' And by these two names 
(sons of God and daughtei-s of men) the two cities arc siilfi- 
ciently distinguished. For though the former were by nature 
cluldren of men, they had come into possession of another 
name by j^ce. For in the same Scripture in which the sons 
of God are said to have loved the daughters of men, they are 
also called angels of God ; whence many suppose that they 
were not men but angels. 

2X WhftJicr ire are fc Inlirve that angeis, who are ofatplritualauhMaru^^ fell i« 
love vrith tfic beauty of vcomen^ and sought them in marriage^ and (hoi 
from thia connection f/ianU were bom. 

In the third book of this work (e. 5) we made a passing 
leference to this question, but did not decide whether angels, 
inasmuch as they are spirits, could Jiave hodQy intercourse with 
women. Por it is WTitten, " Who maketli His angels spirits,"* 
that is, He makes those who are by nature spirits His angels 
by appointing them to the duty o! bearing His messages. 
For the Greek word 077^X0?, which iu Latia appears as 
" angelus," menus a messenger. But whether the Psalmist 
speaks of their bodies when he adds, " and Hia ministers a 
flaming fire." or means that God's ministers ought to blaze 
with love as with a spiritual fii-e, is doubtful However, the 
same trustwoi-thy Scripture testifies that angels have appeared 
to men iu such bodies as could not only be seen, but also 
touched. Tliere is. too, a very general rumour, which many 
have verified by their own experience, oi- which trustworthy 
persons who have heartl the experience of otliers corroborate, 
that sylvans and fauns, who are commonly called " incubi," 
had often made wicked assaults upon women, and satisfied 
* Caat it 4. * Sec £>e Doct. Christ, i. 23. ^ Pa. civ. 4. 



BOOK XV.] 



"VTHO THE SONS OF COD WEHI!. 



03 



their lust upon tliem; and that certain devils, called Buses 
by the Gauls, ai'e constnntly attempting and effecting tliia im- 
parity is so generally alliruied, that it were impudent to deny 
it* From these assertions, indeed, I dare not determine 
whether there he some spirits embodied in an aerial substance 
(for this element, even wlien agitated by a fan, is sensibly felt 
by the body), and who are capable of lust and of mingling 
sensibly with wninen ; but certainly T could by no means 
believe that God's holy angels could at that time have so 
fifdlen, nor can I think that it is of them the Apostle Peter 
said, " For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast 
them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, 
to be reserved unto judgment." ^ I think he rather speaks of 
those "who first apostatized from God, along witli their cliief 
the devil, who enviously deceived the firet man under the form 
of a serpent But the same holy Scripture affords the most 
ample testimony that even godly men have been called angels ; 
for of John it is written : '* Behold, I send my messenger (angel) 
before Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way." ' And the 
prophet Malachi, by a peculiar gi'oce specially communicated 
to him, was called an angel* 

But some are moved by the fact that we have read that the 
fiiiit of the connection between those who are called angels of 
God and the women they loved were not men lilcc our own 
breed, but giants ; just as if there were not born even in our 
own time (as I have mentioned above) men of much greater 
size than the ordinary stature. Was there not at Borne a few 
jaoB ago, when the destruction of the city now accomplished 
by the Goths was drawing near, a woman, with her father and 
Bother, who by her gigantic size overtopped all others ? Sur- 
prkiiig crowds from all quarters came to see her, and that 
which struck them most was the circumstance that uf^itlier 
of her parents were quite up to the tallest ordinary stature. 
Giants therefore might well be bom, even before the sons of 
God, who are also called angels of God, formed a connection 



* Ob thp»e kinds of devils, see the note of Vires in lor., or Lecky's ffittt. of 
JUHomUum^ i. 26, who quotes from Maury's NUtoire de la Magie, th«t the 
Dsvii were Cvltic sjiirits, and are the origiu of our '* Deuce." 

•2PetiL 4. «Marki2. « MoL ii. 7. 



94 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



with the daughters of men, or of those living actx)rding to men^ 
that is to say, before the sons of Seth formed a connection 
mth the daughters of Cain. For thus speaks even the 
canonical Scripture itself in the book in which we read of 
this ; its words are : " And it came to pass, M'hen men began 
to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were bom 
unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men 
that they were fair [good] ; and they took them wives of all 
which they chose. And the Lord God said, My Spirit shall 
not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh : yet his 
days shall be an hundred and twenty years. There were 
giants in the earth in those days ; and also after that, when 
the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and thoj 
bare children to them, the same became the giants, men of 
renown." * These words of the divine book sufficiently indicate 
that already there were giants in the earth in those days, in 
which the sons of God took wives of the children of men, 
when they loved them because they were good, that is, fair. 
For it is the custom of this Scripture to call those who are 
beautiful in appearance "good," But after this connection 
liad been formed, then too were giants bom. For tho words 
are : " There were giants in the earth in those days, and cdso 
after that, when the sons of God came in unto the dauglitera 
of men." Therefore there were giants both before. " in those 
days," and " also after that." And the words, " they bare 
children to them," show plainly enough that before the sons 
of God fell in tliis fashion they begat children to God, not to 
themselves, — that is to say, not moved by the lust of sexual 
intercourse, but discharging the duty of propagation, intending 
to produce not a family to gratify their own pride, but citizens 
to people the city of God ; and to these they as God*8 angels 
would bear the message, that they should place their hope in 
God, like him who was bom of Seth the son of resurrection, 
and who hoped to call on the name of the Lord God, in which 
hope they and their offspring woidd be co-heirs of eternal bless- 
ings, and brethren in the family of which God is the Father. 



*Otn. vi 1-4. Lactantiua (Itist. it 15), Sttlpiciua Sctctus (fftaL i. 2), uid 
others suppose from this passage thjit ang«la hiid commerce mth the dangUters 
of men. See further refiTenccs in the Commeatu-y of Pei-eriua in loc 



BOOK XV.] 



THE SONS OF GOD. 



95 



But that those angelB were not angels in the sense of not 
1»ing men, as some suppose, Scripture itself decides, which 
niiambiguoiisly declares that they were men. For when it had 
fiist been stated that " the angels of God saw the daughters of 
men that they were fair, and they took them wives of all 
which they chose " it was immediately added, " And the Lord 
€rod said, My Spirit shall not always strive with these men, for 
tint they also are flesh." For by the Spirit of God they had 
heea made angels of God, and sons of God ; but declining 
towards lower things, they are called men, a name of nature, 
not of grace ; and they are called flesh, as deserters of the 
Spirit, and by their desertion deserted [by Him]. The Sep- 
toflgint indeed calls them both angels of God and sons of 
God, though all the copies do not show this, some having 
only the name " sons of God." And Aquila, whom the Jews 
prefer to the other interpreters/ has translated neither angels 
of God nor sons of God, but sons of gods. But both are 
conect For they were both sons of God, and thus brothers 
of their own fathers, who were children of the same God ; and 
they were sons of gods, because begotten by gods, together 
with whom tliey themselves also were gods, according to that 
expression of the psalm : " I have said. Ye are gods, and all of 
jaa are children of the Most High." ' For the Septiiagint 
tODslators are justly believed to have received the Spirit of 
prophecy; so that, if they made any alterations under His 
authority, and did not acihere to a strict translation, we could 
not doubt that this was divinely dictated. However, the 
Hebrew word may be said to be ambiguous, and to be sus- 
o«|Aibl6 of either translation, " sons of God," or " sons of 



Let us omit, then, the fables of those scriptures which are 
called apocr}'phal, because their obscure origin was unlmown 
to the fathers from whom the authority of the true Scriptures 
has been transmitted to us by a moat certain and well-ascer- 

* Aqoila Ixred in the time of Hadriui, to vliom lie ia esid to have been nUtrd. 
Be nrw cxoomznuiLic&ted from the Chnrch for the practice of astrology ; ud is 
\mt kaom by his translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek, which he 
ffMCttte d with great care and accuracy, though he has been charged with falsify- 
^ y i g -ci to lupport the Jews in tiieir opposition to CbtiBtionitj. 

'PhLhuziL e. 



9C 



THE CITT OF COD. 



[book XV, 



tained succession. For thougli tlieru is some truth in these 
apocryphal writings, yet they contain so many false state- 
ments, that tliey have no canonical authority. We cannot 
deny that Enoch, the seventh from Adam, left some divine 
wiitings, for this is assorted by the Apostle Jude in his canoni- 
cal epistle. Bat it ia not without reason that these writings 
have no place in that canon of Scripture which was preserved 
in the temple of the Hebrew people by the diligence of suc- 
cessive priests ; for their antiquity brought them under suspi- 
cion, and it wa-s impossible to ascertain whether these were 
his genuine imtings, and they were not brought forward as 
genuine by the persons who were found to have carefully pre- 
served the canonical books by a successive trans7iiission. So 
that the writmgs wliich arc produced under his name, and 
which contain these fables about the giants, saying that their 
fathers were not men, are prnpt?rly judged by prudent men to 
be not genuine ; just as many writings are produced by 
heretics under the names both of other prophets, and, more 
ixjccntly, under the names of the apostles, all of wliich, after 
careful examination, have l)(^cn set apart fvom eanonic^il autho- 
rity under the title of Apocrypha. There is therefore no 
doubt that, according to the Hcbix^w and Christian canonical 
Scriptures, there were many giants before the deluge, and that 
these were citizens of the earthly society of men, and tliat the 
softs of God, who wei'e according to the flesh the sons of Seth, 
sunk into this community when they forsook rigliteousuess. 
Nor need we wonder that giants should be born even from 
these. For all of their children were not giants ; but there 
were more then tlian in the remaining periods since the 
deluge. And it pleased the Creator to produce tbcm, that it 
might thus be demonstrated that neither beauty, nor yet size 
and strength, are of much moment to the wise man, wljose 
blessedness lies iu spiritual and immortal blessings, in far better 
and more enduring gifts, in the good things that are the pecu- 
liar property of the good, and are not shared by good and bad 
alike. It is this which another prophet confirms when he 
says, " These were the grants, famous from the beginning, 
that were of so great stature, and so expert in war. Those 
did not the Lord choose, neither gave He the way of know- 



BOOK XV. 



OF THE FLOOD. 



97 



ledge unto tlieni ; but they were destroyed because they had 
no wisdom, aud perished thi'ough their owa fooHahnesa." * 

34. /fou ire are to understand this ichich tfte Lord said to those tr/io were 
to perisli in thefiood : *' Their dnyt shall bf. 120 years," 

But that which God said, "Their days shall be an liundred 
id twenty years," is not to be understood as a prediction that 
kceforth men should not live longer than 120 years, — ^for 
cren after the deluge we find that they lived more than 500 
jears, — but we are to understand that God said this wlieii Notdi 
had neai'ly completed his fifth century, that is, had lived 480 
}'ears, which Scripture, as it frequently uses the name uf the 
whole for the largest part, calla 500 years. Now the deluge 
came in the GOOth 3-ear of Noah'a life, the second month ; aud 
ihu3 120 years were predicted as being the remaining span of 
those who were doomed, which years being spent, tliey should 
be destroyed by the deluge. And it is not unreasonably 
believed that tlie deluge came as it did, because already there 
were not found upon earth any who were not wortliy of 
tharing a death so manifestly judicial, — not that a good man, 
who must die some time, would be a jot the worse of such a 
death after it was past. Nevertheless there died in the deluge 
none of those mentioned in the sacred Scripture as descended 
from SetL But here is the divine account of the cause of the 
deluge : " Tlie Lord God saw that the wickedness of man was 
great in the eaith, and that eveiy imagination of the thoughts 
of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented ^ the 
Lord that He had made man on the earth, and it gi'ieved Him 
at His heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man, whom I 
have created, from tlie face of the earth ; both man and beast, 
and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air : for I am 
that I have made them."* 

SSl 0/ the anger o/Ood, tchkh does not infiamt. flu mindf nor disturb H\n 
uncJianfj€<d>le (ranijuiltUy. 

The anger of God is not a disturbing emotion of His mind, 

but a judgment by which punishment is inflicted upon sin. 

thought and reconsideration also are the unchangeable 




1 Bnnich iii. 26-28. 

* Lit : ** The Lord thought uid recoDsidered." 

» Gen. Ti. 5-7. 



98 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[BCtOK XV- 



reason which clianges things ; for He does not, like man, 
repent of anything He has done, because in all matters His 
decision is as inflexible as His prescience is certain. Eut if 
Scripture were not to use such expressions as the above, it 
would not familiarly insinuate itself into the minds of all 
classes of men, whom it seeks access to for their good, that it 
may alaim the proud, arouse tlie careless, exercise the inqui- 
sitive, and satisfy the intelligent ; and this it could not do, did 
it not first stoop^ and in a manner descend, to them where they 
lie. But its denouncing death on aU the animals of earth and 
air is a declai^ation of the vastness of the disaster that was 
approaching : not that it threatens destruction to the irrational 
animals as if they too had incurred it by sio. 

26. That the ark whkh Noah toas ordered to make Jigures in cvtrff reaped 
Chri$l and ihe diurch. 

Moreover, inasmuch as God commanded Noah, a just man, 
and, as the truthful Scripture says, a man perfect in his gene- 
ration, — not indeed with the perfection of the citizens of tie 
city of God in that immortal condition in which they eq^ual 
the angels, but in so far as they can be perfect in their sojourn 
in this world, — inasmuch as God comniitnded him, I say, to maka 
an ark, in which he might be rescued from the destruction of 
the flood, along with his family, i.e. his wife, sons, and daughters- 
in-law, and along with the animals who, in obedience to God's 
command, came to him into the ark : this is certainly a figure 
of the city of God sojourning in this world ; that is to say, 
of the church, which is rescued by the wood on wldch. hung 
the Mediator of God and men^ the man Christ Jesus.^ For 
even its very dimensions, in length, breadth, and height, repre- 
sent the human body in which He came, as it had been fore- 
told. For the length of the human body, from the crown of 
the head to the sole of the foot, is six times its breadth from 
side to side, and ten times its depth or thickness, measuring 
from back to front : that is to say, if you measure a man aa 
ha lies on his back or on lus face, he is six times as long from 
hyad to foot as he is broad from side to side, and ten times aa 
long as he is high from the ground. And therefore the ark 
was made 300 cubits in length, 50 in breadth, and 30 in 

* I Tim. ii 6. 



BOOK XV,] 



OP THE AUK. 



99 



lieight And its having a door mode in tlie side of it cer- 
tainly signified the wound which was made when the side of 
the Crucified was pierced with the spear : for by this those 
10 come to Him enter ; for thence flowed the sacraments by 
ich those who believe are initiated. And the fact that it 
ordered to be made of squared timbers, signifies the im- 
iveable steadiness of the life of the saints ; for however you 
a cube, it still stands. And the other peculiarities of 
ark's construction are signs of features of the church. 
But we have not now time to pursue this subject ; and, 
leed, we have already dwelt upon it in the work we wrote 
against Faustus the Maiuchean, who denies that there is any- 
thing prophesied of Christ in the Hebrew books. It may be 
that one man's exposition excels another's, and that ours is 
not the best ; but all that is said must be referred to this 
city of God we speak of, which sojourns in this wicked world 
•Bin a deluge, at least if the expositor would not widely miss 
the meaning of the autlior. For example, the interpretation 
I have given in the work against Faustus, of the words, " with 
lower, second, and third storeys shalt thou make it," is, that 
because the church is gathered out of all nations, it is said to 
have two storeys, to represent the two kinds of men, — the cir- 
cumcision, to wit, and the uncircumcision, or, as the apostle 
otherwise calls them, Jews and Gentiles ; and to have three 
storeys, because all the nations were replenished from the 
three sons of Noah. Now any one may object to this inter- 
pretation, and may give another which harmonizes with the 
tulc of faitk For as the ark was to have rooms not only on 
the lower, but also on the upper storeys, which were called 
"third storeys," that there might be a habitable space on the 
third floor from the basement, some one may interpret these 
to mean the three graces commended by the apostle, — faith, 
hope, and charity. Or even more suitably they may be anp- 
poaed to represent those three harvests in the gospel, thirty- 
fold, gixtyfold, an hundredfold, — chaste marriage dwelling in 
the ground floor, chaste widowhood in the upper, and chaste 
virginity in the top storey. Or any better interpretation may 
be given, so long as the reference to this city is maintained. 
And the same statement I would make of all the remaining 




100 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



paiticulars in this passage "wliich require exposition, viz. that 
although diiferent explanations are giveu, yet they must all 
agree with the one harmonious catholic faith. 

27. 0/ the ark and the delugtj and that we ainnoi agree vilh tko*e teho receive 
the bare higtory, hut reject the allegorical interprelation, nor vnlh tkoBe 
vjJio maintain tittjijuraiive and not the hisiorical meaning. 

Yet no one ought to suppose either that these tilings wore 
\mtten for no purpose, or that we should study only the 
historical truth, apart from any allegorical meanings; or, on 
the contrary, that they are only allegories, and that there were 
no such facts at all, or that, whether it be so or no, there 
is here no prophecy of the church. For what right-minded 
man will contend that books so religiously preserved during 
thousands of years, and transmitted by so orderly a succes- 
sion, were written without an object, or that only the bare 
historical facts are to be considered when we read them ? 
For, not to mention other instances, if the number of the 
animals entailed the construction of an ark of great size, 
whei-e was the necessity of sending into it two unclean and 
seven clean animals of each species, when both could have 
been presented in equal numbers ? Or could not God, who 
ordered them to be preserved in order to replenish the race, 
restoi-e them in the same way lie had created them ? 

But they who contend that these tilings never happened, 
but are only figures setting forth other tilings, in the first 
place suppose that there could not be a flood so great that the 
water should rise fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, 
because it is said that clouds cannot rise above the top of 
Moimt Olympus, because it reaches the sky where there is 
none of that thicker atmosphere in which winds, clouds, and 
ranis have their origin. They do not reflect iliat the densest 
element of all, earth, can exist tliere ; or perhaps they deny 
that the top of the mountain is earth. Why, then, do these 
measurers and weighers of the element-i contend that earth 
can be raised to thase aerial altitudes, and that water cannot, 
while tliey admit that w^ater is lighter, and liker to ascend 
than earth? What reason do they adduce why earth, the 
heavier and lower element, has for bo many ages scaled to the 
trauq^uil aether, while water, the lighter^ and more likely to 




BOOK XV,] 



SIZE OF TITE AKK. 



101 



fiscend, is not suffered to do the same even for a brief space 
of time? 

They say, too, that the area of that ark could not contain 
so many kinds of animals of both sexes, two of the unclean 
and seven of the cleaa But they seem to me to reckon only 
one area of 300 cubits long and 50 broad, and not to remember 
ihttt there was another similar in the storey above, and yet 
another as large in the storey above that again ; and that there 
was consequently an area of 900 cubits by 150, And if we 
accept what Origen^ has with some appropriateness suggested, 
that Moses the man of God, being, as it is written, " learned 
in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," ' who delighted in geo- 
metiy, may have meant geometrical cubits, of which they say 
that one is equal to six of our cubits, then who does not see 
what a capacity these dimensions give to the ark ? For as to 
their objection that an ark of such size could not be built, it 
is a very silly calumny ; for they are aware that huge cities 
have been built, and they should remember that the ark was 
an hundred years in building. Or, perhaps, though stone can 
adhere to stone when cemented with nothing but lime, so that 
a wall of several miles may be constructed, yet plank cannot be 
riveted to plank by mortices, bolts, nails, and pitch-glue, so as 
to construct an ark which was not made with cun^ed ribs but 
■totight timbers, which was not to be launched by its builders 
bnt to be lifted by the natural pressure of the water when it 
reached it, and which was to be preserved from ship\\Teck as 
it floated about ratlier by divine oversight than by human 
skill 

As to another customary inquiry of the scrupulous about 
the very minute creatures, not only such as mice and lizards, 
Irat also locusts, bectltis, flies, ilcas, and so forth, whether there 
wore not in the ark a larger number of thciu than was deter- 
tnined by God in His coumiand, those persons who are moved 
by this difficulty are to be reminded that the words " every 
creeping thing of the earth" only indicate that it was not 
needful to preser\'o in the ark the animals that can live in 
the water, whether the fishes that live submerged in it, or the 
sea-birds that swim on its surface. Then, when it is said 

^ In hU second Komily od GenuiB. ' AcU vu. 22. 




102 



THE CITT OF GOD. 



[book XV. 



" male and female " no doubt reference is made to the re- 
pairing of the races, and consequently there was no need for 
those creatures being in the ark which are bom "without the 
union ot the sexes from inanimate tilings, or from their cor- 
Tuption ; or if they were in the ark, they might be there as they 
commonly are in houses, not in any determinate numbers ; 
or if it was necessary that there should he a definite number 
of all those animals that cannot naturally live in tlie water, 
that 80 the most sacred mystery which was being enacted 
might be bodied forth and pertectly figured in actual realities, 
still this was not the care of !Noah or his sons, but of God. 
For Noah did not catch the animals and put tliem into the 
ark, but gave them entrance as they came seeking it. For 
this is the force of the words, " They shall come tmto thee," * 
— not, that is to say, by man's effort, but by God's will But 
certainly we are not required to beheve that those which 
have no sex also came ; for it is expressly and definitely said, 
"They shall be male and female."^ Por there are some 
animals which are born out of corruption, but yet afterwards 
they themselves copulate and produce offspring, as flies ; but 
others, which have no sex, like bees. Then, as to those animals 
which have sex, but without ability to propagate their kind, 
like mules and she-mules, it is probable that they were not in 
the ark, but that it was counted sufficient to preserve their 
parents, to wit, the horse and the ass ; and this applies to all 
hybrids. Yet, if it was necessary for the completeness of the 
mystery, they were there ; for even this species has " male 
and female." 

Another question is commonly raised regarding the food of 
the carnivorous animals^ — whether, without transgressing the 
command which fixed the number to be preserved, there were 
necessarily others included in the sirk for their sustenance ; 
or, as is more probable, there might be some food which was 
not flesh, and which yet suited all Por we know how many 
animals whose food is flesh eat also vegetable products and 
fruits, especially figs and chestnuts. What wander is it, 
therefore, if that wise and Just man was instructed by God 
vrhat would suit each, so that without flesh he prepared and 

^ Qen. Ti. 1ft, SO. 




BOOK XT.] 



PT^OYISIDIIIKQ or THB ARK. 



Stored provision fit for every species ? And what is there 
■which hunger would not make animab eat ? Or what could 
not be made sweet and wholesome by God, who, with a 
divine facility, might have enabled them to do without food 
it all, had it not been requisite to the completeness of so 
great a mystery that they should be fed ? But none but a 
contentious man can suppose that there was no prefiguring of 
the church in so manifold and circumstantial a detail. For 
the nations have already so filled the church, and are com- 
prehended in the framework of its unity, the clean and un- 
clean together, until the appointed end, that tins one very 
manifest fulfibnent leaves no doubt how wg sliould interpret 
even those others which are somewhat more obscure, and 
which cannot so readily be discerued. And since this is so, 
if not even the most audacious will presiune to assert that 
these things were written without a puri^ose, or tliat though the 
events really happened they mean nothing, or that they did not 
really happen, but are only allegor}'', or that at all events they 
are far from having any figurative reference to the church ; 
if it has been made out that, on the other baud, we must 
rather believe that there was a wise purpose in their being 
canmxitted to memory and to writing, and that they did 
happen, and have a significance, and that this significance has 
a prophetic reference to the church, then this book, having 
served this purpose, may now be closed, that we may go on 
to trace in the history subsequent to the deluge the courses 
of the two cities, — the earthly, that lives according to men, 
Imd the heavenly, that lives according to God 




104 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book X\"I, 



BOOK SIXTEENTH. 

ARGUMENT. 

JIt TilRFORHEAPARTOFTUIS BOOK, FROH Til K rii:ST TO TUE TWELFTH CHAPTEIl, 
THE PROOaESS OF TilE TWO CITIES, THE EARTHLY AND THE UE-VVENLY, 
FROM NOAH TO ABRAHAM, IS EXHIBITED FEOM HOLY SCairTURE : IN THE 
I^TTER PART, TUB PR00KES5 OF THE HEAVE>*LT ALONE, FEOK ABBABAU 
TO THE KINGS OF 19EAEL, lb THE SUBJECT. 

1. WheiheTf c^/Ur Uie dtluyt, frmn Noah to Abrahamj any Jamiltes can be 
found ictio Heed nccordinf/ Ut God, 

IT is difficidt to discover from Scripture, whether, after the 
deluge, traces of the lioly city are coutinuous, or are so 
interrupted by intervening: seasons of godlessness, that not a 
single worshippt-^r of tlic oiio true God was found among 
men ; because from Noah, who, "with his wife, three sons, and 
:ia many daughters-in-law, achieved deliverance in the ark 
from the destruction of the deluge, down to Abraham, we do 
not find in the canoniciil hooks that tlie piety of any one is 
celebrated by express divine testimony, unless it be in the 
case of Noali, who commends witli a prophetic benediction 
his two sons Shem and Japheth, while he beheld and foresaw 
what was long afterwards to happen. It was also by tliis 
prophetic spirit that, when Ins middle son — that is, the son 
wlio was younger than the first and older than the last bom — 
had sinned against him, he cursed him not in his own person, 
but in his son's (his own grandson's), in the words, " Cursed 
be the lad Canaan ; a servant shall he be unto his brethren."* 
Now Canaan was bom of Ham, who, so far from covering his 
sleeping father's nalccdness, had divrdgod it. For the same 
reusou also he subjoins the blessing on lii^ two other sons, the 
oldest and yovingcst, saying, " Blessed be the Loixi God of 
Shem ; and Canaan shall be his servant God shall gladden 
Japhethj and lie shall dwell in the houses of Shem*" ^ And 
» Gtn, iju 25. 3 Ocn, U. 2ff, 27. 




»K XVl] 



OF NOAH'S SONS. 



10, 



90, too, the planting of the vine hy Noah, and his intoxication 
by its fruit, and his nakedness while he slept, and the other 
things done at that time, and recorded, are all of them preg- 
nant with prophetic meanings, and veOed in mysteries.^ 

2. What ioas prophetically pr figured in the aoti* of Noah, 

The things which then were hidden are now sufficiently 
revealed by the actual events which have followed For who 
can carefully and intelligently consider these tilings without 
feopgnising thcra accomplished in Christ ? Shem, of whom 
Christ was born in the flesh, means " named." And what is 
of greater name than Christ, the fragrance of whose name is 
now everywhere perceived, so that even prophecy aings of it 
beforehand, comparing it in tlie Song of Songs ^ to ointment 
poured fortli ? Is it not also in the houses of Christ, that is, 
in the churches, that the " enlargement " of the nations dwells? 
For Japheth means " enlargement." And Ham {ix. hot), who 
was the middle son of Noah, and, as it were, separated him- 
self from both, and remained between them, neither belonging 
tfl the first-fruits of Israel nor to the fidness of the Gentiles, 
what does he signify but the tribe of heretics, hot with the 
spirit, not of patiencCj but of impatience, with which the 
breasts of heretics are wont to blaze, and with which they 
disturb the peace of the saints l But even the heretics yiekl 

advantage to tliose that make proficiency, according to the 
tie's sa;ying, " There must also l>o heresies, tliat they which 
we approved may be made manifest among you." * Whence, 
loo, it is elsewhere said, " The son that receives instruction 
will be wise, and he uses the foolish as his ser\'ant." * For 
while the hot restlessness of heretics stirs questions about 
many articles of the catholic faith, the necessity of defending 
them forces us both to investigate them more accurately, to 
understand them more clearly, and to proclaim them more 
euziestly ; and the question mooted by an adversaiy becomes 
the occasion of instructioa However, not only those who 
are openly separated from the cliurch, but also all who glory 
in the Christian name, and at the same time lead abandoned 



disti 



' 8« Contra FawX xiL c. 22 sqq. 
• 1 Cor. xi. 19. 




' Song of Solomon i. 3. 
*Prov. X. fi(LXX.). 



106 THE CITY OF GOD. 



lives, may without absurdity seem to be figured by Noeh'8 
middle son: for the passion of Christ, •which was signified 
by that man's nakedness, is at once proclaimed by their pro- 
fession, and dishonoured by their wicked conduct Of such, 
therefore, it has been said, " By their friiits ye shall know 
them." ^ And therefore was Ham cursed in his son, he being 
as it were, his fruit So, too, this son of his, Canaan, is fitlj 
interpreted " their movement," which is nothing else than their 
work. But Shcm and Japheth, that is to say, the circumci- 
sion and uncircumcision, or, as the apostle otherwise caUfi 
them, the Jews and Greeks, but called and justified, having 
somehow discovered the nakedness of their father (which 
signifies the Saviour's passion), took a garment and laid it 
upon their backs, and entered backwards and covered their 
father's nakedness, without their seeing what their reverence 
hid. For we both hououi* the passion of Christ as accom- 
plished for us, and we hate the crime of the Jews who cruci- 
fied Him. The garment signifies the sacrament, their backs 
the memory of things past: for the church celebrates the 
passion of Christ as already accomplished, and no longer 
to be looked forward to, now that Japheth already dwells in 
the habitations of Shem, and their wicked brother between 
them. 

But the wicked brother is, in the person of his son file. 
liis work), the boy. or slave, of his good brothers, when good 
men make a skilful use of bad men, cither for the exercise of 
their patience or for their advancement in wisdom. For the 
apostle testifies that there are some wlio preach Christ from 
no pure motives ; " but," says ]ip, " whether in pretence or in 
truth, Christ is preached; and I therein do rejoice, yea, and 
will rejoice."^ For it is Christ Himself who planted the 
\'ino of which the prophet says, "The vine of the Loi-d of 
hosts is the house of Israel ; " ' and He drinks of its wine, 
whether we thus understand that cup of whicli He says, " Can 
ye drink of the cup that I shall drink of?"* and, "Father, 
if it be possible, let this cup pass from me,'* ^ by which He 
obviously means His passion. Or, as wine is the fruit of 

> Matt. TIL 20. « Phil. i. 18. » Isa. v. 7. 

• Matt. II. 22. » MatL xxvi 39. 





TOOK XVL] SIGKIHCAITCE OF HAM*S COKDUCT. 



107 



en 



the vine, we may prefer to understand that from this vine, 
that is to say, from the race of Israel, He has assumed flesh 
and blood that He might suffer ; " and he was drunken," that 
ia, He suffered ; " and was naked/* that is. His weakness 
^fpeared in His suffering, as the apostle says, " though He 
was crucifie<l through weakncsa" ^ Wherefore the same 
apostle says, " The weakness of God is stronger than men ; 
and the foolishness of God is wiser than men." ' And when 
to the expression " he was naked " Scripture adds " in his 
hooBB," it elegantly intimates that Jesus was to suffer the 
cross and death at the hands of His own household, His own 
kith and kin, the Jews. This passion of Christ is only 
externally and verbally professed by the reprobate, for what 
y profess they do not understand. But the elect hold in 
€ inner man this so great mystery, and honour inwardly in 
the heart this weakness and foolishness of God. And of this 
there is a figure in Ham going out to proclaim his father s 
nakedness ; while Shem and Japheth, to cover or honour it, 
went in, that is to say, did it inwardly. 

These secrets of divine Scripture wo investigate as well as 
ve can. All will not accept our interpretation with equal 
ooafidence, but all hold it cei-tain that these things were 
neither done nor recorded without some foreshadowing of 
future events, and that they are to be referred only to Christ 
and His church, which is the city of God, proclaimed from 
ihe very beginning of Immau history by figures which we 
now see everywhere accomplished. From the blessing of the 
two sons of Noali, and the cursing of the middle son, down 
tcy Abraham, or for more than a thoiLsand years, there is, as 
I have said, no mention of any righteous persons who wor- 
shipped God. I do not therefore conclude that there were 
aone; but it had been tedious to mention every one^ and 
voald have displayed historical accuracy rather than prophetic 
foresight The object of the writer of these sacred books, or 
nther of the Spirit of God in him, is not only to record the 
past, but to depict the future, so far as it regards the city of 
God ; for whatever is said of those who are not its citizens, 
ia given either for her instruction, or as a foil to enhance her 

I S Cor. liiL 4. > 1 Cor. i. 25. 




THE CITY OF GOD. 



BOOKXVT. 



j^lory. Yet we are not to suppose that all that is recorded 
has some signification ; but those things "wMch have no signi- 
fication of their own ore interwoven for the sake of the things 
vhich are significant. It is only the ploughshare that cleaves 
the soil; but to effect this» other parts of the plough are 
requisite. It is only the strings in haips and other musical 
instruments which produce melodious sounds ; but that they 
may do so, there are other parts of the instrument which are 
not indeed struck by those who sing, but are connected with 
the strings which are struck, and produce musical notes. So 
in this prophetic history some things are narrated which have 
no significance, but arc, as it were, the framework to which tbe 
significant things are attached. 

3. Of (Jie gcneraiioTU of the tkrte tOM tiflToah, 

"We must therefore introduce into this work an explanation 

of the generations of the three sons of Noah, in so far as tlftt 
may illustrate the progress in time of the two cities. Scripture 
first mentions that of the youngest son, who is called Japheth ' 
lie liad eight sons,^ and by two of these sons seven grand' 
cliildren, three by one son, four by the other ; in all, fifteeti 
descendants. Ham, Noab's middle son, had four sons, an! 
by one of them ^xe gi*andsons, and by one of these two great- 
giundsons ; in ail, eleven. After enumerating these, Scripture 
returns to the first of the sons, and says, " Cush begat Nimrod ; 
ho began to be a giant on the earth. He Avas a giant Imnter 
against the Lord God : wherefore they say, As Nimrod the ! 
giant hunter against the Lord. And the beginning of his | 
kingdom was Babylon, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land 
of Shinar. Out of that land went forth Assur, and built 
Nineveh, and the city Eehoboth, and Calah, and Hesen be- 
tween Nineveh and Calah : this was a gi-eat city." Now this 
Cush, father of the giant Nimrod, is the first-named among 
the sons of Ham, to whom five sous and two grandsons are 
ascribed. But he either begat this giant after his grandsons 
Avere bom, or, which is more credible, Seriptui-e speaks of him 

* Angustine here follows the Oreelc version, wlucli introilnces the name Elisa 
among the sons of Japheth, though not found in the Hebrew. It is not found 
iu the CompluteiuLan Greek tnmslatioD, uor in the mss. used by Jerome. 





)K XVI.] 



DESCENDANTS OF NOAH'ft SONS. 



109 



separately on account of Iiia eminence ; for mention is also 
made of his kingdom, which began 'with that magnificent city 
Babylon, and the other places, whether cities or districts, 
Mentioned along with it. But what is recorded of the land 
ft Sliinar whicli belonged to Ninirod's kinc^donx, to wit, that 
Assur went forth from it and built Nineveh and the other 
cities mentioned with it, happened long after ; but he takes 
oecasion to speak of it here on account of the grandeur of 
the Assyrian kingdom, which was Avonderfully extended by 
Ninus son of Belus, and founder of the great city Nineveh, 
which was named after him, Nineveh, from Ninua. But 
Assur, father of the Ass}Tian, was not one of the sons of Ham, 
Noah's middle son, but is found among the sons of Shem, his 
^^klest son. Whence it appears that among Shem's ofTspring 
^^pere arose men who afterwards took possession of t}iat giant's 
Idngdom, and advancing from it, founded other cities, the first 
of which was called Nineveh, from Ninus. From liLm Scrip- 
ture returns to Ham's other son, Mizraim ; and his sons are 
enumerated, not as seven individuals, but as seven nations. 
And from the sixtli, as if from the sixth son, the race called 
the Philistines are said to have sprung ; so that there are in 
all eight Then it returns again to Canaan, in whose person 
^^am was cursed ; and his eleven sons are named. Then the 
^Bnitories they occupied, and some of the cities, are named. 
And thus, if we count sons and grandsons, there are thirty- 
one of Ham's descendants registered. 

It remains to mention the sons of Shem, Noah's eldest 
son; for to him this genealogical narrative gradually ascends 
from the youngest. But in the commencement of the record 

I of Shem's sons there is an oliscurity which calls for explana- 
■Dn, since it is closely connected with the object of our in- 
pstigation. For wc read, " Unto Slien» also, the father of all 
|be children of Heberj the brother of Japheth the elder, were 
children born." ^ This is the order of tlie words : And to 
Shem was born Heber, even to himself, that is, to Shem him- 
fclf wasbom Holier, and Shem is tlie father of all bis children. 
We are intended to understand that Sliem is the patriarch of oil 
his posterity who were to be mentioned, whether sons, grand- 

1 Gen. z. 21. 



110 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xvr. 



sons, great-grandsons, or desceadants at any remove. For , 
Shem did not beget Heber, -who was indeed in the fifth genera- 
tion from IduL For Shem begat, among other sons, Arphaxad ; 
Arpbaxad begat Cainan, Cainan begat Salah, Salah begat 
Heber. And it was with good reason that he was named 
first among Shem's offspring, taking precedence even of his 
sons, though only a grandchild of the fifth generation ; for 
from him, qb tradition says, the Hebrews derived their name. 
though the other etymology which derives the name from 
Abraham (as if Ahrahcrcs) may possibly be correct But 
there can be little doubt that the former is the right etymo- 
logy, and that they were called after Heber, Hehcrews, and 
then, dropping a letter, Hebrews ; and so was their language 
called Hebrew, which was spoken by none but the people of 
Israel among whom was the city of God, mysteriously pre- 
figured in all the people, and truly present in the saints. 
Six of Shem's sons then are fii'st named, then four grandsons 
born to one of these sons ; then it mentions another son of 
Shem, who begat a grandson ; and his son, again, or Shem's 
great-grandson, was Heber. And Heber begat two sons, and 
called the one Peleg, which means "dividing;" and Scripture 
subjoins the reason of this name, saying, " for in his days was 
the earth divided." What this means will afterwards appear. 
Heber's other son begat twelve sons ; consequently all Shem's 
descendants are twenty-seven. The total number of the pro- 
geny of the three sons of Noah is seventy-three, fifteen by 
Japheth, thirty-one by Ham, twenty-seven by Shem. Then 
Scripture adds, " These are the sons of Shem, after tlieir 
families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations." 
And so of the whole number : " These are the families of the 
sons of Noah after their generations, in their nations ; and 
by these were the isles of the nations dispersed tlirough the 
earth after the flood." From which we gather that the 
seventy-three (or rather, as I shall presently show^ seventy-two) 
were not individuals, but nations. For in a former passage, 
when the sons of Japheth were enumerated, it is said in con- 
clusion, " By these were the isles of the nations divided in 
their lands, every one after his language, in their tribes, and 



in their nations" 




BOOK XVI.] 



OF BABEL, 



111 



But natdous are expressly mentioned among the sons of 
Ham, as I showed above. "Mizraim begat those who are 
called Ludim j" and so also of the other seven nations. And 
after enumerating all of them, it concludes, " These are the 
sons of Ham, in their families, according to their languages, in 
their territories, and in their nations," The reason, then, why 
the children of several of them are not mentioned, is that they 
belonged by birth to other nations, and did not themselves 
become nations. Why else is it, that though eight sous are 
reckoned to Japheth, the sons of only two of these are men- 
tioned ; and thougli four are reckoned to Ham, only three are 
spoken of as haWng sons ; and though six are reckoned to 
I, the descendants of only two of these are traced ? Did 
rest remain childless ? We cannot suppose so ; but they 
did not produce nations so great as to warrant their being 
mentioned, but were absorbed in the nations to which they 

longed by birtL 

4. Ofiht diversity (^languagttt o^ qf the founding (if Babylon, 

But though these nations are said to have been dispersed 
wcording to their languages, yet the narrator recurs to that 
time when all had but one language, and explains how it 
cwne to pass that a diversity of languages was introduced. 
"The whole earth," he says, "was of one lip, and all had one 
ipeecL And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the 
east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar, and dwelt 
there. And they said one to another. Come, and let us make 
bricks, and burn them thoroughly. And they had bricks for 
stone, and alime for mortar. And they said. Come, and let us 
build for ourselves a city, and a tower whose top shall reach 
the sky ; and let us make us a name, before we be scattered 
abroad on the face of all the earth. And the Lord came down 
to see the city and the tower, which the children of men 
builded. And the Lord God said. Behold, the people is one, 
and they have all one language ; and this they begin to do : 
and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they 
have imagined to do. Come, and let ns go down, and con- 
found there their language, that they may not understand one 
another's speecL And God scattered them thence on the 




112 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XYl 



face of all the earth : and they left off to build the city and 
the tower. Therefore the uarae of it is called Confusion; 
because the Lord did there confound the language of all the 
earth : and the Lord God scattered them thence on the face of 
all the earth." ' This city, which was called Confusion, is the 
same as Babylon, whose wonderful construction Gentile history 
also notices. For Babylon means Confusion, "Whence we 
conclude that the giant Ninirod was its founder, as had been 
hinted a little befoi'c, where Scripture, in speaking of him, 
saya that the beginning of lus kingdom was Babylon, that is, 
Babylon had a supremacy over the other cities as the metro- 
polis and royal residence ; although it did not rise to the 
gi-nnd dimensions designed by its proud and impious founder: 
The plan was to make it so high that it should reach the sky, 
wliether this was meant of one tower which they intended to 
build liigher than the others, or of all the towers, which migkt 
bo signified by the singular number, as we speak of " tbe 
soldier," meaning the army, and of the frog or the locust, when 
"we refer to the whole multitude of frogs and locusts in the 
plagues with which Moses smote the Egyptians.' But what 
did these vain and presumptuous men intend ? How did 
they expect to raise this lofty mass against God, when they 
had built it almve all the mountains and the clouds of th0 
earth's atmosphere ? What injury could any spiritual oT 
material elevation do to God ? The safe and trub way to 
heaven is made by humility, which lifts up the heart to the 
Lord, not against Him ; as this giant is said to have been a 
" hunter against the Lord." This has been misunderstood by 
some through the ambiguity ot tlie Greek word, and they have 
translated it, not " against the Lord," but " before the Lord ;" 
for epuvrtov means both "before" and "against" In the 
Psalm tliis word is rendered, " Let us weep before the Lord 
our Maker."' The same word occurs in the book of Job, 
where it is written, " Thou hast broken into fury against the 
Lord."* And so this giant is to be recognised as a " hunter 
against the Lord." And what is meant by the term " hunter" 
but deceiver, oppressor, and destroyer of the animals of the 

>Gcn. xi. 1-9. »Ex. x, 

» ri. xcT. 6. * Job xr. 18. 





BOOK XVI.] OF THE CONFUSIOX OF TONGUES. 



113 



earth. ? He and his people, therefore, erected this tower 

against the Lord, and so gave expression to their impious 

pride ; and justly was their wicked intention punished by 

Crod, even though it was unsucccssfuL But what was the 

nature of the punishment ? As the tongue is the instrument 

of domination, in it pride was punished; so that man^ who 

vould not understand God when He issued His commands, 

should be misunderstood when lie liimself gave orders. Thus 

was that conspiracy disbanded, for each man retired from 

IliosB ho could not undcratand, and associated with tlioso 

whose speech was intelligible ; and the nations were divided 

according to their languages, and scatt€red over the earth as 

seemed good to God, who accomplished this in ways liidden 

&wn and incomprehensible to us. 

fi. OfGod't coming down to confound the languafftt oftht hultdert of the city, 

|^_ We read, "The Lord came down to see the city and tlie 
^Brwer which the sons of men built :^' it was not the sous of 
'ood, but that society which lived in a merely human way, 
tod wliich we call the eartlily city. Guti, wlio is always 
wholly everywhere, does not move locally ; but He is said to 
dfiscend when He does anything in the earth out of the usual 
course, which, as it were, makes His presence felt. And in 
the same way, He dues not by " seeing" learn some new 
thing, for He cannot ever be ignorant of anything ; but He is 
wid to see and recognise, in time, that which He causes 
others to see and recognise. And therefore that city was 
fiot previously being seen as God made it be seen when He 
«howed how offensive it was to Him. We might, indeed, 
interpret God's dusccuding to the city of the descent of His 
angels in whom He dwells ; so that the following words, 
"And the Lord God said, Behold, they aie all one race and 
of one language," and also what follows, " Come, and let us 
go down and confound their speech," are a recapitulation, ex- 
plaining how the previously intimated *' descent of the Lord" 
was accomplished. For if He had already gone down, why 
does He say, " Come, and let us go down and confound V — 
words which seem to be addressed to the angels, and to inti- 
mate that He who was in the angels descended in their de- 
VOL IL B 




114 



THE CITY OP GOD. 



[book XVL 



scent And the words most appropriately are, not, " Go ye 
down and confound," but, "Let us confound their speech ;** 
showing that He so works by His servants, that they are 
themselves also fellow-labourers with God, as the apostle sayi, 
"For we are fellow- labourers with God."*' 

6. WfuU we are to nnderstand by CfocTe speaimg to the angtl$. 

We might have supposed that the words uttered at &e 
creation of man, " Let us," and not Let me, " make man," were 
addressed to the angels, had He not added "in our image;" 
but as we cannot believe that man was made in the image of 
angels^ or that the imag6 of God is the same as that of aiLgels, 
it is proper to refer this expression to the plurality of tlw 
Trinity. And yet this Trinity, being one God, even after 
saying " Let us make," goes on to say, " And God made maa 
in His image,"' and not "Gods made," or "in their image." 
And were there any difficulty in applying to the angels tha 
words, " ComCj and let us go down and confound their speech,'' 
we might refer the plural to the Trinity, as if the Father werB 
addressing the Son and the Holy Spirit ; but it rather belong* 
to the angels to approach God by holy movements, that is, 
by pious thoughts, and thereby to avail themselves of the im- 
changcable truth which rules in the court of heaven as their 
eternal law. For they are not themselves the truth ; but par- 
taking in the creative truth, they are moved towards it as the 
fountain of life, that what they have not in themselves they 
may obtain in it. And this movement of theirs is steady, 
for they never go back from what they have reached. And 
to these angels God does not speak, as we speak to one an- 
other, or to God, or to angels, or as the angels speak to us, or 
as God speaks to us through them : He speaks to them in an 
ineffable manner of His own, and that which He says is con- 
veyed to UB in a manner suited to our capacity. For the 
speaking of God antecedent and superior to all His works, 
is the immutable reason of His work : it has no noisy and 
passing sound, but an energy eternally abiding and producing 
results in time. Thus He speaks to the holy angels ; but to 
us, who are for off, He speaks otherwise. When, however, we 
^ 1 Cor. iii. 0. » Gen. L 26. 





'book xvl] 



DISPERSION OF THE NATIONS. 



115 



kear "vrith the inner ear some part of the speech of God, we 
approximate to the angels. But in this work I need not 
labour to give 2(n account of the ways in which God speaks. 
For either the unchangeable Truth speaks directly to the mind 
of the rational creature in some indescribable way, or speaks 
through the cliangeable creature, either presenting spiritual 
images to our spirit, or bodily voices to our bodily sense. 

The words, " Nothing will be restrained from them which 
they have imagined to do,"* are assuredly not meant as an 
affirmation, but as an interrogation, such as is used by per- 
sons threatening, as, e.g.^ when Dido excl^ms, 

** They vill not take arms and pursue T"' 

We are to understand the words as if it had been said. Shall 
nothing be restrained from them which they have imagined to 
do ?* Prom these three men, therefore, the three sons of 
Ifoah we mean, 73, or rather, as the catalogue will show, 72 
nations and as many languages were dispersed over the earth, 
and as they increased filled even the islands. But the na- 
tions multiplied much more than the languages* For even in 
Africa we know several barbarous nations which have but 
one language ; and who can doubt that, as the human race 
increased, men contrived to pass to the islands in ships ? 

7. WMeAor even the remoicst wlantJU received iheir rxxxvA/rom the animah 
which trere prtservtdt through the deluge^ in tJie ark. 

There is a question raised about all those kinds of beasts 
irhioh are not domesticated, nor are produced like frogs from 
tlie esrth, but are propagated by male and female parents, 
such as wolves and animals of that kind ; and it is asked how 
they could be found in the islands after the deluge, in which 
all the flnimflla not in the ark perished, unless the breed was 
restored from those which were preser\'ed in pairs in the ark. 
1% might, indeed, be said that they crossed to the islands by 
summing, but this could only be true of those veiy near the 
mainland ; whereas there are soilie so distant, that we fancy 
BO animal could swim to them. But if men caught them 

* Ges. zi 6. ' Virgil, jEneid, iv. 503. 

' Here Aagnstine remarks on the addition of the particle ne to the word turn, 
vSicb be }u$ nude to bring out the sonsb 



lie 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xn. 



and took them across with themselves, and thus propagated 
these breeds in their new abodes, this would not imply an 
incredible fondness for the chase. At the sarfie time, it can- 
not be denied that by the intervention of angels they might 
be transfeiTed by God's order or permission. If, however, 
they were produced out of the earth as at their first creation, 
when God said, " Let the earth bring forth the living crea- 
ture,"^ this makes it more evident that all kinds of animals 
were preserved in the ark, not so much for the sake of re- 
newing the stock, as of prefiguring the various nations which 
were to be saved in the church ; this, I say, is more evident, 
if the earth brought forth many animals in islands to which 
they could not cross over. 

8. Whfther ceriain mongtrou^ raw* o/men are dtrivtdfnm th6 Btoei <^Adam 
or Noah's sons. 

It is also asked whether we are to believe that certain 
monstrous races of men, spoken of in secular history,' have 
sprung from Noah's sons, or rather, I should say, from that 
one man from whom they themselves were descended. For 
it is reported that some have one eye in the middle of the 
forehead ; some, feet turned backwards from the heel ; some, 
a double sex, the right breast like a man, the left like a wo- 
man, and that they alternately beget and bring forth : others 
are saitl to have no mouth, and to breathe only through the 
nostrils ; others are but a cubit high, and are therefore called 
by the Greeks "Pigmies:"' they say that in some places the 
women conceive in their fifth year, and do not live beyond 
their eighth. So, too, they toll of a race who have two feet 
but only one leg, and are of marvellous swiftness, though they 
do not bend the knee : they are called Skiopodes, because in 
the hot weather they lie down on their backs and shade them- 
selves with their feet Others ore said to have no head, and 
their eyes in their shoulders ; and other human or quasi- 
human races are depicted in mosaic in the harbour esplanade 
of Carthage, on the faith of histories of rarities. What shall 
I say of the Cynocephali^ whose dog-like head and barking 

> Gen. L 2i. 

' Pliny, HUt. Nat. vii. 2 ; Anlns Gdliiw, Noft. AtU ix^ 4. 

• From ■**'>'/<% a cubit. 



BOOK XVL] 



OF HUMAN MONSTBOSITIES. 




proclaim them beasts rather than men ? Bat we are not 
bound to believe all we hear of these monstrosities. But 
whoever is anywhere bom a man, that is, a rational mortal 
no matter what unusual appearance he presents in 
>lour, movement, sound, nor how peculiar he is in some 
power, part, or quality of his nature, no Christian can doubt 
that he springs from that one protoplast. We can distinguish 
the common human nature from that which is pecidiar, and 
therefore wonderful 

The same account which is given of monstrous births in 
individual cases can be given of monstrous races. For God, 
the Creator of all, knows whore and when each thing ought to 
be, or to have been created, because He sees the similarities 
and diversities which can contribute to the beauty of the 
■whole. But He who cannot see the whole is offended by 
the deformity of the part, because he is blind to that which 
balances it, and to which it belongs. We know that men are 
l>om witli more than four fingers on their hands or toes on 
their feet : this is a smaller matter ; but far from us be the 
folly of supposing tlrnt the Creator mistook the number of a 
man's fingers, though we cannot account for the difference. 
And so in cases where the divergence from the rule is greater. 
He whose works no man justly finds fault witli, knows what 
lie has done. At Hipi>u-l>iurrhytus there is a man whose 
hands are crescent-shaped, and have only two fingers each, 
and his feet .similarly formed. If there were a race like liiiu, 
it would be added to the history of the curious and wonder- 
ful Shall we therefore deny that this man is descended 
from that one man who was first created ? As for the Andro- 
g)'Qi, or Hermaphrodites, as they are called, though they are 
lare, yet from time to time there appear persons of sex so 
doubtful, that it remains uncertain from wliich sex they take 
their name ; though it is customary to give them a masculine 
name, as the more worthy. For no one ever called them 
Hermaphroditesses. Some years ago, quite within my own 
memory, a man was born in the East, double in his upper, 
but single in his lower half — having two heads, two chests, 
four hands, but one body and two feet like au ordinaiy man ; 
and he lived so long that many had an opportujiity of seeing 



118 



THE Cmr OP GOD. 



[book xvl 



Mm. But who could enumerate all the human births that have 
differed widely H'om their ascertained parents ? As, therefore, 
no one will deny that these are all descended &om that one 
man, so all the races which are reported to have diverged in 
bodily appearance &om the iisual course which nature gene- 
rally or almost universally preserves, if they are embraced ia 
that definition of man as rational and mortal animalsj un- 
questionably trace their pedigree to that one first father of all 
We are supposing these stories about various races who differ 
from one another and from us to be true ; but possibly they are 
not : for if we were not aware that apes, and monkeys, and 
sphinxes are not men, but beasts, those historians would pos- 
sibly describe them as races of men, and flaunt with impunity 
their faLse and vainglorious discoveries. But supposing they 
are men of whom these marvels are recorded, what if God has 
seen fit to create some races in this way, that we might not 
suppose that the monstrous births which appear among our- 
selves are the failures of that wisdom whereby He fashions 
the human nature, as we speak of the failure of a less perfect 
workman ? Accordingly, it ought not to seem absurd to us, 
that as in individual races there are monstrous births, so in 
the whole race there are monstrous races. Wherefore, to con- 
clude this question cautiously and guardedly, either these 
tilings which have beun told of some races have no existence 
at all ; or if they do exist, they are not human races ; or if 
they are human, they are descended from Adam. 



0. WheiJier we are to bducR m the Antipodes. 

But as to the fable that there are Antipodes, that is to say, 
men on the opposite side of the earth, where the sun rises 
when it sets to us, men who walk with their feet opposite ours, 
that is on no ground credible. And, indeed, it is not affirmed 
that this has been learned by historical knowledge, but by 
scientific conjecture, on the ground that the earth is suspended 
within the concavity of the sky, and tlmt it has as much room 
on the one side of it as on the other: liencti Ihey say that 
the part which is beneath must also be inhabited. But they 
do not remark that, although it be supposed or scientifically 
demonstrated th&t the world is of a round and spherical form. 




.-A^ 

OP THE AIHTPOPES. 






yet it does not follow that the other side of the earth is baie 
of water; nor even, though it be bare, does it immediately 
follow that it is peopled. For Scripture, which proves the 
tmth of its historical statements by the accomplishment of ita 
prophecies, gives no false information ; and it is too absurd to 
say, that some men might have taken ship and traversed the 
whole wide ocean, and crossed from this side of the world to 
the other, and that thus even the inhabitants of that distant 
region are descended from that one first man. Wherefore let 
us seek if we can find the city of God that sojourns on earth 
among those human races who are catalogued as having been 
divided into seventy-two nations and as many languages. For 
it continued down to the deluge and the ark, and is proved to 
have existed still among the sons of Noah by their blessings, 
and chiefly in the eldest son Shem ; for Japheth received this 
blessing, that he should dwell iu the tents of Shem. 

0. Of the fjfiuaiogy of Shem, in whme. line thf city of Ood u preserved AU ike 
time qf Abraham. 

It IB necessary, therefore, to preserve the series of genera- 
tions descending from Shem, for the sake of exhibiting the 
city of God after the flood ; as before the flood it was exhibited 
in the series of generations descending from Seth. And there- 
fore does divine Scripture, after exhibiting the earthly city as 
IBabylon or " Confusion," revert to the patriarch Shem, and 
Tecapitulate the generations from him to Abraham, specifying 
"besides, the year in which each father begat the son that be- 
longed to this line, and how long he lived. And imquestion- 
ably it is this which fulfils the promise I made, that it should 
appear why it is said of the sons of Heber, " The name of the 
one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided." * For 
what can we imderstand by the division of the earth, if not 
the diversity of languages ? And, therefore, omitting the 
other sons of Shem, who are not concerned in this matter. 
Scripture gives the genealogy of those by whom the line runs 
on to Abraham, as before the flood those are given who carried 
on the line to Noah from Seth. Accordingly this series of 
generations begins thus : " These aro the generations of Shem : 
Shem was an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two 

1 Gen. ac 26. 




120 THE cm or god. [dook m 

years after the flood. And Sliem lived after he bogMt 
Arphaxad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters" 
In like manner it registers the rest, naming the year of his 
life in vhich each begat the son who belonged to that line 
■which extends to Abraham. It specifies, too, how many years 
he lived thereafter, begetting sons and daughters, that we may 
not childishly suppose that the men named were the only 
men, but may understand how the population increased, and 
how regions and kingdoms so vast could be populated by tbe 
descendants of Shera ; especially the kingdom of Assyria, fim 
which Ninua subdued the surrounding nations, reigning witJi 
briUiant prosperity, and ber^ueathing to his descendants a vast 
but thoroughly consolidated empire, which held together 6s 
many centuries. 

But to avoid needless prolixity, we shall mention not the 
number of years each member of this series lived, but only 
the year of his Life in which he begat his heir, that we maj 
thus reckon the number of years fi'om the flood to Abraham, 
and may at the same time leave room to touch briefly an<J 
cursorily upon some other matters necessary to our argument- 
In the second year, then, after tlie flood, Shem when he wa^ 
a hundred years old begat Arphaxad ; Arphaxad when he wa* 
135 years old begat Cainan ; Cainan when ho was 130 years 
begat Salah. Salah himself, too, was the same age when ho 
begat Eber. Eber lived 134 years, and begat Peleg, in whose 
days the earth was divided. Peleg himself lived 130 years, 
and begat Beu ; and Eeu lived 132 years, and begat Serug ; 
Serug 1 30, and begat Nahor ; and Nahor 79, and begat Terah ; 
and Terah 70, and begat Abram, whose name God afterwards 
chauged into AbraJiam. There are thus from the flood to 
Abraham 1072 years, according to the Vulgate or Septuagint 
versions. In the Hebrew copies for fewer years are given ; and 
for this either no reason or a not very credible one is given. 

When, therefore, we look for the city of God in these 
seventy-two nations, we cannot aftlrm that wlxile they had 
but one lip, that is, one language, the human race had de- 
parted from the worship of the true God, and that genuine 
godliness had survived only in those generations which de- 
scend from Shem through Arphaxad and reach to Abraham ; 



BOOK XVl] 



OF THE PRIMITIVE LANGUAGE. 



121 



but from the time when they proudly built a tower to heaven, 
a symbol of godless exaltation, the city or society of the 
wicked becomes apparent. Wlietlier it was ooly disguised 
before, or non-existent ; whether both cities remained after the 
flood. — the godly in the two sons of Noah who were blessed, and 
in their posterity, and the ungodly in the cursed son and his 
deacendanla, from whom sprang that mighty hunter against 
the Lord, — is not easily determined. For possibly — and cer- 
tainly this is more credible — there were despisers of God 
among the descendants of the two sons, even before Babylon 
was founded, and worshippers of God among the desceiidants 
of HanL Certainly neither race wag ever obliterated from 
ettith. For in both the Psalms in which it is said, " They 
Are all gone aside, they are altogether become filthy ; there is 
none that doeth good, no, not one," we read further, " Have 
all the workers of iniquity no knowledge ? wlio eat up my 
people as they eat bread, and call not upon the Lord." ^ There 
was then a people of God even at llaat time. And therefore 
the words, " There is none that doeth good, no, not one," were . 
said of the sons of men, not of the sons of God. Far it had 
been previously said, " God looked down from lieaven upon 
thd sons of men, to see if any understood and sought atTter 
God ; " and then follow the words which demonstrate that all 
the sons of men, that is, all who belong to the city wliich 
lives according to man, not according to God, are reprobate. 

Tl. That the original language %n u»t among mm tcaa that tchlcH wo* afUrwarda 
<aUed Hebrew, from Hchcr^ in w?u}$e Jamihj it vcom preserved when lAc 
conJu*ion, of tongue* occurred. 

Wherefore, as the fact of all using one language did not 
secure the absence of sin-infected men fi*om the race^ — for even 
li^fbrc tlie deluge there was one language, and yet all but the 
sii^Le family of just Koah were found worthy of destruction 
Ijy the flood, — so when the nations, by a prouder godlessness, 
earned the punishment of the dispersion and the confusion of 
toogaes, and the city of the godless was called Confusion or 
Babylon, there was still the house of Heber in which the pri- 
Tnitive language of the race survived- And therefore, as I 
tave already mentioned, when an enumeration is made of the 

> Pt. liT. 3. 4, liii. 8, 4. 



122 



FE CITY 0? GOD. 



[book XVI. 



sons of Shem, who each founded a nation, Heber is first men- 
tioned, although he was of the fifth generation from Shem. 
And because, when the other races were divided by their own 
peculiar languages, his family preserved that language which 
is not unreasonably believed to have been the common 
langoago of the race, it was on this account thenceforth 
named Hebrew. For it then became necessary to distinguish 
this language from the rest by a proper name ; though, while 
there was only one, it had no other name than the language 
of man, or hiiman speech, it alone being spoken by the v^hole 
human race. Some one will say : If the earth was divided 
by languages in the days of Peleg, Heber's son, that language) 
which was formerly common to all, should rather have been 
called after Peleg. But we are to understand that Heber 
himself gave to his son tliis name Peleg, which means Division ; 
because he was bom when the earth was divided, that is, at 
the very time of the division, and that this ia the meaning of 
the words, " In his days the earth was divided."* For unless 
Heber had been still alive when the languages were multiplied, 
the language whicli was preserved in his house would not 
have been called after him. We are induced to believe that 
this was the primitive and common language, because the 
multiplication and change of languages was introduced as a 
pmiisluneiit, and it is fit to ascribe to the people of God an 
immunity from this punishment. Nor is it without signifi- 
cance that this is the language which Abraham retained, and 
that he could not transmit it to all his descendants, but only 
to those of Jacob's line, who distinctively and eminently con- 
stituted God's people, and received Hia covenants, and were 
Christ's progenitors according to the flesh. In the same way, 
Heber himself did not transmit that language to all his pos- 
terity, but only to the line from which Abraham sprang. And 
thus, although it is not expressly stated, that when the wicked 
were building Babylon there was a godly seed remaining, this 
indistinctness is intended to stimulate research rather than to 
elude it For when we see tliat originally there was one 
common language, and that Heber is mentioned before all 
Shem's sons, though he belonged to the fifth generation from 

^ Gen. X. 25. 



BOOK XVI.] HEBREW THE PBnilTlVK LANGUAGE. 



123 



, and that the language which the patriaxchs and prophets 
used, not only in their conversation, hut in the authoritative 
age of Scripture, is called Hebrew, when we are asked 
that primitive and common langua^ was preserved 
-after the confusion of tongues, certainly, as there can be no 
abt that those among whom it was preserved were exempt 
the punishment it embodied, what other suggestion can 
make^ than that it survived in the family of him whose 
e it took, and that this is no small proof of the righteous- 
of this family^ that the puniahraent with which the other 
fiunilies were visited did not fall upon it ? 

But yet another question is mooted : How did Heber and 
hia son Peleg each found a nation, if they had but one language ? 
For no doubt the Hebrew nation propagated from Heber through 
Abraham, and becoming through him a great people, is one 
nation. How, then, are all the sons of the three branches of 
Noah's family enumerated as founding a nation each, if Heber 
md Peleg did not so ? It is very probable that the giant 
Kimrod founded also his nation, and that Scripture has named 
Iiim separately on account of the extraordinary dimensions of 
liis empire and of his body, so that the number of seventy-two 
nations remains. But Peleg was mentioned, not because he 
founded a nation (for his race and language are Hebrew), but 
on account of the critical time at which he was bom, all the 
•arth being then divided. Nor ought we to be surprised that 
the giant Nimrod lived to the time in which Babylon was 
foanded and the confusion of tongues occurred, and the con- 
sequent division of the earth. For though Heber was in the 
fiizth generation from J^oali, and Nimrod in the fourth, it does 
not follow that they could not be alive at the same time. For 
when the generations are few, they live longer and are bom 
Jater ; but when they are many, they live a shorter time, and 
come into the world earlier. We arc to understand that, when 
the earth was divided, the descendants of Noah who are regis- 
tered as founders of nations were not only already horn, but 
were of an age to have immense families, worthy to be called 
tnbes or nations. And therefore we must by no means 
suppose that they were born in the order in which they were 
down ; otherwise, how could the twelve sons of Joktan, 




TIIE CITY OF GOD. 



[nOOK XTL 



another son of Heber's, and brother of Peleg, have already 
founded nations, if JokUa was born, as he is registered, after 
Lis brotlier Peleg, since the earth was divided at Pelegfs birth ? 
"We are therefore to understand that, though Peleg is named 
first, he 'Was bom long after Joktan, whose twelve sons had 
already families so largo as to admit of their being divided by 
different languages. There is nothing extraordinary in the 
last born being fii-st named : of the sons of Noah, the descend- 
ants of Japheth are first named ; then the sons of Ham, who 
was the second son ; and last the sons of Shem, who was the 
first and oldest. Of these nations tlie names have partly sur- 
vived, so that at tliis day we can see from whom they have 
sprung, as the Assyrians from Aasur, the Hebrews from Heber, 
but partly have been altered in the lapse of time, so tluit the 
most learned men, by profound research in ancient records, 
have scarcely been able to discover the origin, I do not say of 
all, but of some of these nations. There is, for example, 
nothing in tlie name Egyptians to sliow that they are descended 
from Misraim, Ham's son, nor in the name Ethiopians to show 
a connection with Cush, though such is said to be the origin 
of these nations. And if wo take a general survey of the 
names, we shaE find that more have been changed than have 
remained the same. 

12. Of iht era in Abraham's life from ir/iicA a new period in the holtf 
succession begins. 

Let us now survey the progress of the city of God from the 
era of the patriarcli Abraham, from whose time it begins to 
be more conspicuous, and the divine promises which are now 
fidfilled in Ciirist are more fully revealed. We learn, then, 
from the intimations of holy Scripture, that Abraham was 
born in the country of the Chaldeans, a land belonging to 
the Assyrian empire. Now, even at that time impious super- 
stitioiis were rife with the Chaldeans, as with other nations. 
The famOy of Terah, to which Abraham belonged, was the 
only one in wliich the worship of the true God survived, and 
the only one, wo may suppose, in which the Hebrew language 
was preserved ; although Joshim the son of Nim tells us that 
even this family served other gods in Mesopotamia.^ The 

* Joih. zziv. 2. 



BOOK XVlJ 



07 ABRAHAM'S PROGENITORS. 



125 



other descendants of Heber gradually became absorbed in other 
races and other lanpiiiaj^es. And thus^ as the single family of 
Xoah was preserved through the deluge of water to renew the 
human race, so, in the deluge of superstition that flooded the 
whole world, there remained but the one family of Terah in 
which the seed of God's city was preserved. And as, when 
Scripture has entm;erated the generations prior to Noah, with 
their ages, and explained the cause of the flood before God 
began to speak to Noah about the building of the ark; it is 
said, "These are the generations of Noah;" so also now, after 
enumerating the generations from Shem, Noah's son, do^vu to 
Abraham, it tlien signalizes an era by saying, "These are the 
generations of Terali : Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran ; 
and Haran begat Lot. And Haran died before his father 
Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees. And 
Abram and Nahor took them ^vives : the name of Abram's 
wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor s wife IMilcah, the 
daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of 
Iscah."^ This Iscah is supposed to be the same as Sarah, 
Abraham's wife. 

13. W7iy, in the account of Terah't emi^afion, on Am forsahlng the Chaldeans 
ami parting over into Mesopotamia^ no mention is made ofhia tton Nahor. 

Next it is related how Terah with his family left the 
region of the Chaldeans and came into Mesopotamia, and 
dwelt in Haran. But nothing is said about one of his sons 
ciUed Nahor, as if he had not taken him along with hini. 
For the narrative runs thus : " And Terali took Abram Jus 
son, and Lot the son of Haran, liis son^s son, and Sarah his 
daaghter-in-law, his son Abram's wife, and led them forth 
OBt of the region of the Chiddcans to go into the kn*l of 
Canaan ; and he came into Haran, and dwelt there,"' Nahor 
and Milcah his wife are nowliere named here. But after- 
mrds, when Abraliam sent his servant to take a wife for his 
son Isaac, we find it thus -written: "And the servant took ten 
camels of the camels of his lord, and of all the goods of his 
lord, witli hira; and arose, and went into Mesopotaiuia, into the 
dty of Nahor."' This and other testimonies of this sacred 
Mstoiy show that Nahor, Abi-aham*s brother, had also left the 
" Gea. xL 27-29. ' Gcd. xi. 31, » Oeu. xxiv. 10. 




126 



THE cnr or god. 



[book x?i 



region of the Chaldeans, and fbced his abode in Mesopotamia, 
where Abraham dwelt with his father. Why, then, did the 
Scripture not mention him, when Terah with his family went 
forth out of the Chaldean nation and dwelt in Haran. since it 
uieutions that he took with him not only Abraham bis son, 
but also Sarah his daiighter-in-law, and Lot his grandson T 
The only reason we can tliink of is, that perhaps he had lapsed 
from the piety of his father and brother, and adhered to the 
superstition of the Chaldeans, and had aften^-ards emigrated 
thence, either through penitence, or because he was persecuted 
as a suspected person. For in the book called Judith, when 
Holofemes, the enemy of the Israelites, inquired what kind of 
nation that might be, and whether war should be made agaiiut 
them, Achior, the leader of the Ammonites, answered him thus: 
" Let our lord now hear a word from the mouth of thy ser- 
vant, and I will declare imto thee the truth concerning the 
people which dwelleth near thee in this hill country, and 
there shall no lie come out of the mouth of thy servant For 
this people is descended from the Chaldeans, and they dwelt 
heretofore in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the 
gods of their fathers, which were glorious in the land of the 
Chaldeans, but went out of the way of their ancestors, and 
adored the God of heaven, whom they knew ; and they cast 
them out from the face of their gods, and they fled into MesO' 
potamia, and dwelt there many days. And their God said to 
them, that they should depart from their habitation, and go 
into the land of Canaan ; and they dwelt," ^ etc., as Achior the 
Ammonite narrates. Whence it is manifest that the house of 
Terah had suffered persecution from the Clialdeans for the 
true piety with which they worshipped the one and true God 



14. Of the years qf Terah, who ccmpleted his U/etimt in Haram, 

On Terah's death in Mesopotamia, where he is said to have 
lived 205 years, the promises of God made to Abraliam now 
begin to be pointed out ; for thus it is written : " And the days 
of Terah in Haran were two hundred and five years, and he 
died in Hamn/' ^ This is not to be taken as if he had spent 
all his days there, but that he there completed the days of his 
* Judith T. 6-0. > GeQ. xi. 32. 





XVI.] 



THE MIGRATION OF ABRAHAM. 



127 



life, "wliicli were two hundred and five years : otherwise it 
iwrald not be known how many years Terah lived, since it is 
not said in what year of his life he came into Haraii ; and it is 
■bBiud to suppose that, in this series of generations, where it 
Sa carefully recorded how many years each one lived, his age 
Was the only one not put on record. For although some 
"whom the same Scripture mentions have not their age re- 
corded, they are not in this series, in which the reckoning of 
time is continuously indicated by the death of the parents and 
the succession of the children. For this series, which is given 
in order from Adam to Noah, and from him down to Abraham, 
contains no one without the number of the years of his life. 

15. O/tht txme pfOiit tnxQrafxon of Ahrahafii^ wheyi, according to the. commoncf- 
mcnt of Oodf he uraU out from Hanxn, 

When, after the record of the death of Terah, the father of 

Abraham, we next read, " And the Lord said to Abram, Get 

thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy 

'Other's house/' * etc., it is not to be supposed, because this 

follows in the order of the narrative, that it also followed in 

the chronological order of events. For if it were so, there 

"Would be an insoluble difficulty. For after these words of 

God which were spoken to Abraham, the Scripture says : " And 

Ahram departed, as the Lord had spoken unto him ; and Lot 

■Went with him. Now Abraham was seventy-five years old 

vhen he departed out of Haran." ^ How can this be true if he 

departed from Haran after his father's death ? For when Terah 

Was seventy years old, as is intimated above, he begat Abraham; 

and if to this number we add the seventy-five years which 

Abraham reckoned when he went out of Haran, we get 145 

years. Therefore that was the number of the years of Terah, 

when Abraham departed out of that city of Mesopotamia ; 

for he had reached the seventy-fifth year of his life, and 

thus his father, who begat him in the seventieth year of his 

life, had reached, as was said, his 14:5 th. Therefore he did not 

depart thence after his lather's death, that is, after the 205 

jears his father lived ; but the year of his departure from 

ftat place, seeing it was his seventy-fifth, is interred beyond 

ubt to have been the 145th of his father, who begat him 

^ Gen. xu. 1. * Geo. zii. 4. 




12S 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xvr. 



in his seventieth year. And thus it is to be understood that 
the ScriptTire, according to its custom, has gone back to the 
time wiiich had already been passed by the narrative ; just as 
above, when it liad mentioned the grandsons of Noah, it said 
that they were in their nations and tongues ; and yet after- 
wards, as if this also had followed in order of time, it says, 
" And the whole eaith was of one lip, and one speech for alL" ^ 
How, then, could they be said to be in their own nations and 
according to their own tongues, if there was one for all ; ex- 
cept because the nai*rative goes back to gather up what it had 
passed over ? Here, too, in the same way, after saying, '* And 
the days of Terah in Haran were 205 years, and Terah died 
in Harau," the Scripture, going back to what had been passed 
over in order to complete what had been begun about Terah, 
says, "And the Lord said to Abram, Get thee out of thy 
country," ' etc. After which words of God it is added, '* And * 
Abram departed, as the Lord spake unto him ; and Lot Avent 
with him. But Abram was seventy-five years old when he 
departed out of Haran." Therefui-e it was done when his 
father was in the 145tli year of his age; for it was then the 
seventy-fifth of his own. But this question is also solved in 
another way, that the seventy-five years of Abraham when he 
depaited out of Haran are reckoned from the year in wluch 
he was delivered from the fire of the Chaldeans, not from that 
of liis birth, as if he was rather to be held as having beea 
bom then, 

Now the blessed Stephen, in narrating these things in the 
Acts of the Apostles, says: "The God of glory appeared unto 
our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he 
(hvtlt in Charran, and said nnto him, Get thee out of thy 
country, and from thy kindred, and from thy fathers house, 
and come into the land which I will show thee." ^ Accord- 
ing to these words of Stephen, God spoke to Abraham, not 
after the death of his father, who certainly died in Haran, 
where liis son also dwelt with him, but before he dwelt in 
tliat city, although he was already in Mesopotamia. There- 
fore he had already departed from the Chaldeans. Sd that 
ids. "Then Abraham went out of the land of 



en Stephei 
^6«&,zi. 1. 



-GeiL xii 1. 



' Acta vii. 2, 3. 



XVI,] 



THE PRO^riSES MADE TO ABRAHAir. 



129 



flie Chaldeans, and dwelt in Charran/' * this does not point 
out what took place after God spoke to Liin (for it wiia not 
after these words of God that he went out of the land of 
' the Chaldeans, since he says that God spoke to him in Meso- 
potomia). but the woi*d 'Ulvcn" whicli he uses refers to that 
whole period from his going out of the land of tlic Clialdenns 
and dwelling in Haran. Likewise in what follows, " And 
theuceforth, when his father was dead, lie settled him in this 
land, wherein ye now dwell, and your fathers/' he does not 
say, after his father was dead he went out from Haran ; but 
thenceforth he settled him here, after his father was dead. It 
is to be understood, therefore, tliat God liad spoken to Abra- 
ham when ho was in Mesopotamia, before he dwelt in Haran ; 
but that he came to Haran with his father, keeping in mind 
the precept of God, and that he went out thence in his own 
eeventy-tifth year, which was his father's 145th. But he says 
iliat his settlement in the land of Canaan, not his going forth 
from Haran, took place after his father's death ; because his 
father was already dead when ho purchased the land, and ])er- 
aonnlly entered on possession of it. But when, on his having 
already settled in Mesopotamia, that is, already gone out of 
tlw land of the Chaldeans, God says, " Get thee out of thy 
country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house," '^ 
tliia means, not that he should cast out JiLs body from thence, 
for he had already done that, but that lie slaould tear away 
las souL For he had not gone out from thence in mind, if 
he was held by the hope and desire of returning, — a hope and 
desire which was to be cut off by God's command and help, 
find by his own obedience. It would indeed be no incredible 
supposition that afterwards, when Nahor followed his father, 
Abraliam tht^n fulfilled the precept of the Lord, that he should 
depart out of Hamn with Sarah Ids wife and Lot his brother's 



SOIL 



M. Of Utt order and naturt of the promUea qf Qod tchich icfre made to 

Abruham. 



God's promises made to Abraliam are now to be considered; 
I for in these the oracles of our God,^ that is, of the true God, 



' Acta vii. 4. 



> Gen. xU. 1. 



' Various readiu^ " of our Lord JesoB Cluifit.' 



TOL. IL 




130 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xvl 



began to appear more openly coucernixig the gotUy people, 
whom prophetic authority foretold. The first of these reads 
thus : " And the Lord said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy 
country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, 
and go into a land that I will show thee : and I will make of 
thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and magnify thy 
name ; and thou shalt be blessed: and I will bless them that 
bless tliec, and curse them that curse thee : and in thee shall 
all tribes of the earth be blessed." ^ N"ow it is to be observed 
that two things are promised to Abnihani, the oul', tliat his 
seed should possess the land of Canaan, which is intimated 
when it is said, " Go into a land that I will show thee, and I 
will make of thee a great nation ; " but the other far more 
excellent, not about the carnal but the sjnritual seed, through 
which, he is the father, not of the one Israelite nation, but of 
all nations who follow tlie footprints of his faith, which was 
first promised in these words, " And in thee shall all tribes of 
the earth be blessed." Eusebius thought this promise was 
made in Abraham's seventy-fifth year, as if soon after it was 
made Abraham had departed out of Haran ; because tlie Scrip- 
ttu^ cannot be contradicted, in which we read, " Abram was 
seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran." 
But if this promise was made in that year, then of course 
Abraham was staging in Haran with his father; for he could 
not depart thence unless he had first dwelt there. Does this, 
then, contradict what Stephen says, " The God of glory ap- 
peared to ouj father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, 
before he dwelt in Cliairan ? "^ But it is to be uiulcrstood that 
the whole took place in the some year, — botli the promise of 
Grod before Abraham dwelt in Haran, and his dwelling in. 
Haran, and his departure thence. — not only because Eusebius 
in the Chronicles reckons from tlie year of tins promise, and 
shows that after 430 years the exodus from Egj^jt took place, 
when the law was given, but because the Apostle Paul also 
mentions it. 

17. Oftiie three moat famous kinrfdoms of the fra/ionx, of which one, thai is, the 

Aisifriatt, tnw <Urtady vcri/ eminent when Abraham teca bom. 

During the same period there were three famous kingdoms 



' Gcii. lii. 1-3. 



" Acts vii. 2. 



BOOK Xn.] REPEnXION OF THE PROMISES. 131 

of the nations, in which the city of the earth-born, that is, the 
society of men living according to man xmder the domination 
of the fallen angels, chiefly flourished, namely, the three king- 
doms of Sicyon, Egypt, and Ass^Tio. Of these, Assyria was 
much the most powerful and eubhme ; for that king Ninus, 
son of Belus, had subdued tlie peojile of all Asia except India. 
By Asia I now mean not that part which is one province of 
this greater Asia, but wliat is called Universal Asia, which 
some set down as the half, but most as the third part of the 
whole worldj — the tliree being Asia, Europe, and Africa, thereby 
making an unequal diWsion. For the part called Asia stretches 
from the south through tlie east even to the north ; Europe 
from the north even to tlie west ; and Africa from the west 
even to the south. Thus we see that t^voJ Europe and Africa, 
contain one half of the world, and Asia alone the other half 
And these two parts are made by the ciicumstance, that there 
entera between them from the ocean all the Mediterranean water, 
■which makes thia great sea of ours. So that, if you divide the 
world into two parts, the east and the west, Asia will be in the 
one, and Europe and Africa in the other. So that of the three 
feingdo;u8 then famous, one, namely Sicyon, was not under 
the Assyrians, because it was in Europe ; but as for Egypt, 
how could it fail to be subject to the empire which ruled all 
-Asia with the single exception of India i In Assyria, there- 
fore, the dominion of the impious city had the pre-eminence. 
Its head was Babylon,— an earth-born city, most fitly named, 
lor it means confusion. There Ninus reigned after the death of 
liis father Belus, who first bad reigned there sixty-five years. 
His son Ninus, who, on his father's death, succeeded to the 
Idngdom, reigned tifty-two years, and had been king forty- , 

three years when Abroliam was bora, which was about the j 

1200th year before Rome was founded, as it were another 
Babylon in the west , 

^■U. 0/the repmUd addreu of God to Abraham, in which HeprvmUed the ^^M 

^" land qf Canaan to him and to his seed, ^^1 

Abraham, then, having dex^aittid out of Haxan in the 

seventy-fifth year of his own age, and in the hundred and 

forty-fiftli of his father's, went with Lot, his brother's son, 

uid Surah his wifOj into the land of Canaan, and came even to 





THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XTL 



Sichem, where again he received the divine oracle, of vrliicL 
it is thus MTitten : " And the Lord appeared unto Abram, 
and said unto hira, Unto thy seed will I give this land."' 
Notliing is promised here about that seed in which he is 
made the father of all nations^ but only about that by which 
}ie is the fatlier of the one Israelite nation ; for by this seed 
that land was possessed. 

19. Of tilt divhie preservation of Sarah's chastity tn Effyptt when Abraham 
had called iter not /iw wi/e but hla sUtr-r. 

Ha^'ing built an altar there, and called upon God, Abrahaic 
proceeded thence and dwelt in the desert, and was compelled by 
pressure of famine to go on into Egypt There he called liifl 
wife his sister, and told no lie. For she was this also, because 
she was near of blood ; just as Lot, on account of the same 
nearness, being his brother's son, is called his brother. Xov 
he did not deny that she M*as his wife» but held his peace 
about it, committing to God the defence of his wife's chastity, 
and pTovidin*; as a man against human wiles ; because if I'f 
had not provided against the danger as much as he could, he 
woidd have been tempting God rather than trusting in Hint 
We have said enough about this matter against the colunmie* 
of Faustus the Manicha^an. At last what Abraham had ex- 
pected the Lord to do took place. For Pharaoh, king o^ 
Egypt, who had taken her to him as hia wife^ restored her to 
her husband on being severely plagued. And far be it fro^>* 
US to believe that she was defiled by IjTUg with another i 
because it is much more credible that, by these great afiiic- 
tions, Pharaoh was not permitted to do this, 

20. OfUie parting ofLoi and Abraham, which then agreed to without hreaeh 

of charity. 

On Abraliam's return out of Egypt to the place he had left, 
Lot, his brother's son, departed from him into the land of Sodom» 
without breach of charity. For they had grown rich, and ; 
began to have many herdmen of cattle, and when these strove 
together, they avoided in this way the pugnacious discord of! 
their families. Indeed, as human affairs go, this Ciiuse might 
even have given rise to some strife between themselves. Con- 
sequently these are the words of Abraham to Lot, when taking 

* Gun. xii. 7. 




BOOK XVL] SEPAILVTION OF ABRAHAM AKD LOT, 



133 



precaution against this evil, '* Let tliere be no strife between 
mo and thee, and between my hcixlmen and thy herdmen ; for 
we be "brethren. Behold, is not the whole land before thee ? 
Separate thyself from me : if thou wilt go to the left hand, I 
go to the right ; or if thou wilt go to the right hand, I 
go to the left." * From this, perhaps, has arisen a pacific 
custom among men, that when there is any i^artition of earthly 
UiLngs, the greater should make the division, the less the 
choice. 

0/the third promise ofOod, by which fie aosured the land <if Canaan to 

AbrnJiam and hU eeed in perpetuUif. 

Now, when Abraham and Lot had separated, and dwelt 
;, owing to the necessity of supporting their families, and 
to vile discord, and AUralnim was in the land of Canaan, 
It Lot in Sodom, the Lord said to Abraham in a third oracle. 
Life up thine eyes, and look fi*om tlie place where thuu now 
to the north, and to Africa, and to the east, and to the 
; for all the land which tliou seest, to thee vnR I give it, 
aii«l to thy seed for ever, And I will make thy seed as the 
dost of the earth ; if B.ny one can number the dust of the earth, 
thy seed shall also be numbered. Arise, and walk through 
the land, in tlie length of it, and in the breadth of it; for unto 
thee will I give it" " It does not clearly appear whether in 
this promise that also is contained by which he is made the 
latlicr of all nations. For Uie clause, " And 1 will make thy 
aced ai3 the dust of the earth," may seem to refer to this, being 
^iken by that figure the Greeks call hyperbole, which indeed 
is figurative, not literal But no person of understanding can 
doubt in what manner the Scripture uses this and other 
figures. For that figure (tliat is, way of speaking) is used 
when what is said is far larger than what is meant by it ; 
fur who does not see how incomparably larger the number of 
Uie dust must be than that of all men can be from Adam 
himself dowTi to the end of the world ? How much greater, 
then, must it be than the seed of Abraham, — not only that 
j«rtnining to the nation of Lsracl, but also that which is and 
shall be according to tlie imitation of fitith in u.11 nations of the 
whole wide world I For that seed is indeed very small in 
t Gen. xUi. 8, 9. * Gen. xUi. 14-17. 




134 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[BOOK XVI. 



comparison with tlie multitude of the wicked, although even 
those few of themselves make an innumerable multitude, 
which by a hv^ierbole is eompared to the dust of the earth. 
Truly that midtitude which was promised to Abraham is not 
innuinenible to God, althougli to man ; but to God not even 
the dust of the earth is so. Fmther, the promise here made 
may be understood not only of the nation of Israel, bat of the 
whole seed of Abraham, which may be fitly compared to the dust 
for multitude, because regarding it also there is the promise*^ of 
many children, not according to the flesh, but according to the 
spirit. But we have therefore said that this does not clearly 
appear, because the multitude even of that one nation, which 
was bom according to the flesh of Abraham through his 
grandson Jacob, lias increased so much as to fill almost all 
parts of the world Consequeutly, eveu it might by hj-perbole 
be compared to the dust for multitude, because even it alone 
is iuuumerable by man. Certainly uo one q^uestions that only 
that land is meant wliich is called Canaan. But that saying, 
"To thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever," may move 
some, if by " for ever" they understand " to eternity." But if 
in this passage they take "for ever" thus, as we firmly hold 
it means, that the beginning of the world to come is to be 
ordered from the end of the present, there is stUl no difliculty, 
because, although the Israelites are expelled from Jerusalem, 
they stiE remain in other cities in the land of Canaan, and 
shall remain even to the end ; and when that whole land is in- 
habited by Christians, tliey also ore the very seed of Abraham. 

22. Of Ahraketm^» tivercoming the ^netniei of Sodom, when fte dcHvered LU 
from captieiltf and teas IUmciI l»y Meldiiudek the }>rUat. 

Having received this oracle of promise, Abraham migrated, 
and remained in another place of the same land, that is, 
beside the oak of Mamre, which was Hebron. Tlien on 
the invasion of Sodom, when five kings carried on war 
against four, and Lot was taken captive with the conquered 
Sodomites, Abrahfim delivered lum from the enerny, leading 
with him to battle three hundred and eigliteen of his home- 
bom servants, and won the victory for the kings of Sodom, 
but would take nothing of the spoils when offered by the king 

* Vikrioua reading, ** the express prontUo." 



BOOK XTXj PROMISE OF imrEROTTS POSTKniTT.' 

for whom he had won them. He was then openly blessed bjr 
Melchizedek, who was priest of God Most High, about whom 
many and great things are written in the epistle which is in- 
scribed to the Hebrews, which most say is by the Apostle 
PttTil, though some deny this. For then first appeared the 
sacrifice which is now offered to God by Cliristions in the 
■whole wide world, and that is fulfilled which long after the 
event was said by the prophet to Clirist, who was yet to come 
in the flesh, " Thou art a priest for ever after the order of 
Melchizedek," ' — that is to say, not after the order of Aaron, 
for tliat order wns to be tiiken away when the things shone 
forth which were intimated beforeliand by these shadows. 



^" 



S3. Of the vjord of the Lord to Ahraham, by tohich ii waa promUed to him thai 
Ais poaierity »hould be multiplied according to the multitude of the 8tart; 
on beUevtng which he tctu declared justified while yet in uncireuvieinon. 

The word of the Lord came to Abraham in a vision also. 
For when God promised him protection and exceeding great 
reward, he, being solicitous about posterity, said that a certain. 
Eliezer of Damascus, bom in his house, would be his heir. 
Immediately he was promised an heir, not that house-bom 
servant, bnt one who was to come forth of Abraham himself; 
and again a seed innumerable! not as the dust of the earth, 
but as the stars of heaven, — which rather seems to me a pro- 
mise of a posterity exalted in celestial felicity. For, so far as 
multitude is concerned, what are the stars of heaven to the 
dust of the earth, unless one should say the comparison ia like 
inasmuch as the stars also cannot be numl^ered ? For it is not 
to be believed that all of them can be seen. For the more 
keenly one observes them, the more does he see. So that it is 
to be supposed some remain concealed from the keenest ob- 
senxrs, to say nothing of those stars which are said to rise and 
set in another part of the world most remote from us, Finally, 
the authority of this book condemns those like Aiatus or 
Eudoxus, or any others who boast that they have found out and 
written lUnvn the cnui]»lett» number of the stars. Here, indeed, 
ia set down tliat sentence whicii the apostle quotes iu order to 
commend the gmcti of God, *' Abraham believed God, and it 
was counted to him for righteousness ;"^ lest the circumcision. 

L» Vs. cj. i. « Kom. iv. 3 ; Oen. XT, 6. 



136 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XVI. 



should glory, oiui be unwilling to receive the uncii-cumcised 
nations to the faith of Christ. For at the time when he be- 
lieved, and his faitli was counted to him for righteousness, 
Abraliam had not yet been circumcised. 

24. 0/the meaning fifthf »ncrifre Abrnhftm tptui commnndM to ofer w2it» Jie 
Bvpplicatfd to te iattjjht about those tkitiyi ke had believed. 

In the same vision, God in speaking to him also says, *I 
am God that brought thee out of the region of the Cbaldees, 
to give thee this land to inherit it." ^ And when Abram 
asked whei'eby he uiiglit kno^v■ that he shouhl inlierit it, God 
said to Idni, " Take me an heifer of three years old, and ft 
Bhe-goat of tliree yeai-s old, and a mm of three years old, and 
a turtle-dove, and a pigeon. And he took unto him all these, 
and divided them in the midst^ and laid each piece one against 
another ; bvit the binls divided he not. And tlie fowls came 
down/' OS it is written, *' on the carcases, and Abram sat 
down by them. But about the going down of the sun, great 
fear fell upon Abram ; and, lo, an hoiTor of great darkness fell 
upon lum. And He said iinto Abram, Know of a surety tlifl^ 
thy seed shall be a stranger in a land not their.?, and LheyshflU 
reduce them to servitude ; and shall atHict tlicm foiu* hundre*^- j 
years : but the nation whom they shall serve will I judge f\ 
and afterward shall they come out hither with great substance- ( 
And thou shalt go to thy futliers in peace ; kept in a good olci-^ 
age. But in the fourth generation they shall come hithe^l 
again : for tlie iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full And ' 
wlien the sun was setting, there was a llimie, and a smoking" ' 
furnace, and lamps of fire, that passed tlirough between those 
pieces. In that day tlie Loixl made a covenant with Abram, 
saying. Unto thy seed will I give this land, from tlie river of 
Egypt imto the great river Euphrates : the Kenites, and the 
Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites. and the Hittites, and the Periz- 
zites, and the Kephainis^ ajid the Amorites, and tlie Conaanites, 
and the Hivites, and the Girgasldtes, and the Jebusites."' 

All these things were said and done in a vision from God ; 

but it would take long, and would exceed the scope of this 

work, to treat of them exactly in detail It is enough that 

we should know that, after it was said Abram believed in 

1 Gen, XV, 7. = Gen, iv. &-21. 




BOOK XVI,] 



OF ABEAHASIS SACBmCE. 



137 



God. and it was counted to Lim for righteousness, he did not 
fiiil in faith in saying, " Lord God, whereby shall I know 
that I shall inherit it ? " lor the inheritance of that land 
was promised to him. Now he does not say, How shall I 
know, as if he did not yet believe ; but he says, " WTiereby 
shall I know/* meaning tliat some sign might be given by 
which he might know the manner of those tilings which he 
had believed, just as it is not for lack of faith the Yii'gin 
ilaiy says, " How shall this be, seeing I know not a man ? " * 
for she inquired as to the way in which that should take 
place which she was certain would come to pass. And when 
she asked this, she was told, " The Holy Ghost sliall come 
upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow 
ibee." * Here also, in fine, a symbol was given, consisting of 
three animals, a heifer, a she-goat, and a ram, and two birds, 
a turtle-dove and pigeon, that he might know that the things 
which he had not doubted should come to ]>ass were to 
happen in accordance with this symbol. Whether, therefore, 
the heifer was a sign that the people should be put under the 
law, the she-goat that the same people was to become sinful, 
the ram that they should reigii (and these animals are said to 
be of three years old for this reason, that there are three 
remarkable divisions of time, from Adam to Koah, and from 
him to Abraham, and from him to David, who^ on the rejec- 
tion of Saul, was fii-st established by the will of the Lord in 
the kingdom of the Israelite nation : in this third division, 
which extends from Abmbani to L)a\4d, that people grew up 
as if passing through the third age of life), or whether they 
had some other more suitable meaning, still I have no doubt 
whatever that spiritual things were prefigured by them as 
well as by the turtle-dove and pigeon. And it is said, " Lut 
birds divided he not," because carnal men are divided 
ong themselves, but the spiritual not at all, whether they 
hide themselves from the busy conversation of men, like 
e turtle-dove, or dwell among them, like the pigeon ; for 
both birds are simple and Jiarmless, signifying that even in 
the Israelite people, to which that land was to be given, there 
would be individuals who were children of the promise, and 
> Luke i. 34. * Luke L 35. 





138 



THE CITT OF GOD. 



[book m 



heirs of the kingdom that is *■ to remain in eternal felicity. 
But the fowls coming down on the divided carcases represent 
nothing good, but the spirits of this air, seeking some food for 
tJiemselves in the division of carnal men. But that Abraham 
sat down with them, signifies that even amid these divisions 
of the carnal, true believers shall persevere to the end. And 
that about the going down of the STin great fear fell upon 
Abraham and a hoiTor of great darkness, signifies tliat about 
the end of this world believers shall be in great perturbation. 
and tribulation, of wliich the Lord said in the gospel, " For 
then shall be great tribulation, such as was not from the 
beginning.'* ^ 

But what is said to Abraham, " Know of a surety that thy 
seed shall be a stranger in a land not theirs, and they shall 
reduce them to scrNnttide, and shall afflict tliom 400 years," 
is most clearly a prophecy about the people of Israel which 
was to be in servitude in Egj'pt. Not that this people was 
to be in that senntude under the oppressive Eg}'ptians for 
400 years, but it is foretold that this should take place in 
the course of those 400 years. For as it is written of 
Terah the fatlier of Abraham, "And the days of Terah in 
Haran were 205 years." ^ not because they were all spent 
there, but because they were completed there, so it is 
said here also, "And they shall reduce them to servitude, 
and shall afflict them 400 years," for this reason, because 
that number was completed, not because it was all spent in 
that afllietion. The years are said to be 400 in round 
numbers, although they were a little more, — whether you 
reckon from this time, when these things were promised to 
Abraliam, or from the birth of Isaac, as the seed of Abraham, 
of which these things are predicted. For, as we have already 
said above, from the sevent}'-fifth year of Abraliam, when the 
first promise was made to him, down to the exodus of Israel 
from Egypt, there are reckoned 430 years, which the apostle 
thus mentions : " And this I say, that the covenant confirmed 
by Gud, the law, which was made 430 years after, cannot 
disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect" * 



* Torioua redding, " wlio ore to remain.' 

* Geo. zi. 32. 



* Matt xxiv. 21. 

* G»L iiu 17. 



BOOK XVI.] OF H^VGAB. 139 

So then these 430 years might be coDed 400, because 
they are not mnch more, especially since part even of that 
number had already gone by when these things were shown 
and said to Abraham in vision, or when Isaac was bom in 
his father's 100th year, twenty-five years after the first 
promise, when of these 430 years there now remained 405, 
which God was pleased to call 400. No one will doubt that 
the other things which follow in the prophetic words of God 
pertain to the people of Israel 

When it is added, " An([ when the sun was now setting 
there was a flame, and lo^ a smoking furnace, and lamp of 
fire, which passed through between those pieces," this signifies 
that at the end of the world the carnal shall be judged by 
fire. For just as the affliction of the city of God, such as 
never was before, which is expected to take place under Anti- 
christ, was signified by Abraham's horror of great darkness 
about the going down of the sun, that is, when the end of 
the world draws nigh,— so at the going down of the sun, that 
ia, at the very end of the world, there is signified by that fire 
the day of judgment, which separates the carnal who arc to 
be saved by fire from those who are to be condemned in the 
^le. And then the covenant made with Abraham paiticulorly 
sets forth the land of Canaan, and names eleven tribes in it 
from the river of Egypt even to the great river Euphrates. 
II is not then from the great river of Eg}'pt, that is, the Mle, 
hut from a small one which sepamtes Eg}"pt from Palestine, 
where the city of Ehinocorura is. 

35. 0/ Sarah's handmaidf Ba^ar^ w/iom sfie htrsdfmsked to fie Ahraham*a 
^^ concubirtf. 

" And here follow the times of Abraham's sons, the one by 
Hagar the bond maid, the other by Sarah the free woman, 
abont whom we have abeady spoken in the previous book. 
As regards this transaction, Abraham is in no way to be 
branded as guilty concerning this concubine, for he used 
her for the begetting of progeny, not for the gratification of 
lust ; and not to insult, but mther to obey his wife, who sup- 
posed it woidd be a solace of her barrenness if she could 
make use of the fmitful womb of ln^r luiudraaid to supply 
the defect of her own nature, and by that law of which 





140 



THE HTY OF GOD. 



[dook XVL 



the apostle says, " Likewise also the hnsband hath not power 
of Uis own body, but the wife," ^ could, as a wife, make use 
of him for childbearing by another, when she could not 
do so in her o"ftTi person. Here there is no wanton lust, 
no filthy lewdness. The handmaid is delivered to tlie hus- 
"band by the M-ife for the sake of progeny, and is received 
by the husband for the sake of progeny, each seeking, not 
guilty excess, but natural fruit And when the pregnant 
bond woman des[»ised lier barren mistress, and Sarali, with 
womanly jealousy, rather laid the blame of this on her 
husband, even then Abraliani showed that he was not a 
slavish lover, but a free begetter of children, and that in. 
using Hagar he had guarded the chastity of Sarah his wife, 
and had gratified her will and not his own, — had received her 
without seeking, had gone in to her without being attached, 
had impregnated without lovdng her, — for he says, "Behold 
thy maid is in thy hands : do to her as it pleaseth thee ; " ^ 
a man able to use women as a man should, — his wife tem- 
perately, his handmaid compHantly, neither intemperately I 

20. OfOod'a atteHation to Ahrahanif ?>y whirh Jfe asntrea him, whrn now old, 
of a son hif Ute ftarren Sarah, ami appoints him thf fathrr oj the nationv^ 
€tad gectU his faith in the promise by the sacramaU oJ circumcision, 

Aft^r these things Ishmael was born of Hagar ; and Abraham 
might think that in him was fulfilled what God had promised 
him, saying, when he wished to adopt Lis home-bora servant, 
" Tliis shall not be thine heir ; but he tliat shall come forth 
of theo, he sluill be thine heir." ^ Therefore, lest he should 
tliinlc that what was promised was fulhlled in the handmaid's 
son, "when Abram was ninety years old and nine, God 
appeared to him, and said unto him, I am God ; bo well- 
pleasing in my sight, and be witliout complaint, and I will 
make my covenant between me and thee, and will fill thee 
exceedingly." * 

Hero there are more distinct promises about the calling of 
tlie nations in Isaac, that iSj in the son of the promise, by 
which gi-ace is signified, and not nature ; for the son is pro- 
mised from an old man and a barren old woman. For 

* 1 Cor. vii. 4. ' Con. xvi. 6. ' Gen. xv. 4. 

• Gfin. xviL 1-22, The passage ia giren in Ml hy Au-jusliue, 






kit xn] 



TROfinSE OF A SON BY SARAH. 




although God eflects even the natural course of procreation, 
yet where the agency of God is manifest, through the deci}'- 
or failure of nature, grace is more plainly discerned. And 
because this was to be brought about, not by generation, but 
by regeneration, circumcision was enjoined now, when a son 
waa promised of Sarah. And by oixleri ug lJI, not only sons, 
but also home-bom and purchased servants to be circumcised, 
he testifies that this grace pertains to all. For what else d(Xis 
circumcision signify than a nature renewed on the putting oil* 
of the old ? And what else does the eighth day mean than 
Christ, who rose again whun the week was completed, that is, 
after the Sabbath ? The very names of the parents are 
ged: all things proclaim newness, and the new covenant 
shadowed forth in the old Por what does the terra old 
venant imply hut iha conceiding of the new ? And wimt 
the term new covenant imply but the revealing of the 
T The lau|rhter of Abraham is the exultation of one who 
rejoices, not the scornful laughter of one who mistrusts. And 
those words of his in his heart, " Shall a son be bom to me 
that am an hundred years old ? and shall Sarah, that is ninety 
years old, bear ? " are not the words of doubt, but of M'onder. 
And when it is said, " And I will give to thee, and to thy 
seed after thee, the land in which thou art a stranger, all the 
land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession," if it troubles 
any one whether tliia is to be held as fulfilled, or whether its 
fulfilment may still be looked for, since no kind of eartlily 
sion can be everlasting for any nation whatever^ let him 
ow that the word translated everlasting by our writers 
what the Greeks term cuwviov, which is derived from atwv, 
the Greek for scccuIuvl, an nge. But the Latins have not 
ventured to translate this by scadar, lost they should change 
e meaning into something widely different. For many 
are called secular which so happen in tliis world as to 
sway even in a short time ; but what is termed alatviov 
er has no end, or lasts to the very end of tills world. 

27. Of (he maUy who was to lour hi* soul if lie iroa not circumciiid on the 
eighth day, bfcauM he had broken OocTt covenant, 

"Wlien it is said, " The male who is not circumcised in the 
h of his foreskii], that soul shall be cut ofi" from his people, 




142 



THE CITY OP GOD. 



[dookxvl 



because he hath broken my covenant/' ^ some may be troubled 
how that ouglit to ha understood, Hince it can be no fault of 
the infant whose life it is said m\ist perish; nor has tha 
covenant of God been broken by him, but by his parents, who 
have not taken core to circumcise him. But even the infanta^ 
not personally in their own life, but according to the common 
origin ot" the human race, have all broken God's covenant in 
that outj in whom all have sinned.' Now there are many 
things called God's covenants besides those two great ones, 
the nhl and tlie new, wliich any cue wlio pleases may read 
and know. For the fii*st covenant, which was made with the 
first man, is just tliis ; " In the day ye eat thereof, ye shall 
surely iJAe"^ Wlience it is written in the book called Eccle- 
siosticus, '* All llesL waxetli old as dotli a garment For tlie 
covenant from the beginning is, Thou shalt die the death."* 
Now, as the law was moi-e plaiidy given afterwaj-d, and the 
apostle says, " Where no law is, there is no prevarication," 
on what supposition is what is said in the psalm true, " 1 
accounted all the sinners of the earth prevaricators,"* except- 
that all who are hdd liable for any sin are accused of deal' 
ing deceitfully (prevaricating) with some law ? K on thi^ 
account, tliun,* even tlie infants are, according to the true b©" 
lief, bom in sin, not actual but original, so that we confess 
they have need of grace for the remission of sins, certainly it/ 
must be acknowledged that in the same sense in which tliey 
are sinners they arc also prevaricators of that law which was 
given in Paradise, acconling to the truth of both scriptures, 
" I accoimted all the sinners of the earth prevaricatoi*s," and 
" Where no law is, there is no prevarication." And thus, be- 
cause circumcision was the sign of regeneration, and the in- 
fant, on accoimt of the original sin by which God's covenant 
was lii-st biokeUj was not undeservedly to lose liis generation 
unless delivered by regeneration, these divine words are to be 
imderstood as if it had been said. Whoever is not bom again, 
that soul shall perish from liis people, because he bath broken 
my covenant, since he also has sinned in Adam with all 



^ Gbu. xvit 14. 

♦ Ecclus. XV. 17. 



*Koni. V. 12, ID. 



3 Gtn. iL 17. 
' Rom. iv. 15* 



' Pa. cxix. 119. Augustine and the Vulgate follow the ItXX 





BOOK XVI.] 



CHANCE OF ABE.VM'S NAME. 



143 



others. For had He said, Because he hatli brciken this my 
covenant, He would have comjxilled us tti understand by it 
only this of circumcision ; but since He has not expressly said 
•what covenant the infant has broken, we are free to under- 
stand Him as speaking of that covenant of which the breach 
can be ascribed to an infant Yet if any one contends that 
it is said of nothing else than circmncision, that in it the 
infant has broken the covenant of God because he is not cip- 
comcised, he must seek some method of explanation by which 
it may be understood without absurdity (such as this) that 
lie has broken the covenant, because it has been broken in 
I him although not by him. Yet in this case also it is to be 
observed that the soid of the infant, being guilty of no sin of 
oeglect against itself, would perish unjustly, unless original 
sin rendered it obnoxious to punishment. 

, 2&. Of the change of name in Abraham and Sarnfi, ipho nceived the gift of 
^_^ fecunditjf ichen th^y xotre incapable of regeneration otcintf to the barren' 
^H itrsa qfonet and the old age qfboth. 

^ Now -when a promise so great and clear was made to 
Abraham, in whicb it was so plainly said to him, " I have made 
thee a father of many nations, and I -will increase thee ex- 
ceedingly, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall 

I go forth of thee. And 1 will give thee a son of Sarah ; and I 
"ffill bless him, and he shall become nations, and kings of 
nations shall be of him," ^ — a promise which we now see ful- 
filled in Christ, — from that time fonwird this couple are not 
called in Scripttire, as formerly, Abrnm and Sarai, but Abra- 
hm and Sarali, as we have called them from the first, for 
every one does so now. The reason wliy the name of 
Abrabam was changed is given : " For," He says, " 1 have 
loade thee a father of many nations." Tliis, then, is to be 
understood to lie the meaning of Ahrahavi ; but Abram, as he 
i^as formerly called, means " exalted fatlier." The reason of 
the change of Surah's name is not given ; but as those say 
vho have written interpretations of the Hebrew names con- 
tained in these books, Sanih means " my princess," and Sarai 
ingth." "Whence it is written in the Epistle to the 
jbrews, " Tlirough faith also Sarah herself received strength 

* Cm. xvii. 5, 0, 16. 




144 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xvl 



to conceive seed."* For both were old^ as the Scriptare 
testifies j but she was also barren, and had ceased to men- 
struate, 80 that she could no longer bear children even if she 
had not been barren. Further, if a woman is advanced in 
years, yet still retains tlie c^istom of women, she can l*ear 
cliildren to a young man, but not to an old man, although that 
same old man can beget, but only of a young woman ; as 
after Sarah's death Abraham could of Keturali, because he 
met with her in her lively age. This, then, is what the 
apostle mentions as wonderful, saying, besides, that Abraliam's 
body was now dead ; ^ because at that age he was no longer 
able to beget cliildren of any woman who retained now only 
a smftll jiurL of her natural vigour. Of com'se we must under- 
stand that his body was dead only to some purposes, not to 
all ; for ii' it was so to all, it would no longer be the aged 
body of a living nian, but tlie corpse of a dead one. Al- 
though that question, how Abraham begot children of Keturah, 
is usually solved in tliis way, that the gift of begetting which 
he received fram the Lonl, remained even after the death of 
his wife, yet 1 think that solution of the question which I 
liave followed is preferable, because, although in our days an 
old man of a hundred years can beget cliildren of no woman, 
it was not so then, w heJi men still lived so long tliat a hundred 
years did not yet bring on them the decrepitude of old age. 

29. Of Hit tJtree men or arifjeU, in whom the Lord is rtlated to have appeared 
to Abraham at the oai qfMamre. 

God appeared again to Abraham at the oak of Manire in 
three men, who it is not to be doubted were angels, although 
some think that one of tlicm was Christ, and assert that Ho 
was visible before He put on flesh. Now it belongs to the 
divine power, and invisildo, incorporeal, and incommutable 
nature, without changing itself at all, to appear even to mortal 
men, not by what it is, but by what is subject to it. And 
what is not subject to it ? Yet if they try to establish that 
one of these tliree was Christ by the fact tliat, although he 
saw tlu-ee, he addressed the Lord in the singular, as it ia 
%mtten, " Aiid, lo, three men stood by liira i and, when he 
saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent-door, and wor- 

iHeUxi. 11. Mleb. xi. 12. 




»0K xvl] appearakce of angels to abram. 



45 



shipped toward the ground, and said, Lord, if I have found 
rour before thee," * etc. ; why do they not advert to this 
», that when two of them came to destroy the So<:lomites, 
die Abraham still spoke to one, calling him Lord, and in- 
ceding that he would not destroy the righteous along with 
wicked in 8odom, Lot received these two in such a way 
that he too in his convei'sation with them addressed the Lord 
the singular ? For after saying to them in the plural, 
lold, my lords^ turn aside into your servant's house,"* etc., 
it is afterwards said, " And the angels laid hold upon his 
id, and the hand of his wife, and the hands of his two 
daughters, because the Lord was merciful unto him. And it 
came to pass, whenever they had led him forth abroad, that 
?y said. Save thy life ; look not behind thee, neither stay 
in all this region : save thyself in the mountain, lest 
be caught. And Lot said nnto them, I pray thee. Lord, 
tiij servant hath found grace in thy sight," ^ etc. And 
after these words the Loixl nho answered him in the 
although He was in two angels, saying, " Sec, I have 
accepted thy face,"* etc. This makes it much more credible tliat 
Abraham in the three men and Lot in the two recognised 
Lord, addressing Him in the singular number, even when 
were addressing men ; for they received them as they did 
ff no other reason Uian that tlicy might minister Imman refec- 
to them as men who needed it. Yet there was about them 
lething so excellent, that those who showed them hospi- 
Ity as men coidd not doubt tliat God was in them as He 
ms wont to be in the prophets, and therefore sometimes 
addressed them in the plural, and sometimes God in them in 
the singular. But that tlicy were angels the Scripture 
testifies, not only in this book of Genesis, in wliich these 
transactions are relat<^d, but alHo in the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
where in praising hospitality it is said, " For thereby some 
have entertained angels unawares."* By these three men, 
then, when a son Isaac was again promised to Abraham by 
Sarah, such a divine oracle was also given that it was said, 
^Abraham shall become a great and numerous nation, and all 

3 GoL xht. 16-18. 



^ 



> Gen. xviii. 2, 3. 
*GeiL xix. 21. 

you u. 




• Gen. xix. 2. 

* Ufib. xiii 2. 




THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XVt 



the nationa of the earth shall be blessed in him."^ And here 
these t^vo thijigs are promised "with the utmost brevity and 
fulness, — the ration of Israel according to the flesh, and all 
nations according to faith. 

30. Of LoCa deliverance from Sodom, and its consumption hyfirr.from heaven ; 

and qfAbimelecht wftose lust could not /larm SarafCt chcutUtf. 

After this promise Lot was delivered out of Sodom, and a 
fiery rain from heaven turned into ashes that whole region of 
the impious city, where custom had made sodomy as prevalent 
as laws have elsewhere made other kinds of wickedness. But 
this punishment of theii-s was a specimen of the dinne judg- 
ment to come. For what is meant by the angels forbidding 
those who were delivered to look back, but that we axe not 
to look back in heart to the old life which, being regenerated 
through grace, we have put off, if we think to escape the last i 
judgment ? Lot's wife, indeed, when she looked back, re- | 
mained, and, being tiu-ned into salt, furnished to belie^^ng 
men a condiment by wJiich to savour somewhat the warning 
to be drawn from that example. Then Abraham did again 
at Gerar, with Abimelech the king of that city, what he had 
done in Egj-pt about his wife, and received her back iin- i 
touched in the same way. On this occasion, when the king 
rebuked Abraham for not saying she was his wife, and calling 
lier his sister, he explained what he had been afraid of, and 
added this further, "And yet indeed she is my sister by the 
father's side, but not by the mother's ; " ^ for she was Abraham's 
sister by his own father, and so near of kin. But her beauty 
was so great, that even at that advanced age she could be 
fallen in love witL 

31. 0/ haaCt toAo wan horn according to tJic promiXf tuJiose name vxta givai on 

account ofUie laughter of both paratts. 

After these things a son was bom to Abraham, according 
to God's promise, of Sarah, and was called Isaac, which means 
laughter. For his father had laughed when he was promised I 
to him, in wondering delight, and Ms mother, when he was 
again promised by those three men, had laughed, doubting for 
joy ; yet she was blamed by the angel because that laughter, , 
although it was for joy, yet was not full of faith. Afterwards 
^ Gen. xvUi 13. * Gen. xi. 12. 




■] 



ABRAHAM'S SACRTTICE OF ISAAC. 



147 



^e was confinned in faith by the same angel From this, 
then, the boy got his name. For when Isaac was bom and 
called by that name, Sarah showed that her laughter was not 
that of scornful reproach, but that of joyful praise; for she 
said, " God hath made me to laugh, so that eveiy one who 
hears will laugh with me." ^ Then in a little T\hile the 
bond maid was caat out of the house with her son ; and, accord- 
iog to the apostle, these two women signify the old and new 
corenants, — Sarah representing that of the Jerusalem which is 
above, that is, the city of God.' 

3t Of AhraJtanCa obedience and/aithj lehieh were proved by the offering up of 
hU ton in sacrific ; and of Sarah's death. 

Among other things, of which it would take too long time 
mention the whole, Abraham was tempted about the offer- 
ing up of his well-belovcd son Isaac, to prove his pious obedi- 
ence, and so make it known to the world, not to God. Now 
every temptation is not blameworthy ; it may even be praise- 
worthy, because it furnishes probation. And, for the most 
ptitv the himion mind cannot attain to self-knowledge other- 
vise than by making trial of its powers through temptation, 
by some kind of experimental and not merely verbal self-in- 
tetrogation ; when, if it has acknowledged the gift of God, it 
pious, and is consolidated by stedfast grace aud not puffed 
by vain boasting. Of coui-se Abraham could never believe 
that God delighted in humnn sacriiices; yet when the divine 
commandment thundered, it was to be obeyed, not disputed. 
Yet Abraham is worthy of praise, because he all along 
believed that his son, on being offered up, would rise again ; 
for God had said to him, when he was unwilling to fulfil his 
wife*s pleasure by casting out the bond maid and her son, " In 
Isaac shall thy seed be called." No doubt He then goes on 
say, '* And as for the son of this bond woman, I will make 
a great nation, because he is tliy seed." ' How then is 
it said, " In Isaac shall thy seed be called," when God calls 
Ishmael also his seed ? The apostle, in explaining this, says, 
"In Isaac shall thy seed be called, that is, they which are the 
children of the flesh, these are not the children of God : but 



* Gen. xxi. 6. 

■ Gen. xxL 12, 18. 



QftL ir. 24^2«. 



14S THE cmr 0? GOD. [book xvl 

the children of the promise are counted for the seed." ^ In 
order, then, that the rhildren of the promise may be the seed 
of Abraham, they are called in Isaac, that is, are gathered 
togf^ther in Clirist by the call of grace. Therefore Uie father, 
holding fast from the fii^st the promise which behoved to be 
fulfilled tlirough this son "whom God Iiad cuJered him to slay, 
did not doubt that he whom he once thought it hopeless he 
should ever receive would he restored to him wlien he had 
offered him up. It is in this way the passage in the Epistle 
to the Hebrews is also to be ;inderstood and explained. " By 
faith," he says, " Abraham overcame, wlien tempted about 
Isaac: and he who had received tlie promise ofTared up his 
only son, to whom it was said. In Isaac shall thy seed be 
called : thinking that God was able to raise him up, even 
from tlic dcati ; " therefore he has added, " from whence also 
he received him in a similitude." * In whose similitude but 
His of whom the apostle says, " He that spared not His o\vn 
Son, but delivered Him up for us all ? " ^ And on this 
account Isaac also himself carried to the place of sacrifice the 
wood on which he was to be ofTored up, just as the Lord 
Himself earned His own cross. Finally, since Isaac was not 
to be slain, after his father was forbidden to smite him, who 
was that ram by the offering of whirli that sacrifice was com- 
pleted witli tjq^ical blooil ? For when Abraham saw liim, be 
was caught by the horns in a thicket. What, then, did he 
represent but Jesus, who, before He was offered up, was 
cmwried witli thonis by the Jews ? 

But let us ratlier hear the divine words spoken through 
the angel For the Scripture says, " And Abraham atret^lied 
forth his hand to take the knife, tliat he might slay his son. 
And the Angel of the Lord called unto liiui from heaven, and 
said, Abraham. And he said, Here am I. And he said, Lay 
not tliine hand upon tiie lad, neither Jo thou anything unto 
him : for now I know that thou fearest God, and hast not 
spared thy beloved son for my sake," * It is said, " N'ow I 
know," that is, Now I have made to be known; for God was not 
previously ignorant of this. Then, ha^dng offered up that ram 

1 Rom. X3t. 7, 8. » Heb. xi. 17-19. 

* Bonu Tiii. 32, * Gen. xiii. 10-12. 



HOOK XV J. 



OP REBECCA. 



149 



instead of Isaac his son, " Abraham/' as we read, " called the 
name of that place The Lord seeth ; as they say this day, In 
the mount the Lord Lath appeared" ^ As it is said, " Now I 
know/' for Now I have made to be known, so here, " The 
Lord sees," for Tlie Lord hath appeared, that is, made Hunself 
to be seen. " And the Angel of tlie Lord culled unto Abraham 
from heaven the second Lime, saying, By myself have I sworn, 
saith the Lord ; because thou hast done this thing, and hast 
not spared thy beloved son for my sake ; that in blessing I 
Till bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed 
13 the stars of heaven, and as the sand whidi is upon the sea- 
re ; and thy seed shall possess by inheritance the cities of 
adversaries : and in thy seed shall all the nations of the 
Cftrth be blessed ; because thou hast obeyed my voice.'* * In 
this manner is that promise concerning the calling of the 
nations in the seed of Abraham confirmed even by the oath 
uf Gud, after tliat bumt-oHering which typified Christ For 
He had often promised, but never sworn. And M*hab is the 
oath of God, the true and faithful, but a coniirmation of the 
liromiae, and a certain reproof to the unbelieving ? 

After tliese tilings Saiuh died, in the 127th year of her life, 
and the 137tli of her husband; for he was ten years older 
tium she, as he lumself says, when a son is promised to him 
her : " Shall a son be born to me that am an Inmdi'ed years 
? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear ? " ^ Then 
lliraham bought a field, in which he buried his wife. And 
then, according to Stephen's account, he was settled in that 
knd. entering then on actual possession of it, — that is, after 
tlie death of his father, who is inferred to have died two years 
"ore. 

Sa. O/Rthe^ca, the grand'daughter o/Xalior^ vthooi Jtaac took to vjfe. 
Isaac married Eebecca, the grand-daughter of Nahor, his 
er'a brother, when he was forty years old, that is, in the 
140th year of his father's life, three years after his mother's 
death. Now when a servant was sent to Mesopotamia by his 
&lher to fetch her. and when Abraham said to that scn*ant, 
■ Pat thy hand under my thigh, and I will make thee swear 
by the Lord, the God of heaven, and the Lord of the earth, 
■ Geo. xxii. li. > Geo. xjcii. 1&-1S. » Gen. xvii 17. 



150 



THE CITY O? GOD. 



[book xn. 



that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son Isaac of the 
daughters of the Canaanites/' ^ what else was pointed out by 
this, but that the Lord, the God of heaven, and the Lord of 
the earth, was to come in the fleah which was to be derived 
from that thigh ? Are these small tokens of the foretold 
truth which we see fulfilled in Christ ? 

34. What is meant hy Abraham** marrying Kfturah aflcr SaraICa dtaiJk. 

What did Abraham mean by marrying Keturah after 
Sarah's death ? Fiu be it from us to suspect him of incon- 
tinence, especially when he had reached such an age and such 
sanctity of faith. Or was he still seelcing to beget children, 
though he held fast, with moat approved faith, the promise 
of God that his children shoidd be multiplied out of Isaac as 
the stars of heaven and the dust of the earth ? And yet, if 
Hagai* and Ishmael, as the apostle teaches us, signified the 
carnal people of the old covenant, why may not Keturah and 
her sons also signify the carnal people who think they belong 
to the new covenant ? For botlt arc called both the wives 
and the concubines of Abraham ; but Sarah is never called a 
concubine (but only a Mife). For when Hagar is given to 
Abraham, it is written, " And Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar 
the Egyptian, her handmaid, after Abram had dwelt ten years 
in the laud of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram 
to be his wife." ^ And of Ketiirah, whom he took after 
SaralVs departure, we read, " Then again Abraham took a 
wife, whose name was Keturah." ^ Lo, both are called wives, 
yet both are found to have been concubines ; for the Scrip- 
ture aft^irwai'd says, " And Abraham gave his whole estate 
unto Isaac his son. But unto the sons of his concubines 
Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from his son Isaac, 
(while he yet lived.) eastward, unto the east country." * There- 
fore the sons of the concubines, that is, the heretics and the 
carnal Jews, have some gifts, but do not attain the promised 
kingdom ; " For they wluch ure the children of the flesh, these 
are not the children of God : but the children of the promise 
are counted lor the seed, of wliom it was said, In Isaac shall 
thy seed be called." * For I do not see why Keturah, who 



1 Oen. xxiT. 2, 3. 
* GexL rxv. 5, 0. 



' Gen. ivi. 3. 
^ Bom. ix. 7, 8. 



* G«n. XXV. 1. 




BOOK XVT.] 



T53ATT AND JACOB. 



was married after the Avife's death, should be called a concu- 
bine, except on account of this mystery. But if any one is 
unwilling to put such meanings on these tilings, he need not 
calumniate Abraham. For what if even this was provided 
against the heretics who were to be the opponents of eecond 
marriages, so that it might be shown that it was no sin in the 
case of the father of many nations himself, when, after his 
wife's death, he married again ? And Abraham died when 
he was 175 years old, so that he left his son Isaac seventy- 
five years old, having begotten him when 100 years old. 

35. What i£a« indicated hy ike divine answer ahottt the Itcins still shtU up in the 
wovU> qf B^teca their mother. 

Let US now see how the times of the city of God run on 
)m this point among Abraliam's descendants. In the time 
from the first year of Isaac's life to the seventieth, when his 
sons were bom, the only memorable thing is, that when he 
iyed God that his wife, who was l>arren, might bear, and 
Lord granted what he sought, and she conceived, the 
twins leapt while still enclosed in her womb. And when she 
Was troubled by tliis struggle, and inquired of the Lord, she 
loceived this answer : " Two nations are in thy womb, and two 
manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the 
one people shall overcome the other people, and the elder 
shall serve the younger." ' The Apostle Paul would have us 
miderstand this as a great instance of grace; * for the children 
fceing not yet bom, neither having done any good or evil, the 
younger is chosen without any good desert, and the elder is 
Injected, when beyond doubt, as regards original sin, both 
▼ere alike, and as reganls actual sin, neither had any. But 
tile plan of the work on hand does not permit me to speak 
itore fully of this matter now, and I have said much about it 
to other works. Only that saying, " The elder shall Rerve the 
ytonger," is understood by our writers, almost without excep- 
tion, to mean that the elder people, the Jews, slmll serve the 
ywinger people, the Christinns. And tndy, although this 
nught seem to be fulfilled in the Idumaan nation, which was 
Wn of the elder (who had two names, being called both Esau 
Mid Edom, whence the name Idumeans), because it was nfter- 
' Gen. XXV. 23. * Konu ix. 10-13. 





152 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XVI. 



wards to be overcome by the people which sprang from the 
younger, that is, by the Israelites, and was to become sub* 
ject to them ; yeb it is mure suitable to believe that, when it 
was said, " The one people shall overcome the other people, 
and the elder sliall serve the younrrer" that prophecy meant 
some greater thing ; and what is that except what is evidently 
fidfilled in the Jews and Christians ? 

3fl. Oftfit oracU ajtd bk^ting trhich Iitaac received, jutt as hie father did, ht^ff 

btlortdfor Aw take. 

Isaac also received such an oracle as his father had often 
received. Of this oracle it is thus written : " And tliere was 
a famine over the land, beside the first famine that was in 
the days of Abraham, And Isaac wont unto Abimelech 
king of the Philistines unto Gerar. And the Lord ajipeared 
uutu him, and saitl, Go not down into Egypt; but dwell in 
the land wliich I shall tell thee of And abide in this land. 
and I will be with thee, and will bless thee : unto thee and 
unto thy seed I will gi\e all tliis land ; and I will establish 
miue oath, which I sware unto Abraham thy fatliei* : and I 
will nmltiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and will give 
unto thy seed till tlus laud ; aud in thy seed shall all the 
nations of the earth be blessed ; because that Abraham thy 
father obeyed my voice, and kept my precepts, my conimapd- 
juents, my righteousness, and my laws." ^ This patriarch 
neither had another wife, nor any concubine, but waa content 
with the twin-children begotten by one act of generation. 
He also was afraid, when he lived antong 8trangei*3, of bein*^ 
brought into danger owing to the beauty of his wife, and did 
like ids father in calling her his sister, and not telling that 
she was his wife ; for she was his near blood-relation by the 
father's and mother's side. She also remained untouched by 
the strangers, when it was known she was his wife. Yet we 
ought not to picfer liim to his father because he kuew no 
woman besides Ids one wife. For beyond doubt the merits 
of his father's faith aud obedience were gi'eater, inasmuch as 
God says it is for his sake He does Isaac good : " In thy seed/' 
He says, " shall all the nations of the eoi'tL be blessed, because 
that Abraham thy father obeyed my voice, and kept my pre- 
* Geu. xxvi, 1-5. 




x\t] things t^tified by esau and jacob. 



153 



^^& 



ts, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws." And 
ill in another oracle He says, " I am the God of Abraham 
thy father : fear not, for I am with thee, and will Mess thee, 
and multiply thy seed for my senant Abraliam's sake." " So 
Ihat we must imderstand how chastely Abrahani acted, be- 
cause imprudent men, who seek some support for their own 
•wickedness in the Holy Scriptures, think he acted through 
lust We may also learn this, not to compare men by single 
good things, but to consider evorytliing in each ; for it may 
happen that one man has sometliing in his life and clmracter 
in vhich he excels another, and it may be far more excellent 
Ihan that in which the other excels him. And thus, accord- 
ing to sound and Lruc jud^mient, while continence is prefer- 
able to maiTiage, yet a believing mamed man is better than 
a continent unbeliever ; for the unbeliever is not only less 
praiseworthy, but is even highly detestable. We must con- 
clude, then, that both are good ; yet so as to hold that the 
ttftiried man who is most faithful and most obedient is cer- 
Uinly better than the continent man -whose faith and obedience 
are less. But if equal in other things, who would hesitate to 
prefer the continent man tu the mai'ried ? 

37. Oftlie things mysticaUtj prfjigured in Eiau and Jacob. 

Isaac's two sons, Esau and Jacob, grew up together. The 
{timacy of the elder was transferred to the younger by a 
bargain and agreement between them, when the elder im- 
Sioderately lusted after tlic lentiles the younger liad pre- 
pared for food, and for that price sold his birthright to him, 
confirming it witli an oath. Wc learn from this that a per- 
son is to lie blamed, not for the kind of food he eats, but for 
immoderate greed. Isaac grew old, and old age deprived him 
of his eyesight. He wished to bless the elder sou, and 
instead of the elder, who was hairy, unwittingly blessed the 
;er, who put himself under his father's hands, having 
covered himself with kid-skins, as if bearing the sins of others. 
Lest we shoidd think this guile oi Jacob's was fraudulent 
guile, instead of seekin^r in it the mystery of a great tlung, 
the Scripture has predicted in the words just before, " Esau 

1 Gen. xxri. 24. 



^insteat 
^pbungi 
^covere 




154 THE CITY OP GOD. [BOOK XTT. 

was a cunning hunter, a man of the field ; and Jacob -was a 
simple man, dwelling at home." ^ Some of our writers have 
interpreted this, " without guile." But whether the Greek 
aTrX/wTo? means " without guile," or " simple," or rather 
" without feigning," in the receiving of that blessing what is 
the guile of the man without guile ? What is the guile of 
the simple, what the fiction of the man who does not lie, but 
a profound mystery of the truth ? But what is the blessing 
itself ? " See," he says, " the smell of my son is as the smell 
of a full field which the Lord hath blessed : therefore God 
give thee of the dew of heaven, and of the fniitfiilness of the 
earth, and plenty of corn and wine : let nations serve thee, 
and princes adoro thee: and be lord of thy brethren, and let thy 
father's sons adore thee : cursed be he that curseth thee, and 
blessed be he that blesseth thee." ' The blessing of Jacob is 
therefore a prockmation of Christ to all nations. It is this 
which has come to pass, and is now being fulfilled Isaac is 
the law and tlie prophecy : even by the moutli of the Jews 
Christ is blessed by prophecy as by one who knows not, because 
it is itself not understood. The world like a field is fiDed 
with the odour of Christ's name ; His is the blessing of the dew 
of heaven, that is, of the showers of divine words ; and of 
the fruitfulneas of the earth, that is, of the gathering together 
of the peoples : His is the plenty of com and wine, that is, 
the multitude that gathers bread and wine in the sacrament of 
His body and blood. Him the nations serve, Him princes 
adore. He is the Lord of His brethren, because His people 
rules over the Jews. Him His Father's sons adore, that is, 
the sons of Abraham according to faith ; for He Himself is 
the son of Abraham according to the flesh. He is cursed 
that curseth Hirn, and he that blesseth Him is blessed. 
Christ, I say, who is ours is blessed, that is, truly spoken of out 
of the mouths of the Jews, when, although erring, they yet 
sing the law and the prophets, and thinlv they are blessing 
another for whom tliey erringly hope. So, when the elder 
son claims the promised blessing, Isaac is greatly afraid, and 
wonders when he knows that he has blessed one instead of the 
other, and demands who he is ; yet he does not complain that 
* Gen. XXV. 27. " Gen. xxvii 27-26. 





(OK XVI.] JACOBUS JOUKTEY TO MESOPOTAMIA. 



155 



lie has been deceived, yea, when the great mystery is re- 
vealed to him, in his secret heart he at once eschews anger, 
and confirms the blessing. " Who then," lie says, " hath 
hunted me venison, and broiight it me, and I have eaten of 
all iKifore thou earnest, and hiive blessed him, and he shall be 
blessed ? " ^ "Wlio would not rather have expected the curse 
of an angry man here, if these things had been done in an 
earthly manner, and not by inspiration from above ? 
things done, yet done propiieticidly ; on the earth, yet celes- 
tially ; by men, yet di\'inely ! If everything that is fertOe of 
scgreat mysteries should be examined rareiully, many volumes 
would be filled ; but the moderate compass fixed for this work 
compels us to hasten to other things. 

88. of Jacob'* mUftion to MeAopotamia to Qtl a wife, and of the vUion wfdck he 
saw m a drram hy the way, and of Jiu gttting four voomexi when he 
9ougH (m« vnft. 

Jacob was sent by liis parents to Jlesopotamia that he 
might take a wife there. These were his father's words on 
sending him : " Tliou shalt not take a wife of the daughters 
of the Canaanites. Arise, fly to Mesopotamia, to the house of 
Bethuel, thy mother's father, and take thee a wife from thence 
of the daughters of Laban thy mother's brother. And my 
God bless thee, and increase thee, and multiply thee ; and 
thou shalt be an assembly of peoples ; and give to thee the 
blessing of Abraham thy father, and to thy seed after thee ; 
that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou dwellest, 
which God gave unto Abraham." * Now we understand here 
that the seed of Jacob is separated from Isaac's other seed 
which came through Esau. For when it is said, " In Isaac 
shall thy seed be called," ^ by this seed is meant solely the 
city of God ; so that from it is separated Abraham's other 
seed, which was in the son of the bond woman, and which was 
to be in the sons of Keturah. But until now it had been 
uncertain regartling Isaac's twin-sons whether that blessing 
belonged to both or only to one of them ; and if to one, 
which of them it was. Tliis is now declared when Jacob is 
prophetically blessed by his father, and it is said to him, 

' Gen. xxriii. 1*4. 



> Gen. xxrii. 33. 
•Oen. xxi, 12. 




156 



TTTE Cmr OF COD. 



[BOOK XVt. 



" Aiid tliou sholt be an assembly of peuplos, and God give to 
thee the blessing of Abmhani thy father." 

AVhcn Jacob was going to Mesopotamia, he received in a 
dream an oracle, of which it is thus written: " And Jacob went 
out from the well of the oath,' and went to llaron. And he caine 
to a place, and slept there, for the sun was set; and he took of 
the stones of the place, and put them at his liead, and slept in 
that place, and dreamed. And behold a ladder set up on tie 
earth, and the top of it reached to heaven ; and the angels of 
God ascended and descended by it. And the Lord, stood 
above it, and said, I am the God of Abraham thy father, and 
the God of Isaac ; fear not : the land wliereon thou slcepest, 
to thee will I give it, aud to thy seed ; and thy seed shall be 
as the dust of the earth ; and it shall be spread abroad to the 
sea, aud to Africa, aud to the norths and to the east : and all 
the tribes of the earth shall be blessed in thee and in thy 
seed. And, behold, I am with thee, to keep thee in all tliy 
way wherever thou goest, aud I will bring thee back into 
this land ; for I will not leave thee, until I liave done all 
which I have spoken to thee of. And Jacob awoke out of 
his sleep, and said, Surely the Lord is in this place, and I 
knew it not. And he M'as afraid, and said. How dreadful is 
this place ! this is nouo other but the house of God, aud this 
is the gate of heaven. And Jacob arose, and took the stone 
that he had put under his head there, and set it up for a 
memoria!, and poured oil upon the top of it And Jacob 
called the name of that place the house of God." ^ This is 
prophetic. For Jacob did not pour oil on the stone in an 
idolatrous way, as if making it a god ; neither did he adore 
that stone, or sacrifice to it. " But since the name of Chi-ist 
comes from the chrism or anointing, something pertiuning to 
the great mystery was certainly represented in this. And 
the Saviour Himself is understood to bring this latter to 
remembrance in the gospelj when lie says of Nathanael, 
" Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile ! " ^ because 
Israel who saw this vision is no other than Jacob. And in 
the same place He says, " Verily, verily, I say unto you. Ye 

' BecT-sIiela. * G«]i. zxviii. 10-19. 



^ Joha u il, 61. 





BOOK XVI.] 



.TACOB C.VLLTIT) ISRAEL. 



157 



sbnll see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and 
descending upon the iSon of man;' 

Jacob went on to Mesopotamia to take a wife from thenca 
And the divine Scripture points out how, without unlaw- 
fully desiring any of them, he came to have four women, of 
whom he begat twelve sons and one daughter ; for he had 
come to take only one. But when one was falsely given liim 
in place of the other, he did not send her away after un- 
wittingly using her in the uiglit, lest he should seiim to have 
ut her to shame ; but as at that time, in order to multiply 

terity, no law forbade a ]tlurality of wives, he took her olao 

whom alone he had promised marriage. As she was barren, 
she gave her handmaid to her husband that she might have 
children by her ; and her elder sister did the same thing in 
imitation of her, although she had home, because she desired 
to multiply progeny. We do not read tliat Jacob sought any 
but one, or that he used many, except for the purpose of be- 
getting offspring, saving conjugal rights; and he would not 

,ve done tliis, had not his wives, who had legitimate power 
their own husband's body, urged him to do it. i^o he 
t twelve sons and one daughter by four women. Tbtiu 
he entei-cd into Egypt by his son Joseph, who was sold by his 
brethren for envy, and carried there, and who was there exalted. 







N 



Sd. The reaeon why Jacob xoaa also ccUled laraeL 

As I said a httle ago. Jacob was also called Israel, the 
name which was most prevalent among the people descended 
from him- Now this name was given him by the angel 
-who wrestled witli liim on tlie way back from Mesopotamia, 
find who was most evidently a type of Christ. For wlien 
Jacob overcame him, doubtless with his own consent, that the 
mystciy might be represented, it signified Christ's pnssion, in 
vhich the Jews are seen overcoming Him. And yet he 
'besought a blessing from the very angel he had overcome ; and 
80 Uic imposition of tins name was the blessing. For Israel 
means serint; God} which will at last bo the reward of all the 
saints. The angel also touched him on the breadth of the 

' Gen. xxxii. 28 : Israel = " a prince of God ; " Tcr. 30 : Peoicl » "the fac« 
God." 





158 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XTl 



thigh when he was overcoming him, and in that waj made 
him lame. So that Jacob was at one and the same tine 
blessed and lame : blessed in those among that people wlio 
believed in Christ, and lame in the unbelieving. For the 
breadth of the thigh is the multitude of the family. For there 
are many of that race of whom it was prophetically said before- 
hand, *' And they have halted in their paths." * 

40. How U u said thai Jacob loent into Egypt vsiih seventy-five 40u2i, wXm fooH 
of those who are mruthned werr bom at a later period. 

Seventy-five men are reported to have entered Egypt nJong 
with Jacob, coimting him with his children. In this number 
only two women are mentioned, one a daughter, the other a 
grand-daughter. But when the thing is carefully considered, 
it does not appear that Jacob's offspring was so numerous on the 
day or year when he entered Egj^it. There ore also included 
among them the great-grondtihildrcu of Joseph, who could not 
po3.sibly be bom already. For Jacob was then 130 years old, 
and his son Joseph thirty-nine ; and as it is plain tiiat he 
took a wife when he was thirty or more, how could he in nine 
years have greaL-grandchildren by the children whom he had 
by that wife ? Now, since Epliraim and Manasseh, the sons 
of Joseph, could not even have children, for Jacob found them 
boys under nine years old when he entered Egypt, in what 
way are not only their sons but their grandsons reckoned 
among those seventy-five who then entered Egj^pt with Jacob ? i 
For there is reckoned there Machii* the son of Manasseh, grand- 
son of Joseph, and Machir's son, that ia, Gilcad, grandson of 
Manasseh, great-grandson of Joseph ; there, too, is he whom 
Epliraim, Joseph's other son, begot> that is, Shuthelah, grandson 
of Joseph, and Shuthelah's son Ezer, grandson of Ephraim, 
and great-grandson of Joseph, who could not possibly be in 
existence when Jacob came into Egypt, and there found his 
grandsons, the sons of Joseph, their grandsires, stUl boys under 
nine years of age.' But doubtless, when the Scripture mentions 
Jacob's entrance into Egypt with seventy-five souls, it does 



* Ps. xviiL 45. 

' Augustine here follows the Sephmgint, whicli mt Gen. xlvi. 20 adds theat 
namM to thou of Maaoa&eli and Epbraim, and at vet. 27 gives the whole number 
OS seventy •live. 




BOOK XTL] 



THE BLESSDfG OF JTJDAH. 



159 



not mean one day, or one year, but tliat "whole time as long as 
Joseph lived, who "waa the cause of his entrance. For the 
flame Scripture speaks thus of Joseph : " And Joseph dwelt 
in E^ypt, he and his brethren, and all his father's house : and 
Joseph lived 110 years, and saw Ephi*aim's children of the 
third generation." ^ That is, his great-grandson, the third from 
Ephraim ; for the third generation means son, grandson^ great- 
grandson. Then it is added, " The children also of Machir, 
the son of Monaaseh, were boni upon Joseph's knees." ' And 
this is that grandson of llonasseh, and great-grandson of 
Joseph. But the plural umiiber is employed according to 
scriptural usage ; for the one daughter of Jacob is spoken of 
48 daughters, just as in the usi^e of the Latin tongue liberi is 
lued in the plural for children even when there is only one. 
Now, when Joseph's o\vn happiness is proclaimed, because he 
could see his great-grandchildren, it is by no means to be 
thought they already existed in the thirty-ninth year of their 
gpeat-grandsire Joseph, when his father Jacob came to him iu 
'Egypt But those who diligently look into these things will 
the less easily be mistaken, because it is written, " These are 
the names of the sons of Israel who entered into Egypt along 
-with Jacob their father." ' For this means that the seventy- 
re are reckoned along with him, not that they were all with 
when he entered Egj-pt ; for, as I have said, the whole 
period during which Joseph, who occasioned his entrance, lived, 
is held to be the time of that entrance. 






Pcod 






41. Of the bUasing tohich Jacob promised in Judah his ttm. 

If, on account of the Cliristian people in whom the city of 
sojourns in the earth, we look for the flesh of Christ in 
the seed of Abraham, setting aside the sons of the concubines, 
Tre have Isaac ; if in the seed of Isaac, setting aside Esau, 
ho is also Edom, we have Jacob, who also is Israel ; if in 
e seed of Israel himself, setting aside the rest, we have 
Judah. because Christ sprang of the tribe of Judah. Let us 
hear, then, how Israel, when dying in Egypt, in blessing his 
sons, prophetically blessed JudaL He says : " Judah, thy 
brethren shall praise thee : thy hands shall be on the back of 
I GeiL L 22. 23. * Gen. 1. 23. • Gen. zItI 8. 



160 TPTE aTY OF GOD. [BOOK XVt 

thine enemies ; thy father's children shall adore thee. Judah 
is a liou's whelp : from the spixjuting, iny son, thou art gone 
up : lying down, tliou hast slept as a Yum, and as a lion's 
whelp ; Avho shall awake him ? A prince shall not l»e 
lacking out of Judah, and a leader from his thighs, until the 
things couie that are laid up for him ; and He shall be the 
expectation of the nations. Binding his foal unto the vine; 
and his ass's foal to the choice vine ; he shall wash liis robe 
in \nne, and his clothes in the blood of the gi*ape : his eyes 
are red with wine, and his teeth are whiter than niQk." * I 
have expounded tliese words in disputing against Faustus tbe 
Mauicliffiiin ; and I think it is enough to make the truth of 
this prophecy shine, to remark that the death of Clirist is pre- 
dicted by the word about his lying down, and not the neces- 
sity, but the voluntary cliamcter of His deatli, in the title d 
lion. That power He Himself proclaims in the gospel, saying, 
" I have the power of lajnng down my life, and I have ihc 
power of taking it again. No man taketh it from me ; but I 
lay it down of myself, and take it again." * So the lion roared^ 
so Ho fuliiUed w4iat He said. For to this power what is addetl 
about the resurrection refers, '' Who shall aM'ake him ?" Thi^ 
means that no man but Himself has raised Him, who also^ 
said of His own body, " Destroy tliis temple, and in three 
days I will I'aise it up." * Aud the very nature of His death, 
that is, the height of the cross, is understood by the single 
word, " Tliou art gone up," The evangelist explains what is 
added, " Lyin;:^ down, thou hast slept," when he says, " He 
bowed His liead, and gave up the ghost." * Or at least His * 
burial is to be imderstood, in which He lay down sleeping, 
and whence no man raised Him, as the prophets did some, 
and as He Himself did others ; but He Himself rose up as if 
from sleep. As for His robe wbich He washes in wine, that 
is, cleanses from sin in His own blood, of which blood those 
who ore baptized know the mystery, so that be adds, " And 
hia clothes in the blood of the grape," wliat is it but the 
Church ? " And his eyes are red with wine," [these are] His 
spiritual people drunken with His cup, of which the psalm 
sings, " And thy cup that makes drunken, how excellent it is !'* 
^ Gen. xluL &-12. * John x. 18. 3 joim ii. 19. * John xix. 80. 




Tire BLESsncG OF Joseph's soxs. 



161 



" And his teeth are whiter than milk," ^ — that is, the nuti-itive 
wonb which, according to the apostle, the babes drink, being 
as yet nnfit for solid food.' And it is He in whom the pro- 
mises of Judah were laid up, so that until they come, princes, 
that is, the kings of Israel, shall never be lacking out of Judah. 
*" And He is the expectation of the nations." This is too plain 
to need exposition. 

42. Of the 9ons i^Jostpli, whom Jacob hlcMtd, prophetically changing hu hands. 

Now, as Isaac's two sons. Esau and Jacob, furnished a type 
of the two people, tlie Jews and tlie Cliristians (although 
as pertains to carnal descent it was not the Jews but the 
Idumeans who camo of the seed of Esau, nor the Christian 
nations but rather the Jews who came of JacoKs ; for the type 
holds only as regards Uie saying, " Tlie elder shall sen'e tlie 
younger""), so the same thing happened in Joseph's two sons ; 
for the elder was a type of the Jews, and the younger of the 
Christians. Tor when Jacob was blessing them, and laid his 
right hand on the younger, who was at his left^ and his left 
hand on the elder, who was at his right, this seemed wrong to 
iheir father, and he admonished his father by trying to r.nrrect 
liis mistake and show him which was the elder. But he 
would not change his hands, but said^ " 1 know, my son, I 
know. He nlso shall become a people, and he also shall be 
exalted ; but his younger brother shall be gi-eator than he, and 
Lis seed shall become a midtitude of nations."* And these 
two promises show the same thing. For that one is to become 
"' a people ;" this one " a multitude of nations." And what can 
be more evident than that these two projnises comprehend the 
people of Israel, and the whole world of Abraham's seed, the 
one according to tlie flesh, the otlier according to faith ? 

43. O/tke tima of Mosat and Joshua the »on o/iVifn, of the judges^ and tharf- 

a/ier qf the tiiif/s, 0/ whoiA Saul was tlie Jint^ but' David it to he. rt' 
garded a» tJu cJueff botik by tiie oath and by merit. 

Jacob being dead, and Joseph also, during the remaining 
144 years until they went out of the land of i*^gypt that 
nation increased to an incredible degree, even although wasted 



»Geii. xlix, 12. 
* Gen. xxT. 23. 
VOU H. 



= 1 Pet. ii. 2 ; 1 Cor. iii 2, 
« G«iL xlviiL 19. 

JEi 




162 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XTT. 



hy so great persecutions, that at one time the male cliilch'eii 
were murdeied at their birth, because the wonderiug Egyptians 
were terrified at the too great increase of that people. Then 
Moses, being stealthily kept from the murderers of the infants, 
was brought to the royal house, God preparing to do great 
things hy him, and was nursed and adopted by the daughter 
of Pharaoh (that was the name of all the kings of Egypt), and 
became so great a man that he — yea, rather God, who had pro-: 
mised this to Abraham, by him^-drew tliat nation, so wonder- 
fully multiplied, out of the yoke of hardest and most grievous 
ser\'itude it had bomo there. At first, indeed, he fled thence 
(we are told he fed into the land of Midian), because, in 
defending an Israelite, lie had slain an Egyptian, and was 
afraid. Afterward^ being divinely commissioned in the power 
of the Spirit of God, he overcame the magi of Pharaoh who 
resisted hinu Then, when the Egyptians would not let Cirod's 
people go, ten memorable plagues were bi-ought by Hiiu upon 
them, — the water turned into blood, the frogs and lice, the flies, 
the death of the cattle, the boiLs, the hail, the locusts, the 
darkness, the death of the first-bora At last the Egyptians 
were destroyed in tlie Red Sea while pursuing the Israelites, 
whom they had let go when at length they were broken by 
80 many great plagues. The divided sea made a way for the 
Israelites who were departing, but, returning on itself, it over- 
whelmed their pursuers with its waves. Then for forty years 
the people of God went through the desert, under the leader- 
ship of Moses, when the tibernacle of testimony Avas dedicated, 
in which God was worshipped by sacrifices prophetic of things 
to come, and that was after the kw Imd been very tei-ribly 
given in the moimt, for its divinity was most plainly attested 
by wonderful signs and voices. This took place soon after the 
exodus from Egypt, when the people had entered the desert, 
on tho fiftieth day after the passover was celebrated by the 
offering up of a lamb, which is so completely a t}'pe of Christ, 
foretelling that through His sacrificial passion He should go 
fr'om this world to the Father (for pasclia in the Hebrew 
tongue means tratisit), that when the new covenant was 
revealed, after Christ our passover was offered up, the Holy 
Spirit came from heaven on the fiftieth day ; and He is called 



eookxvl] 



MOSES AND JOSHUA. 



163 



in the gospel the Finger of God, because He recalls to our 
lomembtazLce the things done before by way of types, and 
becaose the tables of that law are said to Lave been written 
by the finger of God. 

On the death of Moses, Joshiia the son of Nun mled the 
people, and led tliem into the laud of promise, and divided it 
among them. By these two wonderful leaders wars were aleo 
carried on most prosperously and wonderfully, God calling to 
vitness that they had got these victories not so much on 
account of the merit of the Hebrew people as on account of 
the sins of the nations they subdued. After these leaders 
there were judges, when the people were settled in the land of 
promise, so that, in the meantime, the first promise made to 
Abraham began to be fulMed about the one nation, that is, 
the Hebrew, and about the land of Canaan ; but not as yet 
the promise about all nations, and the whole wide world, for 
that was to be fulfilled, not by the observances of the old law, 
but by the advent of Christ iu the flesh, and by the faith of the 
gospeL And it was to prefigure this that it was not Moses, 
who received the law for the people on Mount Sinai, that led 
the people into the land of promise, but Joshua, whose name 
also was changed at God's conmiand, so that he was called 
Jesus. But in the times of the judges prosperity alternated 
with adversity in war, according as the sins of the people and 
the mercy of God were displayed. 

We come next to the times of the kings. The first who 
reigned was Saul ; and when he was rejected and laid low in 
battle, and his offspring rejected so that no kings should arise 
oat of it, DaWd succeeded to the kingdom, whose son Christ 
is chiefly called. He was made a kind of starting-point and 
beginning of the advanced youth of God*s people, who had 
passed a kind of age of puberty from Abraliam to this David. 
And it is not in vain that the evangelist Matthew records the 
generations in such a way as to sum up this first period from 
Abraham to David in fourteen generations. For from the age 
of puberty man begins to be capable of generation ; therefore 
he starts the list of generations from Abraham, who also was 
made the father of many nations when he got his name 
changed. So that previously tlm family of God's people was 





164 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book 



li 



ill its chiklliood, from Noah to Abraham ; and for that reason 
the firafc ]angimgo was then leaniod, that is, the Hebrew. Toi 
man begins to speak in childhood, the age succeeding infancy, 
which is 80 tunned because then he cannot speak.* And 
that first age is quite drowned in oblivion, just as the first age 
of the human race was blotted out by the flood ; for who is 
there that can remember his infancy ? Wherefore in tlii* 
progress of tlio city of God, as the prc\'ion9 book contained 
that first age, so this one ouglit to contain the second and 
third ages, in which third ngc, as was shown by the heifer of 
three years old» the she-goat of tliree years old, and the ram 
of three years old, the yoke of the law was imposed, and there 
appeared abundance of sins, and the beginning of the earth!)' 
kingdom arose, in which there were not lacking spiritual men, 
of whom the turtle-dove and pigeon represented the mystery- 
* Ir^attt, from in, not. And /ari, to speak. 



THE PROPffETS. 



EOOK SEVENTEENTH. 



ARGUMENT. 

IS THIS BOOK TUE UlSTORT OF THE CITY OP GOD la TIUCED DURIKO THE PERIOD 
OPTHB KIXGft AND PROPHETS yuOil SAMUEL TO DAVID, KVUN TO CHRIST ; 
^H A\D THE PROPnECIKa WHICH ARE RECOEDED I\ TllK BOOKA OF RiKGJt, 

^H ItfALMS, AXD THOSE 07 flOLOMOX, AlLE INTERPRJtTED OF CHUIST AKD THE 

^H I. Of tht proptvciic agt, 

r "DY the favoiir of God we have treated distinctly of His 
JLf promises mado to Abraham, that botli the nation of 
Israel according to the flesh, and all nations according to faitli, 
should be Ills seed, and the City of God, proceeding according 
to the order of time, will point * out how they were fulfilled. 
Having therefore in the previous book come down t^:* the reign 
of David, we shall now treat of what remains, so far as may 
seem sufficient for the object of this work, beginning at tlie 
same reign. Now, from the time when holy Samuel began to 
prophesy, and ever onward until the people of Israel was led 
captive into Babylonia, and until, acconltng to the prophecy 
of holy Jeremiah, on Israel's return thence after seventy years, 
the house of God was built anew, this whole period is the 
prophetic age. For although both the patriarch Noah him- 
self, in whose days the whtde earth was destroyed by tlie 
flixxl, and others before and after him down to this time when 
there began to be kings over the people of God, may not un- 
deservedly be styled prophets, on account of certain things 
pertaining to the city of God and the kingdom of heaven, 
which they either predicted or in any way signified should 
come to puss, and especially since we i-ead that some of them, 
as Abraham and Moses, were expressly so styled, yet those 
are most and chiefly called the days of the prophets from tlie 
lime when Samuel began to prophesy, who at God's command 
first anointed Saul to be king, and, on his rejection, David 
himself, whom others of his issue should succeed as long as it 

* **Ha.*i poinlcU." 



166 



THE CITY OP GOD. 



[book xvil 



\- 



waa fitting tbey should do so. If^ therefore, I wished to re- 
hearse all that the prophets have predicted concermng Christ, 
while the city of God, with iU members dying and being bom 
in constant succession, ran its course through those times, this 
work w^ould extend beyond all bounds. First, because the 
Scripture itself, even when, in treating in order of the kings 
and of their deeds and the events of their reigns, it seems to 
be occupied in narrating as with historical diligence the affairs 
transacted, will be found, if the tilings handled by it are con- 
sidered with the aid of the Spirit of God, either more, or 
certainly not less, intent on foretelling things to come than on 
relating things past. And who that thinks even a little about 
it does not know liow laborious and prolix a work it would be, 
and how many volumes it would require to search this out by 
thorough investigation and demonstrate it by argument ? And 
then, because of that which without dispute pertains to pro- 
phecy, there are so many things concerning Christ and the 
kingdom of heaven, wliich is the city of God, that to explain 
these a larger discussion would be necessary than the due pro- 
portion of this work admits of. Therefore I shall, if I can, so 
limit myself, that in carrjnng through this work, I may, with 
Grod's help, neither say what is superfluous nor omit what is 
necessary. 

fi. At what time the promise of Ood teas fvlJiOfd concrrmnff the land t^ Canaan, 
which evt» carnal Israel got in posaesshn. 

In the preceding book we said, that in the promise of God 
to Abraham two things were promised from the beginning, 
the one, namely, that his seed should possess the land of 
Canaan, which was intimated when it was said, " Go into a 
land that I ^viD show thee, and I will make of thee a great 
nation ; " ^ but the other far more excellent, concerning not 
the carnal but the spiritual seed, by which he is the father, 
not of the one nation of Israel, but of all nations who follow 
the footsteps of his faith, which began to be promised in these 
words, " And in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed."* 
And thereafter we showed by yet many other proofs that these 
two things were promised. Therefore the seed of Abraham, 
that is, the people of Israel according to the flesh, already was 



Geii. xil 1, 2. 



* Gen. xxi 3. 



BOOK XTIT.] 



TITE PROSnSED LAKD. 



in the land of promise ; and there, not only by holding and 
possessing the cities of the enemies, but also by having kings, 
had already begtm to reign, the promises of God concerning 
that people being already in great part fulfilled : not only 
those that were made to those three fatiiers, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob, and whatever others were made in their times, but 
those also that were made tlirongh Moses himself, by whom 
the same people was set free from servitude in Egypt, and by 
whom ail by^ione things were revealed in his-times, when he 
led the people through the wilderae^s. But neither by the 
illustrious leader Jesus the son of Nun, who led that people 
into the land of promise, and, after driving out the nations, 
diWded it among the twelve tribes according to God's com- 
mand, and died ; nor after him, in the whole time of the 
judges, was the promise of God concerning the land of Canaan 
fuliiUed, that it should extend from some river of Egypt even 
to the great river Euphrates ; nor yet was it still prophesied as 
to come, but its fulfilment was expected. And it was fulfilled 
through David, and Solomon his son, whose kingdom was ex- 
tended over the whole promised space ; for they subdued all 
those nations, and made them tributary. And thus, under 
those kings, the seed of Abraham was established in tlie land 
of promise according to the flesh, that is, in the land of Canaan, 
so that nothing yet remained to the complete fulfilment of 
that eartldy promise of God, except that, so far as pertains to 
temporal prosperity, the Hebrew nation should remain in the 
same land by the succeasion of posterity in an imshaken state 
even to the end of this mortal age, if it obeyed the laws of the 
Lord its God. But since God knew it would not do this. He 
used His temporal pumshments also for training His few 
faithful ones in it, and for giving needful warning to those 
who should afterwards be in all nations, in whom the other 
promise, revealed in the New Testament, was about to be 
fulfilled through the incarnution of Christ. 

8. Of the thrffoM meaniiirj of thf prophfcifjn, u-AJcA arr (o he rt^erreJ now (o 
the earViljf, now to the heavathj Jerusalcnh ond now again to both. 

Wherefore just as that divine oracle to Abraham, Isaac, and 
facob, and all the other prophetic signs or sayings which are 
Lven in the eox'lier sacred writings^ so also the other prophe- 





168 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XVII. 



cies from this time of the kings pertain partly to the nntion 
of Abraham's flesh, and partly to that seed of his in which sll 
nations are blessed as fellow-heirs of Christ by the New Testft- 
ment, to the possessing of eternal life and the kingdom of the 
heavens. Therefore they pertain partly to the bond maid who 
gendereth to bondage, that is, the eartlily Jerusalem, which is 
in bondage with her children; but partly to the free city of 
God, that is, the tnie Jerusalem eternal in the heavens, whoso 
children are all those that live according to God in the earth: 
but there arc some things among them which are understood 
ti> pertain to both, — to the bond maid properly, to the free 
woman liguratively.^ 

Therefore prophetic utterances of tliree kinds are to he 
found ; forasmuch as there are some relating to the earthly 
Jenisttlom, some to the heavenly, and some to boLk I think 
it proper to prove what I say by examples. The prophet 
Nathan was sent to convict king David of heinous sin, and 
l)rcdict to him what future evils should he consequent on it 
Who cun cpiestiou that this and the like pertain to the terres- 
trial city, whether publicly, that is, for the safety or help ^ 
tlie people, or privately, when thci-o are given forth for eacl> 
onc*3 private good divine utterances whereby something o* 
the future muy be known for the use of temporal life ? ^^^ 
where we read, " Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that -^ 
wUl make for the house of Israel, and for the house of Judah «^ 
a new testament : not according to the testament that I settlec^ 
for their fathers in the day when I laid hold of their hand t<F 
lead them out of the land of Egypt ; because they continued 
not in my testament, and I regarded .them not, saith the 
Lord. For this is the testament that I will make for the 
house of Ismel : after those days, saith the Lord, I will give 
my laws in their mind, and will write them upon their hearts, 
and I will see to them ; and I will be to them a God, and 
they shall be to me a people;"* — without doubt this is pro- 
phesied to the Jerusalem above, whose reward is God Him- 
self, and "vvhoge chief and entire good it is to have Him, and 
to bo His. But this pertains to both, that the city of 
God is called Jerusalem, and that it is prophesied the house 
" GaL ir. 22-31. « JUb. v;ii. 8-10. 




Xm.] THREEFOLD KEFEKEXCE OF PROPHKCT. 



169 



of God shall be in it ; and tliis prophecy seems to be fullillecl 
when king Solomon buihls that most noble temple. Por 
these things both happened in the earthly Jemsalem, as history 
shows, and were types of the heavenly Jerusalem, And this 
kind of prophecy, as it wore compacted and commingled of 
both the others in the ancient canonical books, cuntainint; 
historicfiJ narratives, is of very great significance, and has exer- 
cised and exercises greatly the wits of those who search holy 
writ For example, what we read of historically as predicted 
and fulfilled in the seed of Abraham accoixiing to the flesh, 
we must also inquire the allegorical meaning of, as it is "to be 
fiilfilled ia the seed of Abraliam according to faith. And so 
much ia this the case, that some have thought there is nothinj? 
in these books either foretold and effected, or effected although 
not foretold, that does not insinuate something else which is 
to be referred by figurative signification to the city of God on 
high, and to her children who are pilgrims in this life. But 
if tliis be so, then the utterances of the prophets, or rather the 
whole of those Scriptures that are reckoned under the title 
of the Old Testament, will be not of three, but of two different 
kinds. For there will he nothing there which pertains to the 
terrestrial Jerusalem only, if whatever is there said and ful- 
filled of or concerning her signifies something which also 
refers by allegorical prefiguration to the celestial Jerusalem ; 
but there ^vill be only two kinds, one that pertains to the free 
Jerusalem, the other to both. But just as, I think, they err 
greatly who are of opiniou that none of tlie records of affairs 
in that kind of writings mean anj^thing more than that they 
ao happened, so I think those very daring who contend that 
the whole gist of their contents lies in allegorical significations. 
Therefore I have said they are threeft^lJ, not twofold. Yet, in 
holding this opinion, I do not blame those who may be able 
to draw out of everything there a spiritual nieaaing, only 
^hiving, first of all, the historical truth. For the rest, what 
^Believer can doubt that those things are spoken vainly which 
^Blre such that, whether said to have been done or to be yet to 
come^ they do not beseem either human or divine affairs ? Who 
woold not recall these to spiritual understanding if he coidd, 
or confess that they should be recalled by him who is able ? 




^ 



170 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xvn. 



4. About the prtjigurtd change of thf fsraelitit kingdom and prUatJtood, end 
about the things Hamuiii the mothrr of Samuel prophesied, ptraonatmg 
Uue Churdu 

Therefore the advance of the city of God, where it reached 
the times of the kings, yielded a figure, when, on the rejection 
of Saul, David first obtained the kingdom on such & footing 
that thenceforth liis descendants should reign in the earthly 
Jerusalem in continual succassion ; for the course of affairs 
signified and foretold, what is not to be passed by in silenoe, 
concerning the change of things to come, what belongs to both 
Testaments, the Old and the New, — ^where the priesthood and 
kingdom are changed by one who is a priest, and at the same 
time a king, new and everlasting, even Christ Jesus. For both 
the substitution in the ministry of God, on Eli's rejection as 
priest, of Samuel, who executed at once the of&ce of priest 
and judge, and the establishment of David in the kingdom, 
when Saul was rejected, tj'pified this of which I speak And 
Hannah herself, the mother of Samuel, who formerly was 
barren, and afterwards was gladdened with fertility, does not 
seem to prophesy anything else, when she exultingly pours 
forth her tlianksgiving to the Lord, on yielding up to God the 
same boy she had born and weaned with the same piety with 
which she liad vowed him. For she says, " My heart is made 
strong in the Lord, and my horn is exalted in my God ; my 
mouth is enlarged over mine enemies ; I am made glad in Thy 
salvation. Because there is none holy as the Lord ; and none 
is righteous as our God : there is none holy save Thee. Do 
not glory so proudly, and do not speak lofty tilings, neither 
let vaunting talk come out of your mouth : for a God of 
knowledge is the Lord, and a God preparing His cnrious 
designs. The bow of the mighty hath He made weak, and 
the weak ara girded with strength. They that were full of 
bread are diminished ; and the hungry have passed beyond the 
earth : for the barren hath bom seven ; and she that hath 
many chOdren is waxed feeble. The Lord killeth and moketh. 
alive : He bringeth down to hell, and bringeth iip again. The 
Lord maketh poor and maketh rich ; He bringeth low and 
lifteth up. He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and liftetk 
up the beggar from the dunghill, that He may set him among 



BOOK xvn 



<^ 



FANyAlf S SOITG. 




the mighty of [His] j>eople, and moketh them inherit tlie 
throne of glory ; giving the vow to him that voweth, and He 
hath blessed the years of the just : for man is not mighty in 
strengtL The Lord shall make His adversary weak : the Lord 
IB holy. Let not the pnident glory in his pnidence ; and let 
not the mighty glory in his might ; and let not the rich glory 
his richea : but let him that glorieth glory in this, to under- 
stand and know the Lord, and to do judgment and justice in 
the midst of the earth The Lord hath ascended into the 
heavens, and hath thundered : He shall judge the ends of the 
earth, for He is righteous : and He giveth strength to our kings, 
and shall exalt the horn of His Christ." ' 

Do you say that these are the words of a single weak 
woman giving thanks for the birth of a son ? Can the mind 
of men be so much averse to the Lght of truth as not to per- 
ceive that the sayings this woman pours forth exceed her 
measure ? Moreover, he who is suitably interested in these 
things which liave already begun to be fulfilled even in this 
«arthly pilgrimage also, does he not apply his mind^ and per- 
ceive, and acknowledge, that through this woman — whose 
"verj" name, which is Hannali, means "His grace" — the verj- 
Christian religion, the very city of God, whose king and 
founder is Christ, in fine, the very grace of God, hath thus 
spoken by the prophetic Spirit, whereby the proud are cut off 
«o that they fall, and the humble axe filled so that they rise, 
"\Fhich that hynin chiefly celebrates ? ■ Unless perchance any 
one will say that this woman prophesied nothing, but only 
Xauded God with exulting praise on account of the son whom 
ohe had obtained in answer to prayer. AVliat then does she 
mean when she sa)*^, " The bow of the mighty hath He made 
'\reak, and the weak are girded witli strength ; they that were 

rFiill of bread are diminished, and the hungry have gone 
beyond the earth ; for the barren hath born seven, and she 
that hath many childjen is waxed feeble ? " Had she hereelf 
bom seven, although she had been barren t She had only 
one when she said that ; neitlier did she bear seven after- 
wards, nor sLx, ■witli whom Samuel himself might be the 
seventh, but thi'ee males and two females. And then, when 




> 1 Sam. ii 1-10. 




172 THE CITY OF GOD. * [BOOK XVIL 

as yet no one was king over that people, whence, if she did 

not prophesy, did she say "what she puts at the end, "He 
giveth strength to our kings, and shall exalt the horn of His 
Christ?" 

Therefore let the Church of Christ, the city of the great 
King/ full of f^ce, prolific of ofispring, let her say what the 
prophecy uttered about her so long before by the mouth of 
this pious mother confesses, " My heart is made strong ia 
the Lord, and my horn is exalted in my God." Her hcait is 
truly made strong, and her horn is truly exalted, because not 
in herself, but in the Lord her God. " My mouth is enlarged 
ovi-T mine enemies;" because even in pressing straits tbi! 
word of God is not bound, not even in preachers who are 
bauud.' " I am made glad " she says, " in Tliy salvation." 
This is Christ Jesus Himself, whom old Simeon, as we read 
in the Gospel, embracing as a little one, yet recognising w 
great, said, " Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant deport in 
peace, for mine eyes have seen Tliy solvation" ** Therefore 
may the Church say, "I am made glad in Tliy salvatioa For 
there is none holy as the Lord, and none is righteous as our 
God ;" as holy and sanctifying, just and justifying.* " Tl;ere 
is none holy beside Thee ; " because no one becomes so except 
by reason of Thee. And then it follows, " Do not glor>' so 
proudly, and do not speak lofty things, neither let vaunting 
talk come out of your mouth. For a God of knowledge is 
the Lord." He knows you even when no one knows; fof 
" he who tliinketh himself to be something when he is nothing 
deceiveth himself."* These thinirs are said to the adver* 
saries of the city of God who belong to Babylon, who presvinJ^ 1 
in their own strength, and glor}' in themselves, not in th^ 
Lord ; of whom are also the carnal Israelites, the earth-bor<* 
inhabitants of the earthly Jerusalem, who, as saith the apostlC-^ 
" being ignorant of the righteousness of God,"*^ that is, whicl*' 
God, who alone is just, and the justifier, gives to man, "ant^; 
wishing to esLablish their own," that is, which is as it wer^ 
procured by their own selves, not bestowed by Him, "are not?" 
subject to the righteousness of God," just because they ore 

1 rs. xlviii. 2. 2 2 Tim. ii. 9 ; Eph. vl 20. • Lute ii. 25-30. 

* Bo:)), iii. 2G I ^ Gal. vt. 3. » Kom. x. 3. 





BOOK xvn. 



HaSnaH^S SOXG. 






proud, and think they are able to please God witli their own, 
not with that which is of God, who is the God of knowledge, 
and therefore also takes the oversight of consciences, there 
beholding the thoughts of men that they are vain,^ if they 
are of men, and are not from Him. " And preparing," she 
says, " His curious designs." \Vhat curious designs do we 
think these are, save that tlie proud must fall, and the liumhle 
rise ? These curious designs she recounts, saying, " The bow 
of the mighty is made weak, and the weak are giixled with 
strength." The bow is made weak, that is, the intention of 
those wlio think tliemselves so powerful, that without the -jiift 
and help of God they are able by human sufficiency to fuliil 
tlie divine commandments ; and those are girded with strengtli 
whose inward cry is, " Have mercy upon me, Lord, for I 
am weak."' 

" Tliey that were full of bread " she says, " are diminished, 
and the hungry have gone beyond tlie earth." Who are to 
be understood as full of bread except those same who were 
as if mighty, that is, the Israeli tes> to whom were committed 
tlje oracles of God ?' Eat among that people the children 
of the bond maid were diminished, — by wliich word minn.'i, 
althougii it is Latin, the idea is well expressed that from 
being greater they were made less, — because, e^^en in the 
very bread, that is. the divine oracles, which the Jsraclitcs 
alone of all nations have received, they savour earthly things. 
But the nations to whom that law was not given, after they 
have come through the Xcw Testament to these oracles, by 
thirsting much have gone beyond the earth, because in them 
they have savoured not earthly, but heavenly things. And 
the reason why this is done is as it were sought; ^' for the 
barren," she says, " liath bom seven, and she tliat hath many 
children is waxed feeble." Here all that had been proplicsicd 
hath shone forth to those who understood the number seven, 
hich signifies the perfection of the universal Church. For 
hich reason also tlie Apostle John writes to the seven 
churches,* showing in tliat way that Jie writes to the totality 
of the one Churcli ; and in the Proverbs of Solomon it is said 




* Pa. xciv. n ; 1 Cor. iii. 20. 
' Bom. tiL 2. 



« Vs. vi. 2. 
♦ fiev. i. 4. 



174 



THE CITY OP GOD. 



[book XVU, 



aforetime, prefiguring this, " Wisdom hath builded her house, 
she hath strengthened her seven pillars.'*^ For the city of 
God was barren in all nations before that child arose "whom 
we see.' We also see that the temporal Jerusalem, who had 
many children, is now waxed fecbla Because, whoever in 
her were sons of the free woman were her strength ; but 
now, forasmuch as the letter is there, and not the spirit^ 
having lost her strength, she is waxed feeble. 

" The Lord killeth and maketh alive :" He has IdDed her 
who had many children, and made this barren, one alive, so 
thfit she has born seven. Although it may be more suitably 
understood that He has made those same alive whom He has 
killed. For she, as it were, repeats that by adding, "He 
bringeth down to hell, and bringeth up." To whom truly the 
apostle says, " If ye be dead with Christ, seek those things 
which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of 
God."* Therefore they are killed by the Lord in a salutary 
way, so that he adds, " Savour things which are above, not 
things on the earth;" so that these are they who^ hungering, 
have passed beyond the earth. " For ye are dead," he says - 
behold how God savingly kills ! Then there follows, " AdA 
your life is hid with Christ in God :" behold how God make^ 
the same alive! But does He bring them down to hell and brin^ 
them up again ? It is without controversy among believer^ ' 
that we best see both parts of this work fulfilled in Him, tc^ 
wit, our Head, with whom the apostle has said our life is hi^' 
in God. " For when He spared not His own Son^ but deUveredL- 
Him up for us all,"* in that way, certainly, He has killed 
Him. And forasmuch as He raised Him up again from the 
dead. He has made Him alive again. And since His voice 
is acknowledged in the prophecy, " Thou wilt not leave my 
soul in hell,"^ He has brought Him down to hell and brought 
Him up again. By this poverty of His we are made rich ;• 
for "■ the Lord maketh poor and maketh rich." But that we 
may know what this is, let us hear what follows : " He 
bringeth low and lifteth up;" and truly He humbles the 



> Pror. ii. 1, 

3 Col. iil 1-3. 

»Ps.i7i 10; Actsii 27, 31, 



* " By whom we see lier made fraitful. 

* Eom. TJii. S2. 
c 2 Cor. viii. 8. 




*K XVIL] 



HANNAH S SONG. 



175 



proud and exalts the humbla Wliich ire also read eke- 
where, " God resisteth the proud, but givetli grace to the 
humble"* ThU is the burden of tlie entire song of this 
woman whose name is interpreted " His grace." 

Farther, what is added, " He raiseth up the poor from the 
earth/* I undeistand of none better than of Hiiu who, as was 
said a little ago, " was made poor for ua, when He was rich, 
that by His poverty we might be made rich." For He raised 
Him from the earth so quickly that Hia flesh did not see 
ooniiption. Nor shall I divert from Him what is added, "And 
raiseth up the poor froui tlie dunghilL" For indited he who 
is the poor man is also the beggar.' But by the dunghill 
from which he is lifted up we are with the greatest reason 
to understand the persecuting Jews, of whom the apostle says, 
when telling that when lie belonged to them he persecuted 
ihe Church, " What things were gain to me, those 1 counted 
loss for Christ ; and I Lave counted them nut only loss, but 
even dung, that I might win Christ."^ Therefore that poor 
one is raised up from tlie eaith above all the rich, and that 
beggar is lifted up from that dungliill above all the wealthy, 
"that he may sit among the miglity of the people," to whom 
He Bays, "Ye shall sit upon twelve thrones,"* "and to make 
them inherit the throne of glory." For these mighty ones 
hid said, " Lo, we have forsaken all and followed Thee." 
They had most mightily vowed this vow. 

But whence do they receive this, except from Him of whom 
it is here immediately said, " Giving the vow to him that 
Toweth?" Otherwise they would be of those mighty ones 
whose bow is weakened. " Giving," she saith, " the vow to 
him that voweth." For no one could vow anything accept- 
able to God, unless he received from Him that which he 
might vow. There follows, " And He hath blessed the years 
nf the just," to wit, that he may live for ever with Him to 
idiom it is said, " And Thy years slmll have no end." For 
tbore the years abide ; but here they pass away, yea, they 
p^ish: for before they come they are not, and when they 
shall have come they shall not be, because they bring their 



» Ja«. IT. 6 ; 1 Pet t. 6. 
jPhihiii. 7,8, 




' *• For the poor man is the some ae the bcggir." 
< ^UlL 3UX. 27, 28. 



1 




176 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book vm 



own end with them. Xow of these two, that is, "giving 
the vow to liiin that voweth," and " He hath blessed the yeare 
of the juat/' the one is what we do, the other what we re- 
ceive. But this other is not received from God, the liberal 
giver, until He, the helper, Himself has enabled us for the 
former ; " for man is not mighty in strength." " TI»e Lord 
shall make his adversary weak/' to wit, him who envies the 
man that vows, and resists him, lest he should fulfil what he 
has vowed. Owing to the ambiguity of the Greek, it may 
also be understood " his own adversary." For when God 
lias begun to possess us, immediately he who had been our 
adversary becomes His, and is conquered by us; but not by 
our own strength, "for man is not mighty in strength." 
Therefore " the Lord shall make His own adversary weak, 
the Lord is holy/' timt ho may be conquered by the saints, 
whom the Lord, the Holy of holies, hath made saints. For 
this reason, " let not the prudent glory in his prudence, and 
let not the mighty glory in his might, and let not the ricli 
glory in his riches ; but let him that glorieth glory in 
this, — to understand and know the Lord, and to do judg- 
ment and justice in the midst of the earth." He in no 
small measure understands and knows the Lord who undc^ 
stands and knows that even thi.s, that ho can understand and 
know the Lord, h given to him by the Lord. " For what 
hast thou," saith the apostle, "that thou hast not received^ 
But if thou hast received it, why dost thou glory as i^ 
thou hadst not received it?"^ That is, as if thou hadst of 
thine own self whereof thou mightest glory. Now, he does 
judgment and justice who lives aright. But he lives aright 
who yields obedience to God when He commands. " The end 
of the commauJment," that is, to which the commandment 
has reference, " is charity out of a pure heart, and a good 
conscience, and faith unfeigned." Moreover, this " cliarity," 
as the Apostle John testifies, "is of God."'* Therefore to do 
justice and judgment is of God. But what is "in the midst 
of the earth ? " For ouglit those who dwell in the ends of 
the earth not to do judgment and justice ? Who would say 
30 ? Why, then, is it added, " In the midst of the 
* 1 Cor. iv. 7. * 1 John iv. 7. 




earth?- 



rooic xvu. 



HANNATTS 80^0. 



For if this had not been added, and it had only been said, " To 
do judgment and justice," this commandment would ruther 
have pertained to both kinds of men, — both those dwelling 
inland and those on the sea-coast Eut lest any one should 
lliink that, after the end of the life led in this body, there 
remains a time for doing judgment and justice which he has 
not done ivhile he was in the flesh, and that the divine judg- 
ment can thiLS be escaped, "in the midst of tlie earth" ap- 
pears to me to be said of the time when every one lives in 
the body; for in this life every one carries about his OAvn 
earth, which, on a mans dying, the common earth takes back, 
to be surely returned to him on his rising again. Therefore 
"in the midst of the earth," that is, whOe our soul is shut 
up in this earthly body, judgment nnd justice are to be done, 
which shall be profitable for us hereafter, when *' every one 
shall receive according to that he hath done in the body, 
whether good or bad."^ For when the apostle there says "in 
the body," he means in the time he has lived iu tlie body. 
Yet if any one blaspheme with malicious mind and impious 
thought, without any member of his body being cnipl{)yed in 
it, he shall not therefore be guOtless because he haa nut done 
it with bodily motion, for he will have done it in that time 
which he has spent in the body. In the same way we may 
suitably understand what we read in the psalm, " But God, our 
King before the worlds, hath wrought salvation in the midst 
**f the earth ;"' so that the Loi-d Jesus may be understood to bo 
o^r God who is before the worlds, because by Him the worlds 
*ete made, working our salvation in the midat of the earth, 
for the Word was made flesh and dwelt in an earthly body. 

Then after Ilannali has prophesied in these words, that 
"^B who glorieth oughc to glory not in himself at aU, but in 
the Lord, she says, on account of the retribution which is to 
^me on the day of judgment, *'The Lord hath ascended into 
^ heavens, and hath thundered : He shall judge the ends of 
'he earth, for He is righteous." Throughout she holds to the 
oHer of the creed of Christians : For the Lord Christ has 
Ascended into heaven, and is to come thence to judge the quick 
^d dead.' For, as saith the apostle, " Who hath ascended 

2 Cor. T. 10. « Pb, btxiv. 12. » Acts x. 42. 

»U a M 





178 



1'HK CITT 0? GOD. 



[book ITIL 



but He "who hath also descended into the lower parts of the 
earth ? He that descended is the same also that ascended 
up above all heavens, tliat He might fill all things." "■ There- 
fore He hatli thundered through His clouds, which He hath 
filled with His Holy Spirit when He ascended up. Concern- 
ing which the bond maid Jerusalem — that is, the unfruitfol 
vineyard — is threatened in Isaiah the prophet that they 
shall rain no showers upon her. But " He shall judge the 
ends of the earth" is spoken as if it had been said, 'evoi 
the extremes of the eartk" For it does not mean that He 
shall not judge the other parts of the earth, who, without 
doubt, shall judge all mon. But it is better to understand 
by the extremes of the earth the extremes of man, since 
those things shall not be judged which, in the middle time, 
are changed for the better or the worse, but the ending in 
which he shall be found who is judged. For which reason 
it is said, " He that shall persevere even unto the end, the 
some shall be saved." ^ He, therefore, who perseveringly does 
judgment and justice in the midst of the earth shall not be 
condemned when the extremes of the earth shall be judgei 
" And giveth," she aaith, " strength to our kings," that He may 
not condenm them in judging. He giveth them strength 
whereby as kings they nile the flesh, and conquer the world 
in Him who hath poured out His blood for them. "Aiid 
shall exalt the honi of His Christ." How sliaH Christ exJ* 
the horn of His Christ ? For He of whom it was said above, 
" The Lfml hath ascended into the heavens " meaning the Loid 
Christ, Himself, as it is said here, " shall exalt the horn of Hi^ 
Christ." \Vho, therefore, is the Christ of His Christ ? Doe^ 
it mean that He shall exalt the horn of each one of His be^ 
Iio\'ing people, as she says in the beginning of this hyma^ 
"Mine horn is exalted in my God?" For wc can rightl/^ 
call all those christa who are anointed with His chrism, foras 
much as the whole body with its head is one Christ.' The3& 
things hatli Hannah, the mother of Samuel, the holy and 
much-praised man, prophesied, in which, indeed, the change 
of the ancient priesthood was then figured and is now ftd- 
filled, since she that had many children is waxed feeble, that 
1 £^ ir. 9, 10. > Uatt zjciv. 13. ■ 1 Cor. xii 12. 




BOOK xvn.] 



ELT. 



179 



■bther' 



the barren who hath bom seven might have the new priest- 
]iood in Christ. 

&, 0/ those thinQs which a man of God spate by tlie Spirit to EH tfie prkaf, 
signifying that the priettfiood ickich had been appointed according to 
Aaron was to be takoi atony. 

But this is said more plainly by a man of God sent to Eli 
the priest himself, whoso name indeed is not mentioned, but 
Those office and ministry show him to have been indubitably 
a prophet For it is thus wTitten : " And tliere came a man 
of God unto Eli, and said. Thus saith the Lord, I plainly 
tevealed myself unto thy father's house, when they were in 
land of Eg}'pt slaves in Pharaoh's house ; and I chose thy 
's house out of all the sceptces of Israel to fill the ofQce 
of priest for me, to go up to my altar, to bum incense and 
wear the ephod ; and I gave thy father's house for food all 
the offerings made by fire of the children of Israel. Where- 
fore then ha3t thou looked at mine incense and at mine offer- 
ings with an impudent eye, and hast glorified thy sons above 
me, to bless the first-fruits of every sacrifice in Israel before 
mel Therefore thus saith the Lord God of Israel, I said thy 
house and thy father's house should walk before me for ever ; 
bat now the Lord saith. Be it far from me ; for them that 
hoaour me will I honour, and he that despiseth me shall be 
despised. Behold, the days come, that I will cut off thy seed, 
fuicl the seed of thy father*s house, and thou shalt never have 
Wold man in my house. And I will cut off the man of thine 
from mine altar, so that his eyes sliall be consumed, and his 
beut shall melt away; and every one of thy house that is 
shall fall by the sword of men. And this shall be a sign 
I thee that shall come upon these thy two sons, Hophni 
Phinehas ; in one day they shall die both of them. And 
ill raise me up a faithful priest, that shall do according to 
sil that is in mine heart and in my soul ; and I will build 
lam a sure house, and he aludl walk before my Christ for 
er. And it shall come to pas3 that he who is left in thine 
iise shall come to worship him with a piece of money, saying, 
Put me into one part of thy priesthood, that I may eat bread."* 
We cannot say that this prophecy, in which the change of 
1 1 Sam. IL 27-36. 



180 



THE CITY or GOD. 



[book xvil 



the ancient priesthood is foretold with so great plainness, was 
fulfilled in Samuel ; for altboxigh Samuel was not of another 
tribe than that which had been appointed by God to serve at 
the altar, yet he was not of the sona of Aaron, whose offspring 
was set apart that the priests mij^ht he taken out of it And 
thus by that transaction also the same change which should 
come to pass through Christ Jesus is shadowed forth, and the 
prophecy itself in deed, not in word, belonged to the Old 
Testament properly, but figumtively to the New, signifying' 
by the fact just what was said by the word to Eli the priest 
through the prophet For there were afterwards priests of 
Aaron*s race, such as Zadok and Abiathar during David's 
reign, and others in succession, before the time came when 
those things which were predicted so long before about the 
changing of the priesthood l>ehoved to be fulfilled by Christ 
But who tliat now views these tilings with a believing eye 
does not see that they are fulfilled ? Since, indeed, no tabc^ 
nacle, no temple, no altar, no sacrifice, and therefore no priest 
either, has remained to the Jews, to whom it was commacded 
in the law of God that he should be ordained of the seed of 
Aaron ; which ia also mentioned here by the prophet, when 
he says, " Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, I said thy house 
and thy father's house shall walk before me for ever: W 
now the Lord saith. That be far from me ; for them that honour 
me will I honour, and he that despiseth me shall be despised. 
For that in naming his father's house he does not mean that 
of his immediate father, but that of Aaron, who iirst v>s 
appointed priest, to be succeeded by others descended from 
liim, is shown by the preceding words, when he says, " I "fffi* 
revealed unto thy father's house, when they were in the land 
of Egypt slaves in Pharaoh's house ; and I chose thy father's 
house out of all the sceptres of Israel to fill the office of priest 
for me." Wliich of the fathers in that Eg}q3tian slavery, bat 
Aaron, was his father, who, when they were set free, wa5 
chosen to the priesthood ? It was of his lineage^ therefore, h^ 
has said in this passage it should come to pass that they should 
no longer be priests ; which already we see fulfilled. If faitl> 
be watchful, the things are before us : they are discerned, thej'' 
are grasped, and are forced on the eyes of the unwilling, so 





xni.] 



ELfS FALL TTPiaVL. 



181 



that they are seen : " Behold the days come," he says, " that 
I will cut off thy seed, and the seed of thy father's house, and 
thou shalt never liave an old man in niine house. And i will 
cut off the man of thine from mine altar, so that his eyes shall 
be consumed and his heart shall melt away." Behold the 
days which were foretold have already come. There is no 
priest after the order of Aaron ; and whoever is a man of his 
lineage, when he sees the sacrifice of the Christians prevailing 
over the whole world, but tliat great honour taken away from 
himself, his eyes fail and his soul melts away consumed with 
grief. 

But what follows belongs properly to the house of Eli, to 
whom these things were said : " And every one of thine house 
that is left shall full by the sword of men. And this shall 
be a sign unto thee that shall come upon these thy two sons, 
Hophni and Phinchas; in one day they shall die both of 
them.'' This, therefore, is made a sign of the change of the 
priesthood from this man's house, by which it is aij^uified that 
the priesthood of Aaron's house is to be changed. For the 
death of this man's suns sj^^nitied the death uot of tUu men, 
but of the priesthood itself of the sous of Aaron. But what 
follows pertains to that Priest whom Samuel typified by suc- 
ceeding this one. Therefore the things which follow are said 
of Christ Jesus the trua Priest of the ^N'ew Testament : " And 
I will raise me up a faithful Priest that shall do according to 
all that is in mine heart and in my soul ; and I will build 
Him a sure house." The same is the eternal Jerusalem abova 
*And He sliall walk," saith He, "before my Christ always." 
" He shall walk" means " he shall be conversant with," just as 
He had said before of Aaron's house, " I said that tliine house 
and thy father's house sliall walk before me for ever." But 
what He says, " He slmll walk before my Christ /' is to be 
understood entu*ely of the house itself, not of the priest, who 
is Christ Himself, the Mediator and Saviour. His house, 
therefore, shall walk befoi-c Him, " Shall walk " may also be 
understood to mean from death to life, all the time this mor- 
tality passes through, even to the end of this world. Eat 
where God says, '* "Wlio will do all that is in mine heart and 
in my soul," we must not think that God has a soul, for He 





182 



THE Cmr OF GOB. 



[book shl 



is the Author of souls ; but this is aaid of God tropically, not 
properly, just as He is said to have hands and feet, and other 
corporal members. And, lest it should be suppoaed from 
such lan^age that man in the form of this flesh is made in 
the image of God, wings also are ascribed to Him, which man 
has not at all ; and it is said to God, " Hide me under the 
shadow of Thy wings," ^ that men may understand that such 
things are said of that ineffable nattire not in proper but in 
figurative words. 

But what is added, " And it shall come to pass that he "who 
is left in tliinc house shall come to worship Him," is not said 
properly of the house of this Eli, but of that Aaron, the men 
of which remained even to the advent of Jesus Christ, of 
which race there are not wanting men even to tliia present 
For of that house of Eli it bad aL-eady been said above, "And 
every one of thine house that is left shall fall by the sword of 
men." How, therefore, could it be truly said here, " And it 
shall come to pass that every one that is left shall como to 
worship him," if that is true, that no one shall escape the 
avenging sword, unless he would have it understood of those 
who belong to the race of that whole priesthood after the order 
of Aaron? Therefore, if it is of these the predestinated 
rcnmant, about whom another prophet has said, " The remnant 
shall be saved ;"^ whence the apostle also says, "Even so then 
at this time also the remnant according to the election of 
grace is saved ;"* since it is easily understood to be of suci 
a remnant that it is said, " He that is left in thine house," 
assuredly he believes in Christ ; just as in the time of thfi 
apostle very many of that nation believed ; nor are there now 
wanting those, although very few, who yet believe, and in 
them is fulfilled what this man of God has here immediately 
added, " He shall come to worship him with a piece of money;" 
to worship whom, if not that Chief Priest, who is also God ? 
For in that priesthood after the order oi Aaron men did not 
come to the temple or altar of God for the purpose of wor- 
shipping the priest. But what is that he says, " With a piece 
of money," if not the short word of faith, about which the 
apostle quotes the saying, " A consummating and shortening 
> Fs. xvil 8. * Jao. X. 21. ' Rom. xi. 5. 



I 





BOOK Xm] TKTEKPIttCTATIOK OT EL1*S mSTORT. 



183 



I Aru-bO 



word will the Lord make upon the earth ?"^ But that 
money is put for the word the psalm is a witness, where it 
is sung, " The words of the Lord are pure words, money tried 
with the fire."' 

Wliat then does he say who comes to worship the priest of 
God, even the Priest who is God ? " Put me into one part of 
Thy priesthood, to eat bread." I do not wish to be set in the 
honour of my fathers, which is none ; put me in a part of Thy 
priesthood. For " I have chosen to be mean in Thine house ;"* 
I desire to be a member, no matter what, or how small, of Thy 
priesthood. By the priesthood he here means the people itself, 
of which He is the Priest who is the Mediator between God 
and men, the man Christ Jesus.* This people the Apostle Peter 
calls "a holy people, a royal priesthood."^ But some have 
hited. " Of Thy sacrilice," not " Of Thy priesthood," which 
less signifies the same Christian people. Whence the 
Apostle Paid says, " We being many are one bread, one body."* 
[And again he says, " Present your bodies a living sacrifice."'] 
What, therefore, he has added, to " eat bread," also elegantly 
expresses the very kind of sacrifice of which the Priest Him- 
self says, '* The bread which I wilj give is my flesh for the life 
of the world."' The same is the sacrifice not after the order 
of Aaron, but after the order of Mclchisedec :^ let liim that 
readeth understand.*'* Therefore this short and salutarily 
bumble confession, in which it is said, " Put me in a part of 
ITiy priesthood, to eat bread," is itself the piece of money, for 
it is botli brief, and it is the Word of God who dwells in the 
beart of one who believes. For because He had said above, 
that He had given for food to Aaron's house the sacrificial 
victims of the Old Testament, where He says, " I have given 
thy father's house for food all tilings which are offered by fire 
of the children of Israel " which indeed were the sacrifices of 
the Jews ; therefore here He has said, " To eat bread," which 
is in the New Testament the sacrifice of the Christians. 



> Im. xxriii 22 ; Bom. ix. 26. 
• 1 Tim. ii 6. 
' Rom. xiL 1. 
•He^TiLll, 27- 



« Pg. xiL 6. 
» 1 Pet ii. 9. 



■ Ps. Ixxiiv. 10. 

• 1 Cor. I. 17. 

• John Yi. 51. 
U>KatUzxir. 16. 



184 



Tire CITT OF GOD. 



[dook xnr. 



a, O/the Jewuh priesthood and kingdom, loAiVA, aUhovgh promi9cd to be ett^ 
lushed /or ever, did vot continue j so ihai other thiitffs are to be undir- 
ttood io which eternity u auured. 

While, therefore, these things now shine foith as cleurly 
as they were loftily foretold, still some one may not vainly 
be moved to ask. How can we be confident tliat all things 
are to come to pass which are predicted in these books as 
about to come, if tliis very thinrr which is tliere divinely 
spoken, " Thine house and thy father's house sljall M*alk 
before me for ever," could not have efiect ? For we see tbat 
priesthood has been changed ; and there can be no hope that 
what was promised to that house may some time be fulfilled, 
because that whicli succeeds on its being rejected and clianged 
is rathe.r predicted as eternal. Ho who says this does not 
yet understand, or does not recollect^ that this very priest- 
hood after the order of Aaron was appointed us the shadow 
of a future eternal priesthood ; and therefore, wlien etemity 
is promised to it^ it is not promised to tlie mere shadow afid 
figure, but to what is shadowed forth and prefigured by it 
But lest it should be thought the shadow itself was to reuaain, 
therefore its mutation also behoved to be foretold. 

In tliis way, too, the kingdom of Saul liimself, who cer- 
tainly was reprobated and rejected, was the shadow of a 
kinr^^dom yet to comu which shoidd remain to eternity. For, 
indeed, the oQ with which he was anointed, and from that 
chrism he is called Christ, is to be taken in a mystical sen*? 
and is to be undoi'stood as a great mystery; which David 
himself venerated so much in liim, that be trembled witli 
smitten heart when, being hid in a dark cave, which Saul 
also entered when pressed by the necessity of nature, lie had 
come secretly behind him and cut off a small piece of his 
robe, that he might be able to prove how he had spared him 
when he could have killed him, and might thus remove from 
his mind tlie suspicion through which he had vehemently ' 
persecuted the holy David, thinlcing liim his enemy. There- 
fore he was much afraid lest he should be accused of Aiolat- « 
ing so great a mystery in Saul, because he had thus meddled 
even his clothes. For thus it is -wTitten : " And David's 
heart smote him because he had taken away the skirt of liis 





BOOK XVII.] THE JEWISH KIKGDOM TYPICAL. 



135 



cloak"* But to tlie men with him. who advised him to destroy 
Saul thus delivered up into his haiids» lie saith, *' The Ixird forbid 
that I shoiild do this thing to my lord, the Lord*s christ, to lay 
my hand upon him, because he is the Lord's christ." There- 
fore he showed so great reverence to this shadow of what was 
to come, not for its own sake, but for tlie sake of what it 
prefigured. "Whence also that which Samuel saya to Saul, 
** Since thou hast not kept my commandment which the Lord 
commanded thee, whereas now the Lord would liave prepared 
thy kingdom over Israel for ever, yet now thy kingdom shall 
not continue for thee ; and the Jj:>rd will seek Him a man after 
His own heart., and the Lord will command liim to be prince 
over His people, because thou hast not kept tliat which the Lord 
commanded thee,"* is not to be taken as if God liad settled 
that Saul himself should reign for ever, and afterwards, on his 
sinning, would not keep this promise ; nor was He ignorant 
that he would sin, but He had established liis kingdom tliat 
it might be a figure of the eternal kingdom. Therefore he 
added, " Yet now tliy kingdom shall not continue for thee.'* 
Therefore what it signified has stood and shall stand ; but it 
shall not stand for this man, because he himself was not to 
reign for ever, nor his offspring ; so that at least that word 
" for ever " might seem to be fulfilled through his posterity 
one to another. " And the Lord," he saith, " will seek Him 
a man," meaning either David or the Mediator of the Kew 
Testament,* who was figured in the clirism M'ith which David 
also and liis offspring was anointed. Eub it is not iis if He 
knew not where he was that God thus seeks Him a man, 
hut, speaking through a man, He speaks as a inan, and in tliis 
sense seeks us. For not only to God the Father, but also to 
His Only-begotten, who come to seek what was lost/ we had 
been known already even so far as to be cliosen in Him 
before the fouudation of the world.* " He will seek him '* 
therefore moans, He will have His own (just as if He had 
said, "VVliom He already has known to be His own He will 
show to otliers to be His friend). "Whence in Latin this word 
(^vccrit) receives a preposition and becomes ac^uirit (acquires), 



* 1 Sam. xxiv. fi, 8. 

* Luke xix. 10. 




' ] Saio. xiiL 13, 14. 
» Eph. i. 4. 



• Heb. ix. 15. 



186 



THE CITT OF GOD. 



[book xvn. 



the meaning of whicli is plain enough ; although even "with- 
out the addition of the preposition quwrere is undepstood as 
acquircre, whence gains are colled qua:stus, 

T.Oftht dUmpiion of the JtJnjyrfom of T»raeJ, fiy which (he perpetual divUum qf 
the spiritual from the carnal Israel vxu prefigured. 

Again Saul sinned through disobedience, and again Samuel 
gays to him in the word of the Lord, " Because thou hast de- . 
spised the word of the Lord^ the Lord hath despised thee, that 
thou majest not be king over Israel"* And again for the same 
sin, when Saul confessed it, and prayed for pardon, and besought 
Samuel to return with him to appease the Lord, he said, " I 
will not return with thee : for thou liast despised the word of 
the Lord, and the Lord will despise thee that thou mayest not 
be king over Israel And Samuel turned liis face to go away, 
and Saul laid hold upon the skirt of his mantle, and rent it , 
And Samuel said unto him, The Lord hath rent the kingdom 
from Israel out of thine hand this day, and wiU give it to thy 
neighbour, who is good above thee^ and will divide Israel in 
twain. And He will not be changed, neither will Ho repent : 
for He is not as a man, that He should repent ; who threatens 
and does not persist."* He to whom it is said. " The Lord 
will despise thee that thou mayest not be king over Israel," 
and " The Lord hath rent the kingdom from Israel out of 
thine hand this day," reigned forty years over Israel, — that is, 
just as long a time as David himself, — yet heard this in the ' 
first period of his reign, that we may understand it was said 
because none of his race was to reign, and that we may look 
to the race of David, whence also is sprung, according to the 
flesh,' the Mediator between God and men, the man Christ 
Jesus.* 

But the Scripture has not what is read in most Latin 
copies, " The Lord hath rent the Icingdom of Israel out of 
thine hand this day," but just as we have set it down it is 
found in the Greek copies, " The Lord hath rent the kingdom 
from Israel out of thine hand ;" that the words " out of thine 
hand " may be understood to mean " from Israel" Therefore 
this man figuratively represented the people of Israel, which 
was to lose tlie kingdom, Ciirist Jesus our Lord being about 

» 1 Sani, XV. 23. » 1 Sam. xv. 2tt-2«. ' Bom. IS. * 1 Tim, ii 6. 



BOOK XVIL] disruption OF THE KIXGDOM. 



187 



to reign, not carnally, but spiritually. And when it is said 
of Him, " And will give it to thy neighbour," that is to be re- 
ferred to the fleshly kinship, for Christ, according to the flesh, 
was of Israel, wlience also Saul sprang. But what is added, 
" Good above thee," may iudeed be understood, " Better than 
thee," and indeed some have thus translated it ; byt it is 
better taken thus, "Good above thee," as meaning that be- 
cause He is good, therefore He must be above thee, according 
to that other prophetic saying, " Till I put all Thine enemies 
under Thy feet"^ And among them is Israel, from whom, as 
His persecutor, Christ took away the kingdom ; although the 
Israel in whom there was no guile may have been there too, 
a sort of grain, as it were, of that chafif. For certainly thence 
came the apostles, theuce so many martyrs, of whom Stephen 
is the first, thence so many churches, which the Apostle Paul 
names, magnifying God in their conversion. 

Of which thing I do not doubt what follows is to be nnder- 
^stood, " And will divide Israel in twain," to wit, into Israel 
srtaining to the bond woman, and Israel pertaining to the 
For these two lands were at fii-st together, as Abra- 
ham still clave to the bond woman, until the barren, made 
fruitful by the grace of God, cried, " Cast out the bond 
woman and her son."* "We know, indeed, that on account 
of the sin of Solomon, in the reign of his son Rehoboam 

■Israel was divided in two, and continued so, the separate parts 
" having their o^vn kings, until that whole nation was overthrown 
with a great destruction, and carried away by the Chaldeans. 
But what was this to Saul, when, if any such thing was 
threatened, it would be threatened against David himself, 
whose son Solomon was ? Finally, the Hebrew nation is not 

^■^w divided internally, but is dispersed through the earth in- 
discriminately, in the fellowship of the same error. But that 
division Avith which God threatened the kingdom and people 
in the person of Saul, who represented them, is shown to be 
eternal and unchangeable by this wliich is added, " And He 
will not be changed, neither will He repent : for He is not as 
ft man, that He should repent ; who threatena and does not per- 
sist," — that is, a man threatens and does not persist, but not 
» Pa. ex. 1. » Gen. xxi 10. 



stooc 
frea 




188 THE CITY OF GOI>. [COOK XTH. 

God, who does not repent like man. For when we read that 
He repents, a change of circunistance is meant, flowing from the 
divine immutable foreknowledge. Therefore, when God is said 
not to repent, it is to be understood that He does not change. 
"We see that this sentence concenung lliis division of the 
people of Israel, divinely uttered in these words, has been 
altogether irremediable and quite perpetual For whoever 
have turned, or are turning, or shall turn thence to Christ, it 
has been according to the foreknowledge of God, not accord- 
ing to the one and the same nature of the human race. Cer- 
tainly none of the Israelites, who, cleaving to Christ, have 
continued in Him, shall ever be among those Israelites M'ho 
persist in being His enemies even to the end of this life, 
but shall for ever remain in the separation which is here 
foretold. For the Old Testament, rrom the Mount Sinai, 
which gendereth to bondage/ profiteth nothing, unless because 
it bears witness to the New Testament. Otherwise, however 
long Moses is read» the veil is put over their heart ; but 
when any one sliall turn thence to Christ, the veil shall be 
taken away.' For the very desire of tliose who turn is 
changed from the old to the new, so that each no longer 
desires to obtain carnal but spiritual felicity. AVlierefore 
that great prophet Samuel himself, before he had anointed 
Saul, when he had cried to the Lord for Israel, and He had 
heard him, and when he had offered a whole burnt-offering, 
as the aliens were coming to battle against the people of God, 
and the Lord thundered above them and they were confused, 
and fell before Israel and were overcome ; [then] he took one 
stone and set it up between the old and new !Massephat 
(Mizpeh), and called ita name Ebenezer, which means " the 
stone of the helper," and said, " Hitherto hath the Lord helped 
us."® Mossephat is interpreted " desire." That stone of the 
helper is the mediation of the Savioiu:, by which we go from 
the old Massephat to the new, — that is, from the desire with 
whicli carnal happiness was expected in the carnal kingdom 
to the desire with which the truest spiritual liappincss is ex- 
pected in the kingdom of lieaven ; and since nothing is better 
than that, the Lord helpeth us hitherto. 

» GoL iv. 25. s 2 Cor. iii. 15, 30, » 1 Sam. viL 0-12, 





BOOK XVTlJ TnE PROMISES M.VDE TO DAVII). 



189 



I 



6. 0/ the pronitts made to David in hia aon, vsMch are m no toiu/ulfiUed in 
Sotomon, but most/uliy in Christ, 



And now I see I must show what^ pertaining to the matter 
I treat of, God promised to David himself, who succeeded Saul 
in the kingdom, whose change prefigured that final change on 
account of which all things were divinely spokenj all things 
■were committed to WTiting. "VVlien many things had gone pros- 
perously with king David, he thought to make a house for 
God, even that temple of most excellent renown which was 
aftcnvai'ds built by king Solomon hia son. Wlille he was 
thinking of this, the word of the Lord came to Natlian the 
prophet, which he brought to the king, in which, after God 
tad said that a liouse should not be built unto Him by Da\nd 
himself, and that in all that long time Hh had never com- 
manded any of His people to build Him a hovise of cedar, he 
says, "And now thus shalt thou say imto my ser\'ant David, 
Thus saith God Almighty, I took thee from the sheep-cote 
that thou mightest be for a ruler over my people in Israel : 
and I was with thee whithersoever thou wentest, and have 
cut off all thine enemies from before thy face, and have made 
thee a name, according to the name of the great ones who are 
over the earth. And I will appoint a place for my people 
Israel, and will plant him, and he shall dwell apart, and shall 
be troubled no more ; and the son of wickedness shall not 
humble him any more, as from the beginning, from the days 
when I appointed judges over my people Israel Aud I will 
give thee rest from all tliine enemies, and the Lord will tell 
[hath told] thee, because thou ehalt build an house for Him. 
And it shall come to pass when thy days be fulfilled, and 
thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, that I ^WIl raise up thy 
seed after thee, whi<;h .shall proceed out of thy bowels, and I 
will prepare his kingdom. He shall buiUl me an house for 
my name ; and I will order his throne even to etemit)-. I 
will be liis Father, and he shall be my son. And if he commit 
iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with 
the stripes of the sons of men : but my mercy I will not take 
away from him, as I took it away from those whom I put 
away from before my face. And his houso s-haU be faithful, 




190 THE CITY OP GOD. [BOOK 

and his kingdom even for evermore before me, and his throne 
shall be set up even for evermore."^ 

He who thinks this grand promise was fulfilled in Solomon 
greatly errs ; for he attends to the saying, " He shall build 
me an house/' but he does not attend to the saying, " His 
house shall be faithful, and his kingdom for evermore before 
me." Let >iiTn therefore attend and behold the house of 
Solomon full of strange women worshipping false gods, and 
the king himself, aforetime wise, seduced by them, and cast 
down into the same idolatry : and let him not dare to think 
that God either promised this falsely, or was unable to fore- 
know that Solomon and his house would become what they 
did- But wo ought not to be in doubt here, or to see the 
fulfilment of these things save in Christ our Lord, who was 
made of the seed of David aeconling to the flesh ' lest we 
should vainly and uselessly look for some other here, like the 
carnal Jews. For even they understand this much, that the 
son whom they read of in that place as promised to David 
was not Solomon ; so that, with wonderful blindness to Kim 
who was promised and is now declared with so great manifes- 
tation, they say tliey Lope for another. Indeed, even in Solo- 
mon there appeared some im^ of the future event, in that 
lie built the temple, and had jxmce according to his name (for 
Solomon means " pacific "), and in the beginning of his reign 
was wonderfully praiseworthy; but while, as a shadow of Him 
that should come, he foreshowed Christ our Lord, he did not 
also in his own person resumblc Him. Wlience some things 
concerning him are so written as if they were prophesied 
of himself, while the Holy Scripture, prophesying even by 
events, somehow delineates in him the figure of things to 
come. For, besides the books of divine history, in which his 
reign is narrated, the '72d Psalm also is inscribed in the title 
with his name, in which so many things are said wliich can- 
not at all apply to him, but which apply to the Lord Christ 
with such evident fitness as maizes it c^uite appai-ent that in 
the one the figure is in some way shadowed forth, but in the 
other tlie truth itself is presented. For it is known witliin 
what bounds the kingdom of Solomon was enclosed; and y^t 
1 2 Sun. vtL S-16. * Bom. u S. 




BOOK xvn.] 



POLOMON A TYPE OF CHKIST. 



191 



that psalm, not to speak of other things, we read, "He 



^iall have doi 



from 



to 



and from tlie 



minion irom sea even 

kto the ends of the eartb,"^ which we see fulfilled in Christ 
(1*11117 ^^ ^^'^^ ^^^ beginning of His reigning from the river 
Where John baptized ; for, when pointed out by him, lie began 
fco be acknowledged by the disciples, who called Him not only 
Adaster, but also Lord, 
|i Nor was it for any other reason that, while hk father David 

I '^^as still living, Solomon began to reign, which happened to 
Xxone other of their kings, except that from this also it might 
I "t>e clearly apparent that it was not himself this prophecy 
Spoken to his father signified beforehand, saying, " And it 
•oliall come to pass when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt 
sleep with thy fathers, thiit I wdl raise up thy seed wliich 
Qhall proceed out of thy bowels, and I wiU. prepare His king- 
<3oiit." How, therefore, shall it be thought on account of what 
follows, " He shall build me an house," that this Solomon is 
prophesied, and not rather be understood on account of what 
precedes, '* Wlien thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep 
■with tliy fathers, I will raise up thy seed after thee," that 
another pacific One is promised, who is foretold as about to 
be raised up, not before David's death, as he was, but after 
it ? For however long the interval of time might be before 
Jeaus Christ came, beyond doubt it was after the deiith of 
king David, to whom He was so promised, that He behoved 
to come, who shoidd build au house of God, not of wood and 
stone, but of men, such as we rejoice He does boild. For to 
this house, that is, to believers, the apostle saith, " The temple 
of God is holy, which temple ye are."' 

9. ffow liie the prophecy about Christ in the SOth Psalm is to the things 
promiaed in Kathan't prcphecy in iht Book* ofSainwl. 

Wherefore also in the 89th Psalm, of which the title is, 
"An instruction for himself by Ethan the Israelite," mention 
is made of the promises God made to king David, and some 
things are there added similar to those found in the Book of 
Samuel, such as this, " I have sworn to David my sei-vant 
that I will prepare his seed for ever,"* And again, "Then 
thou spakest in vision to thy sons, and saidst, I have laid 
» Pi. budi, 8. » 1 Cor. iii 17. * Pa. buodx. 8, t 




192 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xvn. 



help upon the mighty One, and have exalted the chosen One 
out of my people. I have found David my servant, and with 
my holy oil I have anointed him. For mine hand shall help 
him, and mine arm shall strengthen liim. The enemy shall 
not prevnil against him, and the sou of ini([uity shall harm 
liim no more. And I will beat down his foes from hefore 
his face, and those that hate him will I put to flight And 
my truth and my mercy shall be with him, and in my name 
shall his horn be exalted. I will set his hand also in the 
sea, and his right hand in the rivers. He shall cry unto me, 
Thou art my Father, my God, and the undertaker of my sal^'a- 
tion. Also I will make him my iirst-born, high among the 
kings of the earth. My mercy will I keep for him for ever- 
more, and my covenant shall be faithful (sure) with him. 
His seed also will I set for ever and ever, and his throne as 
tlie days of heaven."* Which words, when rightly understood, 
are all understood to be about the Lord Jesus Cluist, imder 
the nauie of David, on account of the form of a servant, which 
the same Mediator assumed ^ from the virgin of the seed of 
David.' For immediately something is said about the sins of 
his children, such as is set do\^'n in the Book of Samuel, and 
is more readily taken as if of Solomon. For there, that is, 
in the Book of Samuel, he says, " And if he commit iniquity, 
1 will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes 
of the sons of men ; but my mercy will I not take away from 
him,"* meaning by stripes the strokes of correction. Hence 
that saving, "Touch ye not my christs."* For what else is 
that than, Do not harm them ? But in the psalm, when 
speaking aa if of David, He says something of the same kind 
there too. " If his cldldren," saith He, " foreake my law, and 
walk not in my judgments ; if they profane my righteous- 
nesses, and keep not my commandments ; I will visit their 
iniq^uities ■with the rod, and their faults with stripes : but my 
mercy I will not make void from him."" He did not say 
" from them " although He spoke of his children, not of him- 
self; but he said "from him," which means the same thing 
if rightly understood. For of Christ Himself, "who is the head 



> Ps. IxTxix. 19-29. 
* 2 Sam. vii, 14, 15. 



• Phil. ii. 7. 

* Pi. ov. 1&. 



■Matt. i. 3, 18; Luke i. 27. 
Ps. Ixixix. 30-33. 





tOOK XVII.] 



SOLOMON A TYPE OF CHniST. 



193 



of the Cliurch, there could not be found any sins which re- 
quired to be divinely restrained by human correction, mercy 
l)eing still continued j but tlioy are found in His botly and 
embers, which, is His people. Therefore in the Bock of 
nmuel it is said, "iniquity of Him." but in the psalm, "of 
Hb children," that we niay understand that what is said of 
His body is in some way said of Himself. Wliereforc also, 
when Saul persecuted His body, that is, His believing people, 
He Hiiuself saith from Jie^iven, " Saul, Saul, why persecutest 
Ihou me?"* Then in the following words of the psalm He 
ya, "Neither will I hurt iii uiy trutli, not profane my cove- 
nant, and the things that proceed from my lips 1 will not 
disallow. Once have I sworn by my holiness, if I lie unto 
i>avid,"' — that is, I will in no wise lie unto David ; for 
Scripture is wont to speak thus. But what tluit is iu which 
-H^e will not lie, He adds, saying, "His seed shall endure for 
^"X^er, and his throne as the sun before me, and as the luoon 
F>^rtected for ever, and a faithful witne53 in heaven."^ 

^ ^- ffow difei-ent tJu acU in the Ungdom of Ote tarthltf Jertaalem are from 
^^^ those whicJi God fiaU promised, ao that the truth of the promue shoutd be 

^^B vjulerstood to pertain to the glory <f the other Kin'j and kingdom. 

That it might not be supposed tliat a promise so strongly 
^^>cpressed and confinued was fulfilled in Solomon^ as if he 
**'^:>ped for, yet did not liud iL, he says, " But Tlioii hast cast off, 
^"*^d hast brought to nothing, Lord."* Tkis truly was done 
^^^^^nccmin":; the kiuf^doin of Solomon among his posterity, even 
^*^ the overthrow of the earthly Jerusalem itself, which was 
^*le seat of tiie kingdom, and especially the destruction of the 
'^^ry temple which had been built by Solomon. But lest on 
^Viis accuunt God should be thought to have done contrary to 
is promise, immediately he adds, " Thou hast delayed Tliy 
hrist."* Tlierefure he is not Solomon, nor yet David him- 
If, if the Clirist of the Lord is delayed. For whQe all the 
ings are called His christSj who were consecrated with that 
Mystical chrism, not only from king David downwards, but 
^vea from that Saul who first was anointed king of that same 
people, David himself indeed calling Mm the Lord's clirist, 

I • Acta ix. 4. » Ts. Ixxxix. 3i. 35. * Ps. Ixxxix. 30. 37. 




' Acta ix. 4. 
* P». Ixxxii. 33. 
VOU II. 



■Ts. Ixxxix. 3i. 35. 
■ ?«. lixxix, 38, 



194 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XVTI 

yet there was one true Christ, whose figure they bore by the 
prophetic unction, who, according to the opinion of men, who 
thought he was to be understood as come in David or in 
Solomon, was long delayed, but who, according as God had 
disposed, waa to come in Hia own tima The following pan 
of this psalm goes on to say what in the meantijne, while He 
was delayed, was to become of the kingdom of the earthly 
Jerusalem, where it was hoped He would certainly reigo: 
" Thou hast overthrown the covenant of Thy servant ; Thou 
hast profaned in the earth his sanctuary. Thou hast broken 
down all his walls ; Thou hast put his strongholds in fear. 
All that pass by the way spoil liim ; he is made a reproach 
to his neighboura. Thou hast set up the right hand of his 
enemies ; Thou hast made all his enemies to rejoice. Then 
hast turned aside the help of his sword, and hast not helped 
him in war. Tliou hast destroyed him from cleansing ; Thou 
hast dashed down his seat to the grounil Thou hast short- 
ened the days of his seat ; Thou hast poured confusion over 
Ixim."^ All these things camo upon Jerusalem the bond 
woman, in which some also reigned who were eliildren of the 
free woman, holding that kingdom in temporary stewardship, 
but holding the kingdom of the heavenly Jerusalem, whose 
children they were, in true faith, and hoping in the tnie 
Cliriat. But how these things came upon that kingdom, the 
history of its affairs points out if it is read. 

11. 0/Uu tulmtatue qf the people o/Ood, whkh through ffis njunttnptitm tf 
Jtah U in Ckritt, who cUone had power to deliver IJis own soul from hell. 

But after having prophesied these things, the prophet be 
takes him to praying to God ; yet even the very prayer i^ 
prophecy: "How long, Lord, dost Thou turn nway in tb^ 
end?"' "Thy face" is understood, as it is elsewhere sai(ir. 
" How long dost Thou turn away Thy face from me ?" ' Fo^ 
therefore some copies have here not " dost " but " wilt Thot^ 
turn away;" although it could be understood, "Thou tume 
away Thy mercy, which Thou didst promise to David." BnC^ 
when he says, " in the end," what does it mean, except even*- 
to the end 1 By which end is to be understood the last time, 
when even that nation is to believe in Christ Jesus, before 
' Pa. Uxxix. 39-i5. > Ft. boxix. 40. * Pi. xiU. I. 




d 




1^ 



which end what He has just sorrowfully bewailed must come 
to pass. On account of which it is also added here, " Thy 
"Wrath shall burn like fue. Remember what is my sub- 
stance."^ This cannot be better understood than of Jesus 
Eimself, the substance of Hia people, of whose nature His 
fiesh is, " For not in vain," he says, " hast Thou made all the 
aons of men."' For unless the one Son of man had been the 
substance of Israel, through which Son of man many sons of 
luen should be set free^ all the sous of men would have been 
made wholly in vain. But now indeed all mankind through 
tJie fall of the first man has fallen from the truth into vanity ; 
T which reason another psalm says, " Man is like to vanity : 
days pass away as a shadow ;"' yet God has not made all 
\he sons of men in vain, because He frees many from vanity 
throogh the Mediator Jesus, and those whom He did not fore- 
know as to be delivered, He made not wholly in vain in the 
most beautiful and most just ordination of the whole rational 
creation, for the use of those who were to be delivered, and 
£or the comparison of the two cities by muttial contrast 
Thereafter it follows, " Who is the man that shall live, and 
all not see death ? shall he snatch his soul from the hand 
liell?"* Who is this but that substance of Israel out of 
seed of David, Christ Jesus, of whom the apostle says, 
that " rising from the dead He now dieth not, and death shall 
no more have dominion over Him ?"* For He shall so live and 
not see death, that yet He shall have been dead ; but shall 
hax^ delivered His soul from the hand of hell, whither He had 
descended in order to loose some from the chains of hell ; but 
He hath delivered it by that power of wliich He says in the 
Gospel, " I have the power of laying down my life, and I have 
the power of taking it again."* 

To tpho4e person the entrtaty for the promises is lobe taidersiood to hdonfff 
toAoi he saj/s in tfie pMim, ** Whtre are Thine ancient etnnpataionSt 
LordTetc. 

But the rest of this psalm runs thus : " Where are Thine 
tncLent compassions, Lord, which Thou swarest unto David in 
Ihy truth ? Kemember, Lord, the reproach of Thy servants, 



^The 



^ Pi. liiMX. 46, 47. 
*Pi.lxxxaz.4«. 



• Ps. Ixjcxii. 47. 

* Bom. -n. 9. 



» Ps. cilir. 4. 
•JohnjL 18. 




196 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XTIL 

which I have borne in my bosom of many nations ; where- 
with Thine enemies have reproached, l/>rd, wlierewith they 
have reproached the change of Thy Christ."^ Now it may 
with very good reason be asked whether this is spoken in the 
person of those Israelites who desired that the promise made 
to David laight be fulfilled to them j or rather of the Chris- 
tians, who are Israelites not after the Hesb but after the 
Spii'it.^ T!iiy certainly was spoken or written in the time of 
Ethan, from whose name this psalm gets its title, and tliflt 
was the same as the time of David's reign ; and therefore it 
would not have been said, " W^ere are Thine ancient com- 
passions, Lord, which Tliou hast sworn unto David in Thy 
truth ?" unless the prophet had assumed the person of those 
who should come lou^; afterwards, to whom tliat time when 
these things were promised to David was ancient But it 
may be understood thus, that many nations, when they perse- 
cuted the Christians, reproached them with the passion of 
Christ, which Scripture calls His chan;;e, because by dying 
He is made imniortaL The change of Christ, accordinij tfi 
this passage, may also be undei*stood to be repi-onclu^d by the 
Israelites, because, when they hoped He would be theiis, He 
was made the Saviour of the nations ; and many nations vho 
have believed in Him by the New Testament now reproacli 
them who remain in tlie old witli this: so that it is said, "He- 
member, Lord, the reproach of Thy sewants ;" because through 
the Lord's not foi-gettiug, but ratlier pityinj:; tliem, even they 
after this reproach are to believe. But wliat I have put first 
seems to me the most suitable meaning. For to the enemies 
of Christ who are reproached with this, that Christ hath left 
them, turning to the Gentiles,' this speech is incongmously 
assigned, " Remember, Lord, the reproach of Thy servants,'* 
for such Jews are not to be styled the sen-ants of God ; but 
these words fit those who, if they suffered great humiliations 
tlu*ough persecution for the name of Christ, could call to mind 
that an cxfiltcd kingdom had been promised to tlic seed of 
David, aud in desire of it, could say not despairingly, but as 
asking, seeking, knocking,* " Wliere are Thine ancient compas- 

1 Pa. IxxxLY. 49-51. « Rom. iii. 28, 29. 

« AcU xiii. 40. * iiatt vii. 7, 8. 





BOOK XVn.] CHRIST RKFKRRKD TO IN TITK PSALMS. 



k 



sions, Lord, which Thou swarest unto David in Thy truth ? Ite- 
member, Lord, the reproach of Thy servants, that I have home 
in my hosom of many nations ;" that is, have patiently endured 
in my inward parts. " That Thine enemies have reproached, 
O Lonl, wherewith they have reproached the change of Thy 
Christ," not thinldng it a change, but a constiniption.' lint what 
does "Iiemember, Lord," mean, but that Thou wonldst have 
compassion, and wouldst for my patiently borne humiliation 
reward me with the excellency which Thou sM'arest luito David 
in Thy truth ? But if we assign these words to Uie Jews, 
those servants of God who, on the conquest of the eai-thly 
Jerusalem, before Jesus Ciirist was bom after the manner of 
men, were led into captivity, could say such things, under- 
standing the change of Chi'ist, because indeed through Him 
was to be surely expected, not an eartlily and carnal felicity, 
such as appeared during the few years of king Solomon, but a 
heavenly and spiritual felicity ; and wheii the nations, then 
i^orant of this through unbelief, exulted over and insulted 
the people of God for being captives, what else was this than 
iguomntly to reproach ^vith the change of Clu-isfc those who 
understand the change of Christ ? And therefore what fol- 
lows when this psalm is concluded, " Let the blessing of the 
Lord be for evennore, amen, amen," is suitable enough for 
the whole people of God belonging to the heavenly Jerusalem, 
whether for those things that lay hid in the Old Testament 
before the Kew was revealed, or for those that, being now 
revealed in the New Testament, are manifestly discerned to 
belong to Christ. Por the blessing of the Lord in the seed of 
David docs not belong to any particular time, such as ap- 
peared in the days of Solomon, but is for evermore to be 
hoped for, in which most certain hope it is said, " Amen, 
amen ;" for this repetition of the word is the confinnation of 
that hope. Therefore David understanding this, says in the 
second Book of Kings, in the passage from which we digressed 
to this psalui,^ " Thou Imst spoken also for Thy servant's liouse 
for a gi*eat wliile to conie."^ Therefore also a little after he 
Bays, " Now begin, and bless the house of Thy servant for ever- 

* See above, cluip. riii. 



* Another reaiHng, "consummatitm.'* 
'2 Sam. vii. 19. 



198 



THE CITY OF GOD, 



[book xvn. 



more," etc., because the son was then about to be bom from 
whom his posterity should be continued to Clirist, through 
whom his house should be eternal, and should also be the 
house of God, For it is called the house of David on accoimt 
of David's race ; but the selfsame is called the house of God 
on account of the temple of God, made of men, not of stones^ 
where shall dwell for evermore the people with and in their 
God, and God with and in His people, so that God may fill 
His people, and the people be filled with their God, while God 
shall be all in all. Himself their rewai-d in peace who is their 
strength in war. Therefore, when it is said in the words of 
Nathan, " And the Lord will tell thee what an house thou 
shalt build for Him,"* it is afterwards said in the words of 
David, " For Thou^ Lord Almighty, God of Israel, hast opened 
the ear of Thy servant, saying, I will build thee an house." * 
For this house is built both by us through living well, and by 
God through helping us to live well ; for " except the Lord 
build the house, they labour in vain that build it."* And 
when the final dedication of this house shall take place, then 
what God here says by Nathan shall be fulfilled, "And I 
will appoint a place far my people Israel, and will plant him, 
and he shall dwell apart, and shall be troubled no more ; and 
the son of iniquity shall not humble him any more, as from 
the beginning, from the days when I appointed judges over my 
people Israel"* 

13. WlKther tfte truth afthU promued peace can he oKribed to thorn 

poiKd awfjy undfT Solomon. 

Whoever hopes for this so great good in this world, and 
in this earth, his wisdom is but folly. Can any one think it 
was fidiiUed in the peace of Solomon's reign ? Scripture cer- 
tainly commends that peace with excellent praise as a shadow 
of that which is to come. But this opinion is to be vigilantly 
opposed, since after it is said, " And the son of iniquity shall 
not humble him any more/* it is immediately added, " as from 
the beginning, from the days in which I appointed judges 
over my people Israel/"^ For the judges were appointed over 
that people from the time when they received the land of 



rer mj i 



* 2 Sam. viL 8. 
<2Sam. vii. 10, 11. 



» 2 Sam. vii. 27. 
*2Sani. viL 10, U. 



Ps. cxxrii. 1. 




BATTT) 3 MKAyrVn m THK PSAI.M3. 



199 



prom^e, l)efore kings had begun to be there. And certainly 
the son of iniquity, that is, the foreign enemy, humbled him 
through periods of time in which we read that peace alter- 
nated with wars ; and in that period longer times of peace are 
found than Solomon had, who reigned forty years. For under 
that judge who is called Ehud there were eighty years of 
peace.' Be it far from us, therefore, that we shoiUd believe 
the times of Solomon arc predicted in this promise, much less 
indeed those of any other king whatever. For none other of 
them reigned in such great peace as he ; nor did that nation 
ever at all hold that kingdom so as to have no anxiety lest it 
sliould be subdued by enemies : for in the very great muta- 
bility of human affairs such great security is never given to 
any people, that it should not dread invasions hostile to this 
life. Therefore the place of this promised peacefid and secure 
habitation is etenial, and of right belongs eternally to Jeru- 
salem the fi'ee mother, where the genuine people of Israel 
shall be : for this name is interpreted " Seeing God ; " in the 
desire of which reward a pious life is to be led through faith 
in this miserable pilgi-image.^ 



^ 



14. 0/David'» concern m the writing of the Paalmn. 

In the progress of the city of God tlirough the ages, there- 
fore, David first reigned in the eaithly Jerusalem as a sliadow 
of that which was to come. Now David was a man skilled 
in songs, who dearly loved musical harmony, not with a 
vulgar delight, but with a believing disposition, and by it 
served his God, who is the true God, by the mystical repre- 
sentation of a great thing. For the rational and well-ordered 
concord of diverse sounds in harmonious variety suggests the 
compact unity of the well-ordered city. Then almost all his 
prophecy is in psalms, of which a hundred and fifty are con- 
tained in what we call the Book of Psalms, of which some 
■will have it those only were made by David which are in- 
scribed with his name. But there are also some who think 
none of them were made by him except those which are 
marked "Of David;" but those which have in the title "For 

' Jndg. iiL 30. 

« l«»l=."aprmceof6od;" Peuiel=:"th« lace ofOod" (Gen. ixxii. 28-30). 




200 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xvn. 



David " have been made "by others who assumed his per- 
son. Which opinion is refuted by the voice of the Saviour 
Himself in the Gospel, when He says that David himself 
by the Spii'it said Christ was his Lord ; for the 110th Psalm 
begins thus, " The Lord sfiid unto my Lord, Sit Thou at my 
right hand, until I juake Thine enemies Tliy footstool"* And 
tiaily that very psalm, like many more, has in the title, not 
" of David/' but " for David." But those seem to me to hold 
the more credible opinion, who ascribe to him the authorship 
of all these hundred and fifty psalms, and tliink that he pre- 
fixed to some of them the names even of other men, who 
prehgured iiomething ptiitineut to the matter, but chose to 
have no man's name in the titles of the rest, just as God 
inspired him in the management of this variety, wliich, 
although dark, is not meaningless. Xeither ought it to mora 
one not to believe this, that tlie names of some prophets who 
lived long after the times of king David are read in the 
inscriptions of certain psalms in that book, and that the 
things said there seem to be spoken as it were by them. 
Nor was the prophetic Spirit unable to reveal to king David, 
when he prophesied, even these names of future prophets, so 
that he might prophetically sing something whicli should suit 
their jjcrsons ; just as it was revealed to a certain prophet 
that king Josiah should arise and reign after moi^ than three 
Inmdrcd years, who predicted his future deeds also along with 
his name.'* 

15. WltWicr all the Uiintja propheMd m tJa Psalms eoneerning Christ and Sit 
Church should be t<tken up in the text of Otis tcork. 

And now I see it may be expectM of me tliat I shall open 
up in this part of this book what David may have prophesied 
in the Psal ms concerni ng the Lord Jesn s Christ or His 
Church. lint although I have already done so in one in- 
stance, I am prevented from doing as that expectation seems 
to demand, rather by the abundance than the scarcity of 
matter. For the necessity of shunning prolixity forbids my 
setting down all things ; yet I fear lest if I select some I shall 
appear to many, whu know these things, to have passed by 

* Pe. ex. 1, quoted in Malt xxii. ii. 

' 1 Kings xuL 2 ; fulfilled 2 Kings SLJuii IS-IT, 




r 



K x%ni.] THE FORTY'Frrrn PSAur. 201 



the more necessary. Besidea, the proof that is adduced ought 
to be supported by the context of tlie whole psalni, so that 
at least there may be nothing against it if ever}'thing does 
not support it ; lest we should seem, after the fashion of the 
centos, to gather for the thing we wish, as it were vorscs out 
of a grand poem, what shall be found to have been written 
not about it, but about some other and widely different thing. 
But ere this could be pointed out- in each psalm, the whole 
of it must be expounded ; and liow gi'cat a work that would 
be, the volumes of others, as well as our own, in which we 
bave done it, show well enough. Let him then who will, 
or can, read tliese volumes, and he will find out how many 
and great things David, at once king and prophet, has pro- 
phesied concerning Christ and His Church, to wit, concerning 
the King and the city whicli He has built. 

19. Cifth^ things pertaining to Christ ami thf Church, said eitJur opmhj or 

■ trupkally m l/ie ICCA Fsaim. 

For whatever direct and manifest prophetic utterances there 
may be about anything, it is necessary that those which are 
tropical should be mingled with tliem ; whichj chiefly on 
account of those of slower understanding, thrust upon the 
more learned the laborious task of clearing up and expound- 
ing them. Some of them, indeed, on the very first blush, as 
soon as they are spoken, exliibit Christ and the Church, 
although some things in them that are less intelligible remain 
to be expounded at leisure. We have an example of this 
in tliat same Book of Psalms: "My heart bubbled up a good 
matter ; I utter my words to the king. My tongue is the pen 
of a scribe, MTiting swiftly. Thy form is beautiful beyond the 
sous of men ; grace is i>oured out in Thy lips : therefore God 
hath blessed Thee for evermore. Giinl Thy aword about Thy 
thigh, Most Mighty. "With Thy goodhness and Thy beauty 
go forward, pi*oceed prosperously, and reign, because of Thy 
truth, and meekness, and righteousness ; and Thy right hand 
shall lead Thee forth wonderfully. Thy sharp arrows are most 
powerful The people shall fall under Thee : in the heart of 
the King's enemies. Thy throne, God, is for ever and ever : 
a rf»d of direction is the rod of Thy kingdom. Thou hast 
loved righteousness^ and hast hated initj^uity : therefoi^ God, 




202 THE CHY OF GOD. [BOOK XVIJ. 

Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of exultation above 
Thy fellows. Myrrh and drops, and cassia from Thy vest- 
ments, from the houses of ivory : out of which the daughters 
of kings have delighted Thee in Thine honour."^ Who is there, 
no matter how slow, but must here recognise Christ whom 
we preach, and in whom we beUeve, if he hears that He 

God, whose throne is for ever and ever, and that He is 
inointcd by God, as God indeed anoints, not with a visible, 
but with a spiiitual and intelligible chrism ? For who ia so 
untaught in this religion, or so deaf to its far and wide spread 
fame, as not to know that Christ is named from this chrism, 
that is. from this anointing ? But when it is acknowledged 
that this King is Christ, let each one who is already subject to 
Him who reigns because of truth, meekness, and righteousness, 
inquire at his leisure into these other things that are here 
said tropically : how His form is beautiful beyond the sons 
of men, with a certain beauty that is the more to be loved 
and admired the less it is corporeal; and what His sword, 
arrows, and other things of that kind may be, which are set 
down, not properly, but tropicallv. 

Then let him look upon His Church, joined to her so great 
Husband in spiritual marriage and divine love, of which it is 
said iu these words which follow, "The queen stood upon 
Thy right liand in gold-embroidered vestment^, girded abont 
with variety. Hearken, O daughter, and look, and incline 
tliine ear ; forget also thy people^ and thy father's house. 
Becaiise the King hath greatly desired thy beauty ; for He ia 
the Loi'd thy God. And the daughters of Tyre shaH worship 
Him with gifts ; the rich among the people shall entreat Thy 
face. The daughter of the King has all her glory within, iu 
golden fringes, girded about with variety. The virgins shall 
be brought after her to the King: her neighbours shall be 
brought to Thee. They shall be brought with gladness and 
exultation : they shall be led into the temple of the King. 
Instead of thy fathers, sons shall be bom to thee : thou shalt 
establish them as princes over all the earth They shall be 
mindful of thy name in every generation and descent. There- 
fore shall the people acknowledge thee for evermore, even for 

» Pg. xiv, l-». 




)0K xvn,] 



ff irORTT-nFTH PSALM. 



ever and ever."^ I do not think any one is so stupid as to 
believe that some poor woman ia here praised and described, 
as the spouse, to •wit, of Him to whom it is said, " Thy tlirone, 
O God, is for ever and ever : a rod of direction is the rod of 
Thy kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness and hated ini- 
quity : therefore God, Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the 
oil of exultation above Thy fellows ;'*' that is, plainly, Christ 
above Christians. For these are His fellows, out of the unity 
and concord of whom in all nations that queen is formed, 
sa it is said of her in another psalm, " The city of the great 
King,"' The same is Sion spiritually, which name in Latin 
is interpreted specnlcUio (discovery) ; for she descries the 
great good of the world to come, because her attention is 
directed thither. In the same way she is also Jerusalem 
spiritually, of which we have already said many things. Her 
enemy is the city of the devil, Babylon, which is interj)reted 
" confusion." Yet out of this Babylon this queen is in all 
nations set free by regeneration, and passes from the worst 
to the best King, — that is, from the devil to Christ Where- 
fore it is said to her, " Forget thy people and thy father's 
house." Of this impious city those also are a portion who 
are Israelites only in the Hesh and not by faith, enemies also 
of this great King Himself, and of His queen. For Christ, 
having come to them, and been slain by them, has the more 
become the King of others, whom He did not see in the flesh. 
Whence our Kiii^ Himself says tlu*ough the prophecy of a 
OCTtain psalm, " Thou wilt deliver me fi-om the contradictions 
of the people ; Thou wilt make me head of the nationa A 
people whom T have not known hath Rcrved me : in the hear- 
ing of the ear it hath obeyed me."* Therefore this people of 
the nations, which Christ did not know in His bodily presence, 
yet has believed in that Christ as announced to it ; so that it 
might be said of it with good reason, " In tho hearing of the 
ear it hath obeyed me" for " faith is by hearing."* This 
people, I say, added to those who are the true Israelites both 
by the flesh and by faith, is the city of God, which has 
brought forth Christ Himflelf according to the flesh, since He 

* P«. xItUL 2. 



' Pa. xlv. 9-17. 
« Pi. xriii. 43. 



' Pa. xIt. 7. 
■ Kom. X. 6, 




204: 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XVIL 



was in tliese Israelites only. For tlience came the Virgin 
Mary, in wliom Christ aasunied flesh that He might be man. 
Of which city another psalm says, " Mother Sion, shall a man 
eay, and the man is made in her, and the Highest HimscK 
hath founded her." * Who is this Highest, save God ? And 
thus Christ, who is God, before He became man through Mary 
in that city. Himself founded it by the patiiorchs and prophets 
As therefore was said by prophecy so long before to this queen, 
the city of Cod, what we already can see fulfilled, " Instead 
of thy fathers, sous are born to thee ; thou shalt make them 
princes over all the earth ;"* so ont of her sons truly are set 
up even her fathers [princes] through all the eartli, wlien the 
people, coming together to her, confess to her with the con- 
fession of eternal praise for ever and ever. Beyond doubt, 
whatever interpretation is put on what is here expressed 
somewliat darkly in figurative language, ttught to be in agree- 
ment with these most manifest things. 

17, 0/ those things in tht 3 IOj'A Pgolm which TcUUe to ike priesthood o/Chrittj 
and ill the 22d to JJ is passion. 

Just as in that psalm also where Clirist is most openly 
proclaimed as Tricst, even as He is here as King, *' The Lord 
said unto my Lord, Sit Thou at my right liand, until I make 
Thine enemies Thy footstool."* That Clirist sits on the right 
hand of God the Father is believed, not seen ; that His ene- 
mies also are put under His feet doth not yet appear ; it is 
being done, [therefore] it will appear at last : yea, this is now 
believed, afterward it shall be aeeu. But what follows, " Tiie 
Lord will send forth the rod of Thy strength out of Sion, ftnd 
rulo Thou in the midst of Tliine enemies,"* is so clear, that to 
deny it would imply not merely unbelief and mistake, but 
downright impudence. And even enemies must certainly 
confess that out of Sion has been sent the law of Christ which 
we call tlie gospel, and acknowledge as the rod of His strength. 
But that He rules in the midst of His enemies, these same 
enemies among whom He rules themselves bear witness, 
gnasliing their teeth and consuming away, and having power 
to do nothing against Him, Thea what he says a httle after, 



' Pb. Ixxxvii. 6. 
» Pa. ex. 1. 



• Ps. xlv. 16 
*rs. ex. 2. 



m 




THE nUKDEED ANT) TENTH PSALM. 



205 



*' The I-ord hath sworn and will not repent,"* by which words 
He intimates that whnt He adds is immutable, "Thou art a 
priest for ever after the order of MelchizeJek/'' who is per- 
mitted to doubt of whom these things are said, seeing that 
now there is nowhere a priesthood and sacrifice after the 
order of Aaron, and everywhere men ofler under Christ as the 
Priest, which Melchizedek showed when he blessed Abraham ? 
Tlierefore to these manifest thiu^ are to be referred, when 
rightly understood, those things in the same psalm tlut are set 
down a little more obscurely, and we Lave already made known 
in our popular sermons how these things are to be ri^^htly under- 
fitood. So also in tliat where Christ utters through jintphecy 
tlie humiliation of His passion, saying, " They pierced my 
hands and feet ; they counted all my bonea Yea, they looked 
end stared at me."^ By wliich woi-ds he certainly meant His 
body stretched out on the cross, with the hands and feet pierced 
and perforated by the striking through of tlie nails, and that 
He had in that way made Himself a spectacle to those who 
looked and stared. And he adds, " They parted my garments 
among them, and over my vesture they cast lots."* How 
this prophecy lias been fulfilled the Gospel history narrates. 
Then, indeed, the other things also which are said there less 
openly are rightly understood when they agree with those 
which shine with so great clearness ; especially because those 
things also which we do not believe aa past, but survey as 
present, are beheld by the whole world, being now exhibited 
just as they arc read of in this very psahn as predicted so 
long before. For it is there said a little after, " All the ends 
of the earth shnll remoiiiber, and turn unto the T^ord, and all 
the kindi'eds of tlie nations shall worship before Him ; for the 
kingdom is the Lord's, and He shall rule the nations." 

IS. OfOie Zd, ilstj 15/^, and 6Sf/i Pgahiu, in which the death and ruurreetioH 
of the Lord are prophesied. 

About His resurrection also the oracles of the Psalms are 
by no means silent. For what else is it that is sung in His 
person in the 3d Psalm, " I laid me down and took a sleep, 
[and] I awaked, for the Lord shall sustain me?"* la there 




» Ps. ex. 4. 

* Pft. xxii. 18, 19. 



« Pk ex. 4. 
B Ps. iil 5. 



» P». xxiL 16, 17. 



206 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[itOOK XVIL 



perchance any one so stupid as to believe that the prophet 
chose to point it out to us as something great that He had 
slept and risen up. unless that sleep had been death, and that 
awaking the resurrection, which behoved to be thus pn> 
phesied concerning Christ ? For in the 41st Psalm also it is 
shown much more clearly, where in the person of the Mediator, 
in the usual way, things are narrated as if past which were 
prophesied as yet to come, since these things whicli were yet 
to come were in the predestination and foreknowledge of God 
as if they were done, because they were certain. He says, 
" Mine enemies speak evil of me ; "When shall he die, and his 
name perish ? And if he came in to see me, his heart spake 
vain things : he gathered iniquity to himself He went out 
of doors, and uttered it all at once. Against me all mine 
enemies whisper together: against me do they devise evil 
They have planned an unjust thing against me. Shall not 
he that sleeps also rise again ?"* These words are certainly 
so set down here that he may be understood to say nothing 
else than if he said. Shall not He that died recover life again ? 
The previous words clearly show Uiat His enemies have medi- 
tated and planned His death, and that this was executed by 
him who came in to see, and went out to betray. But to 
whom does not Judas here occur, who, from being His dis- 
ciple;, became His betrayer ? Therefore because they were 
about to do what they had plotted, — that is, were about to 
kiU Him, — he, to show them that with useless malice they 
were about to kill Him who should rise again, so adds this 
verse, as if he said, What vain thing are you doing ? What 
will be your crime will be my sleep. " Shall not He that 
sleeps also rise again ?" And yet he indicates in the follow- 
ing verses that they should not commit so great an impiety 
with impunity, saying, " Yea, the man of my peace in whom 
I trusted, who ate ray bread, hath enlarged the heel over 
me, 
saith, 

may requite them."^ Who can now deny this who sees the 

Jews, after the passion and resurrection of Christ, utterly 

rooted up from their abodes by warlike slaughter and de- 

> Pa. xlL 6-fi. 5 Pa. xlL 9, « Pa. ili 10. 



"^ that is, hath trampled me under foot " But Thou," he 
' Lord, bo merciful unto me, and raise me up, that I 




RPRETATION OF THE PSAL51S, 



stxuction ? For, being slain bj^ them, He has risen again, and 
has requited them meanwhile by temporary discipline, save 
that for those who are not corrected He keeps it in store for 
the time when He shall judge the quick and the dead.' For 
the Lord Jesus Himself, in pointing out that very man to the 
apostles as His betrayer, quoted this very verse of this psalm, 
and said it was fulfilled in Himself : '* He that ate my bread 
eulai^d the heel over me." But what he says, " In whom I 
U'usted/* does not suit the liead but the body. For the 
Saviour Himself was not ignorant of him concerning whom 
He had already said before, " One of you is a devil." ^ But 
He is wont to assume the person of His members, and to 
ascribe to Himself what should be said of them, because the 
head and the body is one Chiist ; ' whence that saying in the 
Gospel, "1 was an hungered, and ye gave me to eat."* Ex- 
poimding which, He says, " Since ye did it to one of the least 
of mine, yc did it to mc." * Therefore He said that He had 
trusted, because His disciples then had trusted concerning 
Judas ; for he was numbored with the apostles.** 

But the Jews do not expect that the Christ whom they 
expect wdl die ; therefore they do not think ours to be Him 
whom the law and the prophets announced, but feign to 
themselves I know not whom of their own, exempt from the 
suffering of death. Therefore, with wonderful emptiness and 
blindness, they contend that the words we have set down 
signify, not death and resurrection, but sleep and awaking 
again. But the IGUi PsaLm also cries to them, " Therefore 
my heart is jocund, and my tongue hath exulted ; moreover, 
my flesh also shall rest in hojie : for Thou wilt not leave my 
soul in hell ; neither ^vilt Thou give Thine Holy One to see 
corruption;'^ Who but He that rose again the third day 
could say His flesh had rested in this hope ; that His soul, 
not being left in hell, but speedily returning to it, should 
revive it, that it shoiJd not be corrupted as corpses are wont 
to be, which they can in no wise say of David the propliet and 
king 1 The GSth Psalm also cries out, " Our God is the God 



* 2 Tim. iv. 1 ; 2 P«t iv. 5. 

* Matt. XXV. 36. 
7 Fa. xri. 0, 10. 




2 John vi 70. 
^ lUtt zxT. 40. 



* 1 Cor. xii 12. 
< Acta! 17. 



20S 



THE Cn\- OF GOD. 



[book xva 



of salvation : even of the Lord the exit was by death."* Wliat 
cnuld bo more openly said ? For the God of salvation is the 
Lord Jesus, which is interpreted Saviour, or Healing One. for 
this reason this name was given^ when it was said before He was 
born of tlie viigin : " Tliou shalt bring forth a Son, and shalt 
call His name Jeans ; for He shall save His people from tlieir 
sins,'"' Because HLa blood was shed for tlie remission of their 
sins, it behov^ed Hini to have no other exit from tliis life than 
death. Therefore^ when it had been said, " Our God is the God 
of salvation," immediately it was added, " Even of the Lord the 
exit was by death," in order to show that we were to be saved 
by His dyin;]^. But that saying is marvellous, " Even of the 
Lord/' as if it was said, Such is that life of mortals, that not 
even the Lord Himself could go out of it otherwise save 
tlu'ough death. 



IB. Of the t%th Pmlfti, in teJiieh the ohetlnate unbeliff of the Jtvs is 
declared. 

Eut when the Jews will not in the least yield to the testi- 
monies of tliis prophecy, which are so manifest, and are also 
brought by events to so clear and certain a completion, cer- 
tainly that is fulfilled in them which is written in that psalm 
which here follows. For when the things wliich pertain to 
His passion are prophetically spoken there also in the person 
of Christ, that is niuutioned wliich is unfolded in the Gospel: 
" Tliey gave me gall for my meat ; and in my thirst they gave 
me vinegai* for di'iiiL"* And as it were after such a feast 
and dainties in this way given to Himself, presently He 
brings in [these woixis] : " Let their table become a trap before 
them, and a retribution, and an offence : let their eyes be 
dunmed that they see not, and their back be always bowed 
down/'* etc. AVliich things are not spoken as wished for, 
but arc predicted under the prophetic form of wishing. Wlmt 
wonder, then, if those whose eyes are dimmed that they see 
not do not see these manifest things ? What wonder if 
those do not look up at heavenly things whoso back is always 
bowed down that they may grovel among earthly tlungs ? 
For these words transferred from the body signify mental 



' Pa. Ixriii. 20. 

» Pa, Ixix. 21 ; iUtt ixvii. 34, iS, 



» Matt i. 21. 

* I'a. ixix. 22. 23. 




»0K XVII.] 



THE BOOKS OF SOLOMOX. 



209 



faults. Let these things which have been said about the 
Psalms, that is, about king David's prophecy, suffice, tliat we 
may keep within some bound. But loL tliose readers excuse us 
who knew them all before ; and let them not complain about 
those perhaps stronger proofs which they know or think I 
Lave passed by. 

20. Of David'i reiffn and merit ; and of his son Sohmon, and that prophecy 
relatmg to CJir'ut which U found eitfier in ihoae hoohs which are joined to 
those ierittcn hy him, or in tfioae which arc induhilably hia. 

David therefore reigned in the eartlily Jerusalem, a son 
of the heavenly Jerusalem, much praised by the divine testi- 
mony ; for even his faults are overcome by great piety, through 
the most salutary humility of his repentance, that he is alto- 
getlier one of those of whom he himself says, " Blessed are 
tliey whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered."^ 
After him Solomon his son reigned over the same wliole people, 
who, as was said before, began to reign while his father was 
still alive. This man, after good beginnings, made u bad end. 
For indeed "prosperity, which wears out the minds of the wise,"' 
hurt him more than that wisdom profited him, which even 
yet is and shall hereafter be renowned, and was then praised 
far and wide. He also is Jound to have prophesied in his 
books, of which three are received as of canonical authority. 
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs. But it has 
been customary to ascribe to Solomon other two, of which one 
is called Wisdom, the other Ecclesiasticua, on account of some 
resemblance of style, — but the moi*e learned have no doubt 
that they are not his ; yet of old the Church, especially 
the Western, received them into authority, — in the one of 
which, called the Wisdom of Solomon, tlie paaaion of Clirist 
is most openly prophesied. For indeed His impious mur- 
derers are quoted as sajdng, " Let us lie in wait for the 
righteous^ for he is unpleasant to us, and contrary to our 
works ; and he upbraideth us with our transgressions of the 
law, and ohjccteth to our disgrace the transgressions of our 
education. He professeth to have the knowledge of God, and 
he calleth hinjself the Son of God. He was made to reprove 
our thoughts. He is giievous for us even to behold ; for his 

' Ps. xxxii. 1. * Sidlubt, BcL Cat c. xi, 

VOL IL 




210 



TBE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xm 



life is unlike other men's, and his ways are different. We 
are esteemed of him as coimterfeits ; and he abstaineth from 
our ways as from filthines.s. He extols the latter end of the 
righteous ; and glorieth tliat he hath God for his Father. Let 
us see, therefore, if his words be true ; and let us try what 
shall happen to him, and we shall know what shall be the 
end of him. For if the righteous be the Son of God, He will 
imdertake for him, and deliver him out of the hand of those 
thftt are ugiiinst him. Lfit us put him to the question with 
c<M3tumely and torture, that we may know his reverence, and 
prove his patience. Let us condemn him to the most shame- 
ful death ; for by His own sayings He shall be respected 
These things did they ima^rine, and were mistaken ; for their 
own malice hath quite blinded them."^ But in Ecclesiasticus 
the future faith of tliu nations is predicted in this manner: 
" Have mercy upon us, God, Ruler of all, and send Thy fear 
upon all the nations : lift up Tliine hand over the strange 
nations, and let them see Thy power As Thou wast sancti- 
fied in us before them, so be Thou sanctified in them before 
us, and let them aclcnowledge Thee, according as we also have 
acknowledged Thee ; for there is not a God beside Thee, 
Lord," ^ We see this prophecy in the form of a wish and 
prayer fulfilled througli Jesus Christ. But the things which 
are not wrilttin in the canon of the Jews cannot be quoted 
against their contradictions with so great validity. 

But as regards those three books which it is evident are 
Solomon's, and held canonical by the Jews, to show what of 
this koad may be found in them pertaining to Christ and the 
Church demands a laborious discussion, which, if now entered 
on, would lengthen this work unduly. Yet what wc read in ; 
the Proverbs of impious men saying, "Let us unrighteously | 
liidc in the eai-th the righteous man ; yea, let us s^vaUow him 
up alive as hell, and let us take away his memory from the 
earth : let ua seize his precious possession," ^ is not so obscure ' 
that it may not be understood, without laborious exposition, 
of Christ and His possession the Church. Indeed, the gospel 
parable about the wicked husbandmen shows that our Lord 
Jesus Himself said something bke it : " This ia the heir • come, 
1 WUd. ii. 12-21. « Eccliia. xxxtL 1-5. » Prov. i. 11-13. 




COOK XVII.] 



THE BOOKS OP SOLOMON. 



211 



let 113 Idll him, and the inheritance shall be cuts." ^ In like 
manner also that passage in thiB same book, on which vre have 
already touched* when we were speaking of the banen woman 
who hath bom seven, must soon after it was uttered have 
come to be understood of only Christ and the Church by those 
who knew that Christ was the Wisdom of God. " Wisdom 
hath builded her an house, and hath set up seven pillars ; she 
hath sacrificed her victims, she hath mingled her wine in the 
bowl ; she hath also furnished her table. She hath sent her 
servants summoning to the bowl with excellent proclama- 
tion, saying, Who is simple, let him turn aside to me. And 
to the void of sense she hath said, Come, eat of my bread, 
and drink of the wine which I have mingled for yoiL" ' Here 
certainly we perceive that the Wisdom of God, that is, the 
Word co-eternal Mith the Father, hath builded Him an house, 
even a human body in the virgin womb, and hath subjoined 
tlie Church to it as members to a head, hath slain the martyrs 
as victims, Imth furnished a table with wine and biead, where 
appears also the priesthood after the order of Melchizedek, and 
hath called the simple and the void of sense, because, as saith 
the apostle, " He hath chosen the weak things of this world 
that He might confound tho things which are mighty."* Yet 
to these weak ones she saith what follows, " Forsake simpli- 
city, that ye may live ; and seek prudence, that ye may have 
lifa"' But to be made partakers of this table is itself to 
begin to have life. For when he says in another book, which 
13 called Ecclcsiastes, "There is no good for a man, except 
that he should eat and drink," ' what can he be more credibly 
understood to say, than what belongs to the participation of 
this table which the Mediator of the New Testament Himself, 
the Priest after the order of Melchizedek, furnishes witli His 
own body and blood ? For that sacrifice has succeeded nil 
the sacrifices of the Old Testament, which were slain as a 
shadow of that which was to come; wherefore also we re- 
cognise the voice in the 40tli Psalm as that of the some 
tdiator speaking through prophesy, " Sacrifice and offering 



1 Matt ixi. 38. • Ch. 4. 

* Prov. ix. 1-5 (ver, 1 is quoted above in oh. i). * 1 Cor. i. 27. 

* Prov. ix. 6. ' Eccles. U. 24, liL 13, v. 18, viiL 15. 





212 Tire CITY OF GOD. [DOOK XYH. 

Thou didst not desire ; hut a body hast Thou perfected for me."* 
Because, instead of all these sacrifices and oblations. His body 
is offered, and is served up to the partakers of it For that 
this Ecclesiastes, in this sentence about eating and drinkiji;:, 
which he often repeats, and very much commends, does not 
savour the dainties of carnal pleasures, is made phiin enough 
wlien he says, " It is better to go into tlie house of mourning 
than to go into the house of feasting." * And a little after 
He flayg, "The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning, 
and the heart of the simple in the house of feasting." ' But 
I think that more worthy of quotation from this book whidi 
relates to both cities, the one of the devil, the other of Christ, 
and to thpir kings, the devil and Christ : " Woe to thee, O land,' 
he says, "when thy king is a youth, and thy princes eat in 
the morning! Blessed art thou, O Ifind, when tby king is the 
son of nobles, and thy princes eat in season, in fortitude, and 
not in confusion!"* He has called the devil a youth, because 
of the folly and pride, and rashness and unruliness, and other 
vices which are wont to abound at that age ; but Christ is the 
Son of nobles, that is, of the holy patriarchs, of those belong- 
inj^ to the free city, of whom He was begotten in the flesh. 
The princes of that and other cities are eaters in the morning, 
that is, before the suitable hour, because they do not expect 
the seasonable felicity, which is the true, in the world to come, 
desiring to bo speedily mada hapjjy with the renown of this 
world ; but the princes of the city of Christ patiently wait 
fur the time of a blessedness that is not fallacious. This is 
expressed by the words, " in fortitude, and not in confusion," 
because hope does not deceive them ; of which the apostle 
says, "But hope maketli not ashamed."' A psalm also saith, 
" For they that hope in Thee shall not be put to shame."* 
But now the Song of Songs is a certain spiritiml pleasure of 
holy minds, in the marriage of that ICing and Queen-city, that 
is, Christ and the Churclt But this .pleasure is -wrapped up 
in allegorical veils, that the Bridegroom may be more ardently 
desired, and more joyfully imveiled, and may appear ; to whom 
it is said in this same Gong, " Equity hath delighted Thee ; "' 

I Ps. xl. «. « Eccl^s. vii. 2, ■ Eccles. vii. 4. * Ecdea, x. 16, IT. 

* £oxu. V. 5. B Ts. Ixix. fi. I r Cuit. i. 4. 





BOOK xni.] 



SOLOMONS succEssons. 



and the bnde who those hears, "Charity is in thy delights."' 
We pass over many things in silence, in our desire to finish 
this work 

SI. O/the kinga c{ft^ Sdomont both in Jutlah and Itraei, 

The other kings of the Hebrews after Solomon are scarcely 
found to have pmpliesiedj through certain enigmatic words or 
actions of theirs, what may pertain to Christ and the Church, 
cither iii Judah or Israel; for so were the parts of that 
people styled, when, on account of Solomon s offence, from the 
time of Rehoboara his son, who succeeded him in the kingdom, 
it was divided by God as a punishment. The ten tribes, 
indeed, which Jeroboam the ser\'ant of Solomon received, 
being appointed the king in Samaria, were distinctively called 
Israel, although this had been tlie name of that whole people ; 
but the two tribes, namely, of Judah and Benjamin, whicli for 
David's sake, lest the kingdom should be wholly •\rrenched 
from his race, remained subject to the city of Jerusalem, 
were called Judah, because that was the tribe whence David 
spraDg. But Ikmjnmin, the other tribe which, as was said, 
belonged to the same kingdom, was that whence Saul sprang 
before David. But these two tribes together, as was said, 
were called Judah, and were distinguished by this name from 
Israel, which was the distinctive title of the ten tribes under 
their own king. For the tribe of Levi, because it was the 
priestly one, bound to the servitude of God, not of the kinga, 
was reckoned tlie thirteenth. Por Joseph, one of t]ie twelve 
sons of Israel, did not, like the others, form one tribe, but two, 
Ephraim and Manasseb. Yet the tribe of Levi also belonged 
more to tlie kingdom of Jerusalem, where was the temple of 
God whom it served. On the division of tlie people, there- 
fore, Rehoboam, son of Solomon, reigned in Jerusalem as the 
first king of Judah, and Jeroboam, servant of Solomon, in 
Samaria as king of Israel. And when Eehoboam wished as 
a tyrant to pui-sue that separated part with war, the people 
were prohibited irom fighting with their l)rcthren by God, who 
told them through a prophet that He had done this ; whence 
it appeared that in this matter there had been no sin either 
of the king or people of Israel, but the accomplished will of 

* Cant. vii. 8. 




$14 THE cmr OP GOD. [book xvn. 

God the avenger. When this was known, both parts settled 
down peaceably^ for the division made was not religious but 
political 

23. Of Jtrchoam, vho profaned the people put wider kim by the impiety of 
idokUriff amid wkiehj however, God d'ul not cetuejo inspire the prophetj', 
and to gtusrd many from the crime tf idolatry. 

But Jeroboam king of Israel, with perverse mind, not be- 
lieving in God, whom he had proved true in promising and 
giving ibim the kingdom, was afraid lest, by coming to tlie 
temple of God which was in Jerusalem, where, accoi'ding to 
the divine law, that whole nation was to come in order to 
sacrifice, the people should be seduced from him, and return 
to David's Hne as tJie seed royal ; and set up idolatry in 
his kingdom, and with horrible impiety beguiled the people, 
ensnaring them to the woi*sliip of idols with himself Yet 
God did not altogetlier cease to reprove by the prophets, not 
only that king, but al^o his successors and imitators in his 
impiety, and the people too. For there the great and illus- 
trious prophets Elijali and Eliaha his disciple arose, who also 
did many wonderful works. Even there, when EHjah said, 
" Lord, they have alaiii Thy prophets, they have digged 
down Thine altars ; and I am left alone, and they seek my 
life," it was answered that seven lljousaud men were there 
who had not bowed the knee to Baal ^ 

us. Of the varying eotuiUion of h(Uh tJie Hebrew kinffdome, ttntU the people of 
both were at different times led into captivity, Jndah being afterwards 
recaUed into his l^ngdom, which JinaUy passed into Oie power <^ <Ac 
Jionuxns. 



So also in the kingdom of Judah pertaining to Jerusale 
prophets were not lacking even in the times of succeeding 
kings, just as it pleased God to send them, either for the 
prediction of what was needful, or for con-ection of sin and 
instruction in rigliteousness ; ^ for there, too, although far less 
than in Israel, kings arose who giievously offended God by 
their impieties, and, along with their people, who were like 
them, were smitten with moderate scourges. The no small 
merits of the pious kings there are praised indeed. But we 
read that in Israel the kings were, some more, others less, yet 
1 1 KiugH xix. 10, 14, 15, « 2 TijD. iii 16. 







HOOK XVn.] THE LAST OF Tta PROPHETS. 



all wicked. Each part, therefore, ns the divine providence 
either ordered or pennitted, wna both lifted up by prosperity 
and weighed down bj adversity of various kiuda ; and it was 
afflicted not only by foreign, but also Ly civil wars with each 
other, in order that by certain existing cai^ses the mercy or 
anger of Ood naight be manifested ; until, by His growing in- 
dignation, that whole nation was by tl»e conquering Chaldeans 
not only overtluowTi in its abode, but also for the most part 
transported to the lands of the Assyrians, — first, that part of 
the thirteen tribes called Israel, but afterwards Judali also, 
■when Jerusalem and that most noble temple was cast down, — 
in which lands it rested seventy years in eaptivitj". Being 
nfter that time sent forth thence, they rebuilt the overthrown 
temple. And although very many stayed in the lands of the 
strangers, yet the kingdom no longer had two separate parts, 
with different "kings over each, but in Jerusalem there was 
one prince over them ; and at certain times, fmm every direc- 
tion wherever they were, and from whatever place they could, 
thej"" all came to the temple of God which was there. Yet 
not even then were they without foreign enemies and con- 
querors ; yea, Christ found them tributaries of the Romans, 

24. QfUu prophtUt who tithtr were the lait among the Jrws, or whom the 
gospel history reporin about (he time o/Chrht'» yiatlvUij. 

But in that whole time after they returned from Babylon, 
after Malachi. Haggai, and Zechariah, who then prophesied, 
and Ezra, they had no prophets down to the time of the 
Saviour's advent except another Zechariah, the father of John, 
and Elisabeth his wife, when the nativity of Cluist was already 
close at hand ; and when He was already bom, Simeon the 
aged, and Anna a widow, and now very old ; and, last of all, 
John himself, who, being a young man, did not predict that 
Christ, now a young man, was to come, but by prophetic know- 
ledge pointed Him out although unloiown ; for which reason 
the Lord Himself says, " The law and the prophets were xmtil 
John."^ Rut the prophesying of these five is made known to 
us in the gospel, where the virgin mother of our Lord her- 
self is also found to have prophesied before John. But tliis 
prophecy of theirs the wicked Jews do not receive \ but those 

> Matt. xi. 13. 



• 





216 THE cmr of god. [book xtil 

innumerable persons received it who from them believed the 
gospel For then truly Israel was divided in two, by that 
division which was foretold by Samuel the prophet to king 
Saul as immutable. But even the reprobate Jews hold 
Malachi, Haggai, Zechariah, and Ezra as the last received into 
canonical authority. For there are also writings of these, as 
of others, who being but a very few in the great multitude 
of prophets, have written those books which have obtained 
canonical authority, of whose predictions it seems good to me 
to put in this work some wliich pertain to Christ and His 
Church ; and this, by the Lord's help, shall be done more con- 
veniently in the following book, that we may not further 
burden this one, which is already too long. 



BOOK XVHI.] 



RECAPITOXATIOBr, 



217 




BOOK EIGHTEENTH, 

ARGUMENT. 

ArOtrSTISE TnACES the TAHALLEL COUirSES OF THE KAHTHLY AND HEAVEXLT 
CITIES rnOM TIIK TIME OF ABRAHAM TO THE END OP TUE WORLD ; AND 
AJiPDKS TO TDK OnACLES REGARDING CKKIST, DOTH THOSK UTTEIIED UV 
THE SIBYLS, AND THOSE OP THE SACKED PROPHETS WHO WROTE AFTER 
THE roUKDATJON 07 BOUX, HOSEA, AMOS, ISAIAU, MICAB, AKD THEIU SUC- 
CtXUtOhS. 

1. 0/tfiOte thing* down to the times of the Saviour teJUcA have been discussed 
in tJie utevmteeiy hooks. 

IPEOMTSED to ivritc of the rise, progress, and appointed 
end of tlie two cities, one oi' which is God's, the other 
this world's, in wliich, so far as mankind is concerned, the 
former is now a stranger. But first of all I undertook, so far 
as His grace should enable me, to refute the enemies of the 
city of God, who prefer their gods to Christ its founder, and 
fiercely hate Christians with the most dendly malice. And 
this I have done in the first ten books. Then, as regards my 
threefold jirnniise which I have just uiuntioned, I have treated 
distinctly, in the four books which follow the tenth, of the 
xise of both cities. After tliafc, I have proceeded from the 
lirst man down to the flood in one book, which is tlie fifteentli 
cf this work ; and from tliat again down to Abraham oTir 
-Nvork has followed both in chronological order. From the 
patriarcli Abraham down to the time ot tho Israelite kings, at 
"which we close our sLxteenth book, and thence down to the 
advent of Chnst Himself in the flesh, to which period the 
seventeenth book reaches, the city of God appears from my 
^way of writing to have run its course alone ; whereas it did 
not run its course alone in this age, for both cities, in their 
course amid mankind, certainly experienced chequered times 
together just as from the beginning. But I did this in order 
that, first of all, from the time when the promises of God 
"began to be more clear, down to the virgin birth of Him 
iu whom those tilings promised from the first were to be fLd- 



['8^ tht: cmr of qod. [book xvm. 

lilied, the course of that city which is God^s might be made 
more distinctly apparent, without interpolation of foreign 
matter from the history of the other city, although down to 
the revelation of the new covenant it ran its course, not in 
light, but in shadow. Now, therefore, I think fit to do what I 
passed by, and show, ao far as seems necessary, how that other 
city ran its course from the times of Abraham, so that atten- 
tive readers may compare the two. 

2. Ofikt kififffi ond tiuujs of the earthly city whidt irvre vynchronout mith the 
timet of the 9aitUa, rtckoningfrom the rise qf Ahrafianu 

The society of mortals spread abroad through the earth 
ever}'where, and in the most diverse places, although bound 
together by a certain fellowship of our common nature, is yet 
for the most part divided against itself and the strongest 
oppress the others, because all follow after their own interest 
and lusts, while what is longed for either suffices for none, 
or not for all, because it is not the very thing. For the van- 
quished succumb to the victorious, preferring any sort of peace 
and safety to freedom itself; so that they who chose to die 
rather than be slaves have been greatly wondered at. For in 
almost all nations the very voice of uatui-e somehow proclaims, 
that those who happen to be conquered should choose rather 
to be subject to their conquerors than to be killed by all lands 
of wai'like destniction. This does not take place without the 
providence of God, in whose power it lies that any one either 
subdues or is subdued in war ; that some are endowed with 
kingdoms, others made subject to kings. Now, among the 
very many kingdoms of the earth into which, by earthly in- 
terest or lust, society is divided (which we call by the general 
name of the city of this world), we see that two, settled and 
kept distinct from each other both in time and place, have 
grown far more famous than the rest, first that of the Assyrians, 
then that of the Romans. First came the one, then the other. 
The former arose in the east, and, immediately on its close, the 
Latter in the west. I may speak of other kingdoms and other 
kings as appendages of these. 

Ninus, then, who succeeded his father Belus, the first king 
of Assyria, was already the second kin^ of that kingdom when 
Abraham was bora in the land of the Chaldees. There was 





BOOK XVI 11.] 



THE KINGDOM OF ASSTIU.V. 



19 



also at that time a very small kingdom of Sicyon, with which, 
as from an ancient date, that most universally learned mau 
Marcus Varro begins, in writing of the Eoman race. For 
from these kings of Sicyon he passes to the Athenians, from 
them to the Latins, and from these to the Eomans. Yet vety 
little is related about these kingdoms^ before the foundation of 
Eome, in comparison with that of Assyria. For although 
even Sallust, the Roman historian, admits that the Athenians 
were very famous in Greece, yet he thinks they were greuter 
in fame than in fEict. For in speaking of them he says, 
" The deeds of the Athenians, as I think, were very great and 
magnificent, hut yet somewhat less than reported by fame. 
Bat because writers of great geniiis arose among them, the 
deeds of the Athenians were celebrated thi-oughout the world 
as very great Thus the virtue of those who did them was 
held to be as great as men of transcendent genius could repre- 
sent it to be by the power of laudator}- words."^ This city 
also derived no small glory from literatme and philosophy, the 
study of which chietly flourished there. But as regardf* em- 
pire, none in the earliest times was greater than the Assyrian, 
or so widely extended. For when Ninua the son of Belus was 
king, he is reported to have subdued the whole of Asia, even 
to the boundaries of Libya, which as to number is called the 
third part, but as to size is foimd to be the half of the whole 
world. The Indians in the eastern regions were the only 
people over whom lie did not reign ; but after his death Semi- 
ramis his wife made war on them. Thus it came to pass 
that all the people and kings in those countries were subject 
to the kingdom and autliority of tlie Assyrians, and did what- 
ever they were commanded. !N'ow Abraham was born in that 
kingdom among the Clialdees, in the time of Ninus. But 
since Grecian all[iiirs are much better known to us than 
Assyrian, and thuse who have diligently investigated the anti- 
quity of the Eoman nation's origin have foUowed the order of 
time through the Greeks to the Latins, and from them to the 
Romans, who themselves are Latins, we ought on this account, 
where it is needful, to mention the Assyrian kings, that it may 
appear how Babylon, like a first Eome, ran its course along 
» SaUufit, BtU. Cat, c. 8. 




220 THE CITY OF COD. [kook xvnr. 

with the cit}"- of God, which is a stranger in this world But 
the things proper for insertion in this work in comparing the 
two cities, tliat is, tlie earthly and heavenly, ought to be taken 
mostly from the Greek and Latin kingdoms, where Bome 
herself in like a second Babylon. 

At Abraham's birth, then, the second kings of Assyria and 
Sicyon respectively were Ninus and Europs, the first having 
been Belus and iEgialeiis. But when God promised Abraham, 
on Ills departure from Babylonia^ that lie should become a 
great nation, and that in his seed all nations of the earth 
should be blessed, the Assyrians had their seventh king, the 
Sicyons their fifth : for the son of Xinus reigned among them 
after his mother Semii-amis, who is said to have been put to 
death by him for attempting to defile him by incestuously 
lying with liim. Some tiiiiik that she founded Babylon, and 
indeed she may have founded it anew. But we have told, in 
the sixteenth book, when or by whom it was founded. Now 
the son of Ninus and Scniiramis, who succeeded his mother 
in the kingdom, is also called Ninus by some, but by others 
Ninios, a patron}Tnic word. Telexiou then held the kingdom 
of the Sicyons. In his reign thues were quiut and joyful to 
such a degree, that after his death they worshipped hun as a 
god by offering sacrifices and by celebrating games, which are 
said to have been first instituted on this occasion. 

3. What kinffs reigned in A$ayria and Sicyon wAfn, according to the promise^ 
Isaac wiis horn to Abraham in his hundredth year, and when Ute twku 
j&tati and Jacob were born of Rebecca to Isaac in his sixtieth year. 

In his times also, by the promise of God, Isaac, the son of 
Abralmni, wn.^ born to his father when he was a hundred 
years old, of Sarah his wife, who, being baiTcn and old, had 
already lost hope of issue. Andius was then the fifth Idng 
of the Assyrians. To Isaac himself, in liis sixtieth year, were 
bom twin-sons, Esau and Jacob, whom Rebecca his wife bore 
to him, theii" grandfather Abraham, who died on completing 
a hundred and seventy years, being still alive, and reckoning 
his hundred and sixtieth year,' At that time there reigned 
as the seventh kings, — among the Assyrians, that more ancient 
Xerxes, who was also called Balaius ; and among the Sicyons, 

* In the Hebrew text, Gen. xxv. 7, a huBdrcd and scyeDty-five j'eiu*. 





BOOK XVTII.] 



ARSYRIAy mSTOKV. 



Tliuriachus, or, as some write liis name, Thuriinachug, Tlie 
kingdom of Argos, in which Inachus reigned first, arose in 
the time of Abraham's grandcliildreiL And I iiuist not 
omit what Vairo relates, that the Sicyons were also wont to 
sacrifice at the tomb of their seventh king Thuriachua In 
the reign of Armamitres in Assyria and Leucippus in Sicyon 
as the eighth kings, and of Inachus as the first in Argos, God 
spoke to Ismic, and promised tlie same two things to him as 
to his father, — namely, the land of Canaan to his seed, and 
the blessing of all nations in his seed. These same things 
were promised to his son^ Abraham^s grandson, who was at 
first called Jacob^ afterwards iHrael, when Eclocns was the 
ninth king of Assjo-ia, and Phoroneus, the son of Inachus, 
reigned o-s the second king of Argo.s, Leucippus still continu- 
ing king of Sicyon. In those times, under the Argive king 
Phoroneus, Greece was made more famous by the institution 
of certain laws and judges. On the death of Plioroneup, his 
younger brother Phegous built a temjjle at his tomb, in which 
he was worshipped as God, and oxen were sacrificed to him. I 
believe they tliought hiru worthy of so great honour, because 
in his part of the kingdom (fur their futher had divided his 
territories between them, in which they reigned during his 
life) he had founded chapels for the worship of the gods, and 
had taught them to measure time by months and years, and 
to that extent to keep count and reckoning of events. Men 
Btill uncultivated, admiring him for these novelties, either 
fancied he was, or resolved that he should be made, a god 
after his deatL lo also is said to have been the daughter 
of Inachus, who was afterwards called Isis, when she was 
worshipped in Egj'pt as a great goddess ; although others 
write that she came as a queen out of Ethiopia, and because 
she ruled extensively and justly, and instituted for her sub- 
jects letters and many useful tilings, such divine honour was 
given her there after she died, that if any one said she had 
been human, he was charged with a capital crime. 



4. Of the lime* of Jacob and his aon Jtyaeph. 

In the reign of Baleeus, the ninth king of Assyria, and 



Mesappus, the eighth of Sicyon^ who is said by some to have 




222 



THE cmr of god. 



BOOK XVUL 



been also called Cephisos (if indeed the same man had both 

names, and those who put the other name in their writings 
have not rather confounded him with another man), while 
Apis was third king of Argos, Isaac died, a hundred and 
eighty years old, and left IiLs twin-sons a liundred and twenty 
years old. Jacob, the younger of these, belonged to the 
city of God about which we write (the elder being wholly 
rejected), and had twelve sons, one of whom, called Joseph, 
was sold by liis brothers to mercliants going dovm to Egypt, 
while his grandfather Isaac was still alive. But when he 
was tliirty years of age, Joseph stood before Pharaoh, being 
exalted out of the humiliation he endured, because, in divinely 
interpreting tJie king's dreams, he foretold that there would 
be seven years of plenty, the very rich abundance of which 
would be consumed by seven other j'ears of famine that 
should follow. On this account the king made liim ruler 
over Egypt, liberating him from prison, into which he had 
been thrown for keeping his chastity intact ; for he bravely 
preserved it from his mistress, who wickedly loved him, and 
told lies to his weakly credulous master, and did not consent 
to commit adultery with her, but fled from hpr, leaving his 
garment in her hands when she laid hold of him. In the 
second of the seven years of famine Jacob came down into 
Egj'pt to his son with all he had, being a hundred and thirty 
years old, as he himself said in answer to the king's questioa 
Joseph was thou thirty-nine, if we add seven yeai-s of plenty 
and two of famine to the thirty he reckoned when honoured 
by the king. 

5. O/Apiakittf; o/Argott whom fJie Egyptians called SerapU, and worahipped 
ioilh divine honoun. 

In these times Apis king of Argos crossed over into 

Egypt in ships, and, on dying there, was made Serapis, the 

chief god of aU the Egyptians. Now Vari'o gives this veij' 

ready reason why, after his death, he was called, not Apis, but 

Serapis. The ark in which he was placed when dead, which 

every one now calls a sarcophagus, was then called in Greek 

<ropb<;, and they began to worship him when buried in it before 

his temple was built ; and from Soros and Apis he was called 

first [Sorosapis, or] Sorapia, and then Serapis, by changing a 





BOOK xvnr.] Assyria in the time of jaoob. 



223 



letter, as easily happens. It was* decreed r^arding him also. 
1 that whoever should say he had been a man should be capi- 
I tally punished And since in every temple where Isis and 
I Serapis were worshipped there was also an image which, with, 
finger pressed on the lips, seemed to warn men to keep silence, 
VaiTO thinks thLs sigiiilies that it should be kept aecret that 
i they had been human. But that bull which, with wonderful 
folly, deluded Egypt nourished with abundant delicacies in 
honour of him, was not called Serapis, but Apis, because they 
I worshipped him alive without a sarcophagus. On the death 
of that bull, when they sought and found a calf of the same 
colour, — that is, similarly marked with certain wliite spots, — 
they beUeved it was something miraculous, and divinely pro- 
vided for them. Yet it was no great thing for the demons, 
in order to deceive them, to show to a cow when she was 
conceiving and pregnant the image of such a bull, which she 
alone could see, and by it attract the breeding passion of the 
mother, so that it might appeal" in a bodily shape in her 
ymin^, just as Jacob so managed with the spotted rods that 
the sheep and goats were bom spotted. For what men can 
do with real colours and substances, the demons con very 
I 4uily do by showing unreal forms to breeding animals. 

I 6. Wlio wtre Idnga qf Argoe, and (ff Assyria, wAen Jacob dud in Egvpi- 

Apis, then, who died in Egypt, was not the king of Egypt, 
but of Argoa He was succeeded by his son Argus, from 
whose name the land was called Argoa and the people Argivcs. 
for under the earlier kings neither the place nor the nation 
as yet had this name. While he then reigned over Axgos, 
and Eratus over Sicyon, and Balteus still remained king of 
Assyria, Jacob died in Egypt a hundred and forty-seven yeais 
old, after he had, when dying, blessed his sons and Ms grand- 
sons by Joseph, and prophesied most plainly of Christ, saying 
in the blessing of Judah, "A prince shall not fail out of 
Judah, nor a leader from his thighs, until those things come 
which are laid up for him ; and He is the expectation of the 
nations."^ In the reign of Aigus Greece began to use fruits. 
and to have crops of com in cultivated fields, the seed having 

.^ Q«XL zHx. 10. 




224 THE CITV OF GOa [DOOK XVXtL 



"been brought from other countries. Argus also bcgaa to be 
nccounted a god after his death, and was honoured with a 
temple and sacrifices. This honour was conferred in his reign, 
before being given to him, on a private individual for being 
the first to yoke oxen in the plough. This was one Houu>- 
g^TUS, wlio was struck by lightning. 

7. WIio vKre tings wfien Joseph died in EgypL 

In the reign of ^famitus, the twelfth king of Assyria, and 
Plemna^us, the eleventh of Sicyon, while Argus still reigned 
over the Argives, Joseph died in Eg^'pt a hundred and ten 
years old. After his death, the people of God, increasing 
wonderfully, remained in Egypt a hundred and fortj-fivc 
ycai-s, in tranquillity nt first, until those who knew Joseph were 
dead. After\vard, through envy of their increase, and the 
suspicion that they would at length gain their freedom, they 
were o])pressed with persecutions nnd the laboui*s of intoler- 
able servitude, amid which, however, they still grew, being 
multiplied with God-given fertility. During this period the 
same kingdoms continued in Assyria and Greece. 

S. Who trcre kiiiQ* when Moses roas born, and wfiat gods began to be tcorsh'i'jtei 

titen, 

Wlien Saplirus reigned as the fourteenth king of Assyria, 
and Orthopolis as the twelfth of Sicyon, and Criasus as the 
fifth of Argos, Moses was bom in Egypt, by whom the 
people of God were liberated from the Egyi)tian slavery, in 
which they behoved to be thus tried tliat they might desire 
tlie help of tlieir Creator. Some have thought that Pro- 
metheus lived dui'iiig the reign of the kings now named. He 
is reported to have fornieil men out of clay, because he was 
esteemed the best teacher of wisdoiu ; yet it does not appear 
what wise men there wcro in his days. His brother Atlas is 
said to have been a great astrologer ; and this gave occasion 
for the fable that he held up the sky, although the vulgar ' 
opinion about his holdinrj up the sky appears rather to have 
been suggested by a higli niountaiu named after liim. In- 
deed, from those times many other fabulous things began to 
be invented in Greece ; yet, down to Ceci-ops king of Athens, 
in whose reign that city received its name, and in whose reign 





XVm.] E%'ENTS CONTEMPOKARY WITII THE EXODUS. 225 






God brought His people out of Ep;ypt by Mosea, only a few 
dead heroes are reported to have been deified accoixling to the 
vain sujierstition of the Greeks. Among these were llelan- 
tomice, the wife of king Criasus, and Phorbas their son, who 
cceeded his father as sixth king of the Argives, and lasns, 
n of Triopas, their seventh king, and their ninth king, 
Sthenelas, or Stheneleus, or StheueluH,— for his name is given 
differently by diflerent authors. In those times also, Mer- 
cury, the giiindson of Atlas by liis daughter Mala, is said to 
have lived, according to the common report in books. He 
was famous for his skill in many arts, and taught them to 
U)en, for which they resolved to make him, and even believed 
that he deserved to be, a god after death. Hercules is 
said to have been later, yet belonging to the same period ; 
although some, whom I think mistaken, assign him an earlier 
date than Mercury. But at whatever time they were born, 
it is agreed among grave historians, who have committed these 
ancient things to writing, that botJi were men, and that tliey 
merited divine honours from mortals because they conferred 
on them many bcnelita to make this life more pleasant to 
them. Minerva v'as far more ancient than these ; for she 
is reported to have appeared in virgin age in the times of 
Og>'ges at the lake called Triton, from which she is also 
.styled Tritonia, the inventreas truly of many works, an<l the 
more readily believed to be a goddess because her origin was 
so little known. For what i3 aung about her having sprung 
£rom the head of Jupiter belongs to the region of poetry and 
fable, and not to that of history and real fact And historical 
writers are not agreed when Og}^ges flourished, in whose time 
also a great flood occurrt;d,^not that greatest one from which 
BO man escaped except those who could get into the ark, for 
neither Greek uor Latin history knew of it, yet a greater 
flood than that which happened afterward in Deucalion's 
time. For Varro begins tlie book I have already mentioned 
at this date, and does not propose to himself, as the starting- 
point from which he may arrive at Roman affairs, anything 
more ancient than the flood of Ogyges, that is, which hap- 
pened in the time of Ogyges. Now our writers of chronicles 
— first Eusebius, and afterwards Jerome, who entirely follow 
TOL. IL 9 




226 TDTE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XYHL 

some earlier historians iii this opinion — ^relate that the flood 
of Ogyges happened more than three hundred years after, 
during the reign of Phoroneus, the second king of Argos. 
But whenever he may have lived, Minerva was already wor- 
shipped as a goddess when Cecrops reigned in Athens, in 
whose reign the city itself is reported to have been rebuilt 
or founded. 

9. When Uu city ofAthau wis founded^ asnd vhU rteaon Varro aaaignafor Ua 

name. 

Athens certainly derived its name from Minerva, who in 
Greek is called 'AOtjptj, and Varro points out the following 
reason why it was so called- ^Vhen an olive-tree suddenly 
appeared there, and water hurst forth in another place, these 
prodigies moved the king to send to the Delphic Apollo to 
inquire Tvhat they meant and what he should do. He an- 
swered that the olive signified Miner\'a, the water Neptune, 
and that the citizens had it in thuu' power to name their 
city as they chose, after either of these two gods whose signs 
these were. On receiving tliis oracle, Cecrops convoked rU 
the citizens of either sex to give their vote, for it "was then 
the custom in those parts for the women also to take part in 
public deliberations. "When the multitude was consulted, the 
men gave their votes for Neptune, the women for Minerva ; 
and as the women had a majority of one, Minerva conquered. 
Then Keptune, being enr^ed, laid wost-e the lands of the 
Athenians, by casting up tiie waves of the sea; for the 
demons have no difiiculty in scattering any waters more 
■widely. The same authority said, that to appease his wratli 
the women should be visited by the Athenians with the throe- 
fold punishment — that they should no longer have any vote; 
that none of their children should be named after their 
mothers ; and that no one should call them Athenians. Thus 
that city, tlie mother and nurse of liberal doctrines, and of 
so many and so great philosophers, than whom Greece had 
notliing move famous and noble, by the mockery of demons 
about the strife of their gods, a male and female, and from 
the victory of the female one through the women, received 
the name of Athens ; and. on being damaged by the van- 
quished god, waa compelled to punish the veiy victory of the 





BOOK xvn:.] 



OF Tin: AKEOPAGUS. 



:27 



victress, fearing the waters of Neptune more than the anns 
of Jlinerva. For in the women who were thus punishcLl, 
Minerva, who had conquered, was conquered too, and could 
not even help her votei-s so far that, although the right of 
voting was henceforth lost, and the mothers could not give 
their names to the children, they might at least be allowed to 
be called Athenians, and to merit the name of that goddess 
whom they had made victorious over a male j^od by giving 
her their votes. "What and how much could be said about 
this, if we had not to hasten to other things in our discourse, 
is obvious. 

10. What Forro reporiB aboiU Vie ttrm Areopagiu, and about DeutaUotCs 

fiood, 

Marcus Varro, however, is not willing to credit lying fables 
against the gods, lest he should find something dishonouring 
to their majesty ; and therefore he will not admit that the 
Areopagus, the place where the Apostle Paul disputed with 
the Athenians, got this name because Mars, who in Greek is 
called ^Aprj^, when he was charged with the crime of homi- 
cide, and was judged by twelve gods in that iield, was ac- 
quitted by the sentence of sbc ; because it was the custom, 
when the votes were equal, to acquit rather than condemn. 
Against this opinion, which is much most widely pub- 
lished, he tries, from the notices of obscure books, to support 
another reason for this name, lest the Athenians should be 
thought to have called it Areopagus from the words "Mara" and 
" field," ^ as if it were the field of Mais, to the dishonour of the 
gods, forsooth, from whom he thinks lawsuiU and judgments 
far removed. And he asserts that tltis which is said about 
Mara is not less false tlian what is said about the three 
goddesses, to wit, Juno, Minerva, and Venus, whose contest 
for the palm of beauty, before Paris as judge, in order to ob- 
tain the golden apple, is not only related, but is celebrated in 
songs and dances amid the applause of the theatres, in plays 
meant to please the gods who take pleasure in these crimen of 
their own, whether real or fabled. Varro does not beheve 
these things, because they are incompatible witli the nature 
of the gods and of morality ; and yet, in giving not a fabulous 

* ^Afm and *«yff. 




228 TUE CITT OF GOD. [nooK xvm. 

but a historic reason for the name of Athens, he inserts in his 

books the strife between Kcptune and Miner\'a as to whose 
name sliould be given to that city, which was so great that, 
when they contended by the display of prodigies, even Apollo 
dared not jnd;^e between tbeiu when consulted ; but, in order to 
end tiie strife of the gods, just as Jupiter sent the thi-ee ^- 
desses we have named to Paris, so he sent them to men, when 
Minerva won by tlie vote, and yet was defeated by the punish- 
ment of her own voters, for she was unable to confer the title 
of Athenians on the women who were her friends, although she 
could impose it on tlie men wlio were lier opponents. In 
these times, when Cranaos reined at Athens as the successor 
of Cecrops, as Varro writes^ but, according to our Kuscbius and 
Jerome, while Cecrops himself still remained, the flood oc- 
curred which is called Uciicalion'3. becaiise it ui'curred chiefly 
in those parts of the earth in which he reigned. But this 
flood did not at all reach Egy|)t or its vicinity. 

IK Whrn Moics Ud th^ jtrople oat of Egypt ; and tcko vat klnjs v^ten hii 
svccfuor Joshua tJu son 0/ Kun dial. 

Moses led the peoi)le out of Egypt in the last time of 
Cecrops king of Athena, Avben Ascatades reigned in Assyria, 
Marathus in Sicyon, Tnopas in Argos ; and lia\'ing led fortli 
the people^ he gave them at Mount Sinai the law he received 
from God, which is axUed the Old Testament, bccanse it has 
earthly promises, and because, thi-oiigh Jesus Christ, there 
was to be a New Testament, in which the kingdom of heaven 
should be promised. For the same order behoved to Iw 
observed in this as is observed in each man who prospers 
in God, according to the saying of the apostle, "That is not 
first which is spiritual, but that which is natural," since, as 
he says, and that tndy, "The fii:st man of the earth, is earthly; 
the second man, from heaven, is heavenly." ^ Kow Mose^ 
ruled the people for forty years in the wildcmess, and died ft 
hundred and twenty years old, after he had prophesied of 
Christ by the ty^es of carnal observances in the tabernacle, 
priesthood, and sacrifices, and many other mystic ordinance* 
Joshua the son of Nun succeeded Moses, and settled in the 
land of promise the people he had brought in, having by 

1 1 Ccr XV. 4fi. 47. 





BOOK xvin.] 



IDOLATRY OF TIIIS PEBTOT). 



divine authority conquered the people by whom it was 
formerly possessed. He also died, after ruling the people 
twenty-seven years after the death of Moses, wJien Ainyntas 
reigned in Assyria as the eighteenth king, Coracos as the sL\- 
teenth in Sicyon, Danaos aa the tenth in Argos, Ericthonius 

kas tlie fourth in Athens. 
12. Of the rituaia o/faUe gode uutihited by the khff* of Gnfce in the prriod 
from JtraeVa txodua from Egypt down to the dtath of Jothua the son 
\ During this period, that is, from Israel's exodus from Kgypt 
down to the deatli of Joshua the son of Nun, through whom 
that people received the laud of promise, rituals were insti- 
tuted to the false gods by the kings of Greece, which, by 
stated celebration, recalled the memory of the flood, and of 
men's deliverance from it, and of tliat troublous life they then 
led in migrating to and fro between the heights and the 
plains. For even the Luperci,^ when tliey ascend and descend 
the sacred path, are said to represent the men who sought 
the mountain summits because of the inundation of water, 
and returned to the lowlands on its subsidtnice. In those 
times, Dionysus, who was also called Father Liber, and was 
esteemed a god after death, is said to have shown the vine 
to his host in Attica. Then the musical games were insti- 
tuted for tliH Dclpliic A[>ollo, to ajtpease liis anger, througli 
which they thought the regions of Greece were aiilicted with 
barreuneas, because they had not defended Ids temple which 
Danaos burnt when he invaded those lands ; for they were 
warned by Ixis oiticle to institute these games. But king 
Ericthonivis first instituted games to him in Attica, and not to 
him only, but also to Minerva, in which games the olive was 
given us the prize to the victors, because they relate that 
Alincrva was the discoverer of that fruit, as Liber was of the 
grape. In tliose years Europa is nlltiged to have been can'ied 
off by Xanthus king of Crete (to whom we find sozae 
give another name), and to have borne liim lUiadamanthus, 
Sarpedon, and Minos, who are more commonly repoited to 
have been the sons of »Tuj>iter by the same woman. Now 
those who worship such gods regard what we have said about 

' The priests who ofUciated &t the Luprrcalia. 



230 TTTE crry op god, [book xvul 

Xoiithus Icing of Crete as truo history ; but this about 
Jupiter, which the poets sing, the theatres applaud^ and the 
people celebrate, as empty fable got up as a reason for games 
to appease the deities, even with the false ascriptioQ of crimes 
to them. In those times Hercules was held in honour in 
Tyre, but that wns not the same one as he whom we spoke of 
above. In the more secret history there are said to have been 
several who were called Father Liber and Hercules. This 
Hercules, whose great deeds are reclconed as twelve (not in- 
cluding the slaughter of Antceus the African, because that 
affair pertains to another Hercules), is declared in their books 
to have burned himself on Mount CEta, because he was not 
able, by that strength with which he had subdued monstcis, 
to endure the disease under which he languished. At that 
time the king, or rather tyrant Busiris, who is alleged to have 
been the son of Neptune by Libya the daughter of Epaphus, 
is said to have offered up his guests in sacrifice to the goda. 
Jfow it must not be believed that Neptune committed this 
adultery, lest tlie gods should be criminated ; yet such things 
must be ascribed to them by the poets and in the theatres, 
that they may be pleased with them. Vulcan and Minerra 
are said to have been the parents of Ericthonius king of 
Athens, in whose last years Joshua the son of Nun is found 
to have died. But since tliey will Lave it that Minerva is 
a virgin, they say that Vulcan, being disturbed in the struggle 
between them, poured out liis seed into the earth, and on that 
account the man bom of it received that name ; for in the 
Greek language epi^ is " strife," and '^(Owv " earth," of which two 
words Ericthonius is a compound. Yet it must be admitted 
that the more learned disprove and disown such things con- 
cerning their gods, and declare that this fabulous belief origi- 
nated in the fact that in the temple at Athens, which Vulcan 
and Minerva bad in common, a boy who had been exposed 
was found wi-apped up in the coils of a dragon, which signified 
that he would become great, and, as hia parents were un- 
known, he was called the son of Vulcan and Miuerva, becanse 
they had the temple in common. Yet tliat fable accounts for 
the origin of hLs name better than this Iiistorj'. But what 
does it matter to us ? Let the one in books that sj^eak the 





BOOK XVni.] OF THE PEEIOD OF THE JUDGES. 



231 



^ 



truth edify religious men, and the other in lying fables delight 
impure demons. Yet these religious men worship them as 
gods. Still, while they deny these things concerning them, 
they cannot clear them of all crime, because at their demand 
they exliibit plays in which the very things tbey wisely deny 
are basely done, and the gods are appeased by these false and 
base things. Now, even although the play celebrates an unreal 
Clime of the gods, yet to delight in the ascription of an unreal 
xrime is a i*eal one. 

I 13. What fables toere invents at the (itm vhenjudfja htgan to ruie the 
I Hebrews, 

After the death of Joshua the son of Nun, the people of 
God had judges, in whose times they were alternately humbled 
by afflictions on account of their sins, and consoled by pro- 
sperity through the compassion of God. In those times were 
invented the fables about Triptolemus, who, at the command 
of Ceres, borne by winged snakes, bestowed com on the needy 
lands in flying over them ; about that beast the Minotaur, 
which was shut up in the Labyrinth, from which men who 
entered its inextricable mazes could find no exit ; about the 
Centaurs, whose form w*a3 a compound of horse and man ; 
about Cerberus, the three-headed dog of hell ; about Phryxus 
and his sister Hellas, who fled, borne by a winged ram ; about 
the Gorgon, whose hair was composed of serpents, and who 
turned those who looked on her into stone ; about Belle- 
rophon, who Avas carried by a wnnged horse called Pegasus ; 
about Ampliion, who charmed and attracted the stoues by the 
sweetness of his harp ; about the artificer Djedalus and his 
son Icarus, wlio flew on wings they had fitted on ; about 
(Edipus, who compelled a certain four-footed monster with a 
human face, called a sphynx, to destroy herself by casting 
herself headlong, having solved the riddle she was wont to 
propose as insoluble ; about Antieus, who wiis the son of the 
earth, for which reason, on falling on the earth, he was wont 
to rise up stronger, whom Hercules slew ; and perhaps there 
are others which I have forgotten. These fables, easily found 
in histories containing a true account of events, bring us down 
to the Trojan wnr, at which Marcus Varro has closed his 
BCGond book about the race of the Eoman people ; and they 



232 * f Hfi tTWTjWnli^ [dook xvui. 

are so skilfully invented by men as to involve no scandal to 
the gods. But whoever have pretended as to Jupiter's rape 
of GaTi3Tnede, a very beautiful boy, that king Tantalus com- 
mitted the crime, and the fable ascribed it to Jupiter ; or as 
to Ida iuiprti|j;iiating Daniie as a golden shower, that it means 
that the woiniin's virtue was corrupted by gold : whether these 
things were really done or only fabled in tliose days, or wero 
really done by others and falsely ascribed to Jupiter, it is 
impossible to tell how much wickedness must have been taken 
for granted in men's hearts that they should be thought able 
to listen to such lies with patience. And yet they willingly 
accepted them, when, indeed, the more devotedly they wor- 
shipped Jupiter, they ought the more severely to have 
punished those who durst say such things of him. But they 
not only were not angry at those who invented tliese things, 
but w^ere afmid that the gods wuiJd be angry at them if they 
did not act such fictions even in the theatres. In those times 
LaU>na bore ApoDo, not him of whose oracle we have spoken 
above as so often consulted, but him who is said, along with 
Hercules, to have fed the flocks of king Admctus ; yet he was 
so believed to be a god, that very many, indeed almost all, have 
believed him to be the selfsame Apollo. Then also Father 
Liber made war in India, and led in his army many women 
called Baccha!, who were notable not so mucli for valour as for 
fury. Some, indeed, write that tliis Liber was both conquered 
and bound ; and some that he was slain in Persia, even telling 
where he wjis buried ; and yet in his name, as that of a god, 
the unclean demons have instituted the sacred, or rather the 
sacrilegious, Bacchanalia, of the outrageous vileness of which 
the senate, after many years, became so much ashamed as to 
prohibit them in the city of Rome. Men behoved that in 
those times Perseus and his wife Andromeda were raised inlo 
heaven after their death, so that they were not ashamed or 
afraid to mark out their images by consLellalionSj and call 
them by their names, 

14. 0/ tJte fftfohg'ical poets. 

During the same period of time arose the poets, who were 
also called ihcologncs, because tliey made hymns about the 




BOOK XVIII.] 



THK KINGDOM OF AKCOS. 



233 



gods ; yet about such gotls as, although great men, were yet 
but men, or the elements of this world which tlie true God 
made, or creatures who were ordained as principalities and 
powers according to the will of the Creator and their own 
merit And if, among much that was vain and false, they 
sang anything of the one true God, yet, by worshipping Hini 
along with others who are not gods, and showing them the 
sen'ice that is due to Him alone, they did not serve Him at 
all lightly ; and even such poets as Orplieus, Musjeus, and 
Linus, were imable to abstain from dishonouring their gods by 
fables. But yet these theologues worshipped the gods, and 
were not worshipped ns gods, although the city of tbo ungodly 
is wont, I know not liow, to set Orplieus over the sacred, or 
rather sacrilegious, riti?s of hell. The wife of king Athamas, 
who was called Ino, and her son Melicertes, perished by 
throwing themselves into the sea, and M'erc, according to popu- 
lar belief, reckoned among the gods, like other men of the same 
times, [among whom were] Ciistor and Pollux. The Greeks, 
indeed, called her who was the mother of Melicertes, Leucothea, 
the Latins Jifatuta ; but both thought her a goddess. 

15. Of Uitj'aU of the Htiffdom of Argos, tehen Pieus the son of Saturn Jirst 
receivtd his father's kinydom of Laurent um. 

During those times the kingdom of Argos came to an end, 
being transferred to Mycene, from which Aganiemnnn came, 
and the kingdom of Laurentum arose, of which Picus son of 
Saturn was the first king, when the woman Deborah judged 
the Hebrews ; but it was the Spirit of God who used lier as 
His agent, for she was also a prophetess, although her pro- 
phecy is so obscure that we could not demonstrate, without a 
long discussion, that it w;is uttered concerning Christ. Now 
the Laurentes already reigned in Italy, from whom the origin 
of the Roman people is quite evidently derived after the 

E Greeks ; yet the kingdom of Assyi'ia still lasted, in which 
Lampares was the twenty-thii*d king when Picus fii-st began 
to reign at Laurentum. The worshippers of such gods may 
see what they are to tliink of Saturn the father of Picus, who 
deny that he was a man ; of whom some also have written 
that he himself reigned in Italy before Picus his son ; and 
Virgil in his weU-kiioAvn book says, — 



^ 



234 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XVIIL 

" That mce indocile, and thronglL mountnins high 
Pispened, he settled, and endowed with laws, 
And named their country Latiam, because 
Latent within their caasts he dwelt secure. 
TriulitioD says the g>^1den ages pure 
Began when he was Idag. " ' 

But they regard these as poetic fancies, and assert that the 
fatlier of Picus was Sterces rather, and relate that, being a 
most skilful husbandman, he discovered that the fields could 
be fertilized by the dung of animals, which is called stcrcus 
from his name. Some say he was called Stercutius. But 
for whatever reason they chose to call him Saturn, it is 
yet certain they made this Sterces or Stercutius a god for 
his merit in agriculture ; and they likewise received into the 
number of these gods Picus Ids son, whom they affirm to 
have been a famous augur and warrior. Picus begot Paunus, 
the second king of Laurentum ; and he too is, or was, a god 
with them. These divine honours they gave to dead men 
before the Trojan war. 

10. OfDlomedtj who after (he dtatructiQn of Troy was placed among lite god*, 
vhiie hit cxfmpaniona are said to hare been changed into birds, 

Troy was overthrown, and its destruction was everywhere 
sung and made well known even to boj-s ; for it was signally 
published and spread abroad, both by its own greatness and 
by writers of excellent style. And this was done in the 
reign of Latinus the son of Faunus, from whom the kingdom 
began to be called Latium instead of Laurentum. The vic- 
torious Greeks, on leaving Troy destroyed and returning to 
their own countries, were torn and crushed by divers and 
horrible calamities. Yet even from among them they in- 
creased the number of their gods, for they made Diomede a 
god. They allege that his return home was prevented by a 
divinely imposed punishment, and they prove, not by fabulous 
and poetic falsehood, but by historic attestation, tliat his com- 
panions were tujned into bii-ds. Yet they think that, even 
although he was made a ^od, he could neither restore them 
to the human form by his o^ii power, nor yet obtain it from 
Jupiter his king, as a favour granted to a new inhabitant of 
lieaven. They also say that his temple is in the island of 

^ ^neid, viu. 321, 




BOOK XVni.] VARRO OX HUWAN TRAXSFOTIMATIOKS. 



235 



Diomedsea, not far from Mount Garganus in Apulia, and tliat 
these birds fly round about tliia temple, and worship in it 
•with such ■wonderful obedience, that they fill their beaks with 
water and sprinkle it ; and if Greeks, or those born of the 
Greek race, come there, they are not only still, but fly to meet 
them ; but if they are foreigners, they fly np at their heads, 
and wound them with such severe strokes as even to kill 
them. For they are said to be well enough armed for these 
combats with their hard and lar^e beaks. 



17. WJtat Varro tatf» of the ineredibU transformaUons of\ 

In support of this stoiy, Varro relates others no less in- 
credible about tliat most famous sorceress Circe, who changed 
the companions of Ulysses into beasts, and about the Arcadians, 
who, by lot, swam acixiss a certain pool, and were turned into 
I -wolves there, and lived in the deserts of that region with 
wild beasts like themselves. But if they never fed on human 
flesh for nine years, they were restored to the human form 
on swimming back again through the same pool. Finally, he 
expressly names one Dema?netus, who, on tasting a boy ofTered 
up in sacrifice by the Arcadians to their god Lycieus according 
to their custom, was changed into a wolf, and, being restored 
to his proper fonu in the tenth year, trained himself as a 
pugilist, and was victorious at the OljTupic games. And the 
same historian thinks that the epithet Lycaeus was applied 
in Arcadia to Pan and Jupiter for no other reason than this 
3Betamorphosis of men into wolves, because it was thought it 
could not be wrought except by a divine power. For a wolf 
ia called in Greek Xv/co<:, from which the name Lycaeus ap- 
pears to be formed. He says also that the Roman Luperci 
were as it were sprung of the seed of these mysteries. 

^^ 18. Wlutt T« ghmt/d helievf concn-ning the iranfformations which seem to 
^P happen Co men through the art qf demons. 

Perhaps our readers expect us to say something about tins 

j so great delusion wrought by the demons ; and what shall we 

' say but that men must fly out of the midst of Babylon ? ^ For 

this prophetic precept is to be understood apirituaCy in this 

[ sense, that by going forward in the living God, by the steps of 

i ^ Isa. xlruL 20. 



k 



236 TITE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XWU. 

faith, which worketh by love, we must flee out of the city of 
this world, which is altogether a society of ungodly aagels and 
men. Yea, the greater we see the power of the demons to be 
in these depths, so much the more tenaciously must we cleave 
to the Mediator through whom we ascend from these lowest 
to the highest places. For if we should say tliese things are 
not to be credited, there are not wanting even now some 
who would afEmi that they had either heard on the best 
authority, or even themselves experienced, sometliing of that 
kind. Indeed we ourselves, when in Italy, lieard such things 
about a certain region there, where landladies of inns, imbued 
with these wicked arts, were said to be in the habit of giving 
to such travellers as they chose, or could manage, something 
in a piece of cheese by which they were changed on the spot 
into beasts of burden, and carried whatever was necessaiy, 
and were restored to their own form when the work was 
done. Yet their miiul did not become l>e.stial, but remained 
i*ational and human, just as Apuleius, in the books he wrote 
willi the title of The Golden yijw, hna told, or feigned, that it 
happened to his own self that, on taking poison, ho became 
an nss, while retaining his human mind. 

These things are either false, or so extraordinary as to be 
with good reason disbelieved. But it is to be most firmly 
believed that Almighty God can do whatever He pleases, 
whether in punishing or favouring, and that the demons can 
accomplish nothing by their natural power (for tht-ir created 
being is itseli' angtilic, although made malign by their own 
fault), except what He may permit, whose judgments are often 
hidden, but never unrighteous. And indecid the demons, if 
tliey really do such things as these on which tliis discussion 
turns, do not create real substances, but only change the 
appearance of things created by the true God so as to make 
thein seem to be what they are not, I cannot therefore 
believe that even the body, much less the mind, can really be 
changed into bestial forms and lineaments by any reason, art, 
or power of the demons ; but the phantasm of a man, which 
even in thought or di'cams goes through innumerable changes, 
may, when the man's senses are laid asleep or overpowered, 
be presented to the senses of others in a corporeal form, in 




COOK xvin. 



irUMAK THAKSFORMATIOKS. 



some indescribable way unknown to me, ao that men's bodies 
themselves may lie somewhere, alive, indeed, yet with their 
senses locked up much more heavily and iinuly than by 
sleep, while that phantasm, as it were embodied in the shape 
of some animal, may appear to the senses of others, and may 
even seem to tlie man himself to be changed, just as he may 
seem to himself in sleep to be so changed, and to bear burdens; 
antl the.^e buidena, if they are rcal substances, are Itorne by 
the demons, that men may be deceived by beholdinj^ at the 
same time the real substance of the burdens and tlie simulated 
iKxiies of the beasts of burden. Por a certain man called 
rrsEstantiua used to tell that it had happened to his futlier in 
his own house, that he took that poison in a piece of cheese, 
nnd lay in his bed as if sleepin;^, yet coukl by no means be 
aroused. But he said that after a few days he as it were 
woke up and related tlie tlungs he Imd suffered as if they 
Itad been di'canis, namely, that he had been made a sumpter 
Jiorse, and, along witli other beasts of burden, had earned 
provisions for the soldiers of what is called the Rhcetian 
Legion, becjiuse it was sent to Elio'Lia. And all this was 
found to have taken place just as he told, yet it had seemed 
to him to be hia own dream. And another lUEin declared 
that in his own house at night, before he slept, he saw a 
certain philosojjher, whom he knew very well, come to liim 
and explain to him some thin<,^ in the Platonic philosophy 
wliicli he had previously declined to explain when asked. 
And when he hatl asked this philosopher why he did in liisi 
house what he had refused to do at home, he said, " I did not 
do it, but I dreamed I had done it." And thus what the 
one saw when sleeping was shown to the other when awake 
by a phantasmal image. 

These tilings have not come to us from persons we might 
deem unworthy of credit, but from informants we could not 
suppose to be deceiving us. Therefore what men say and 
have committed to writing about the Arcadians being often 
changed into wolves by the Arcadian gods, or demons i*ather, 
and wiiat is told in song about Circe transforming the com- 
panions of Ulysses,' if they were really done, may, in my 

* Virgil, Echguft viu, 70. 




238 TiiE aiT OF GOD, [BOOK xvm 

opinion, have been done in the way I have said. As for 
Diomede's "birds, since their race is alleged to have been per- 
petuated by constant propagation, I believe they were not 
made through the metamorphosis of men, but were slyly 
substituted for them on their removal, just as the hind was 
for Tphigenia, the daughter of king Agamemnon. For jt^- 
gleries of this kind could not be difficult for the demons if 
permitted by the judgment of God ; and since that virgin 
was afterward found alive, it is easy to see that a hind had 
been slyly substituted for her. But because the companions 
of Diomede were of a sudden nowhere to be seen, and after- 
ward could nowhere be found, being destroyed by bad aveng- 
ing angels, they were believed to have been changed into 
those birds, which were secretly brought there from other 
places where such birds were, and suddenly substituted for 
them by fraud. But that they bring water in their beaks 
and sprinkle it on the temple of Diomede, and that they 
fawn ou men of Greek race and persecute aliens, is no won- 
derful thing to be done by the inwaixl influence of the demons, 
whose interest it is to persuade men that Diomede was made 
a god, and thus to beguile them into worshipping many false 
gods, to the great dishonour of the true God ; and to servo 
dead men, who even in their lifetime did not triily live, 
with temples, altars, sacrifices, and priests, all which, when 
of the right kind, are due oiJy to the one living and true 
God. 

19. That jEncaa came into Italy when Ahdan iht judge nXed over the Hebraee. 
After the capture and destruction of Troy, j^Jieas, with 
twenty ships laden with the Trojan relics, came into Italy, 
when Latinus reigned there, Menestheus in Athens, Poly- 
phidos in Sicyon, and Tautanos in Assyria, and Abdon was 
judge of the Hebrews. On the death of Latinus, jEneas 
reigned three years, the same kings continuing in the above- 
named places, except that Pelasgus was now king in Sicyon, 
and Sampson was judge of the Hebrews, who is thought to be 
Hercules, because of his wonderfid strength. Now tbe Latins 
made jEneas one of their gods, because at his death he was 
nowhere to be found. The Sabinea also placed among the 
gods their first king, Sancus, [Sangus], or Sanctus, as some 



k 




xviil] of the kingdom ly Israel. 



239 



coll Iiiiu. At that time Codrus king of Athens exposed 
liimaelf incognito to be slain by the Peloponnesian foes of 
that city, and so was slain. In tliis way, they say, he de- 
livered his country. For the Peloponnesians had received a 
Tesponse from the oracle, that they should overcome the 
Atheniaus only on condition that they did not slay their 
long. Therefore he deceived them by api^earing in a poor 
man's dress, and provoking them, by quan-elling, to murder 
iiin. Whence Vii-gil says, " Or the quarrels of Codrus." ' 
And the Athenians worshipped this man as a god with 
sacrificial honours. The fourth king of the Latins was 
Silvias the son of .^Eneas, not by Creiisa, of whom Ascanius 
the third king was bom, but by laidnia the daughter of 
Latinus, and he is said to have been his posthumous eliild. 
Oneus was the twcntj^-ninth king of Assyria, Midanthus the 
sixteenth of the Athenians, and Eli the priest was judge of the 
Hebrews ; and the kingdom of Sicyon then came to ah end, 
after lasting, it is said, for nine hundred and fifty-nine years. 

so. O/iht auccatiOH qfUie line qfl-ings among the ItratliUi after the tinut 
of the judges. 

While these kings reigned in the places mentioned, the 
period of the judges being ended, the kingdom of Israel next 
began with king Saul, when Samuel the prophet lived. At 
that date those Latin kings began who were surramed Silvii, 
having that surname, in addition to their proper name, from 
their pi-edecessor, that son of .^ueas who was called Silvius ; 
jizst as, long afterward, the successors of Csesar Augustus 
were sumamed Caesars. Saul being rejected, so that none 
of his issue should reign, on his death David succeeded him 
in the kingdom, after he had reigned forty years. Then the 
Athenians ceased to have kings after the death of Codrus, 
and began to have a magistracy to rule the republic. After 
David, who also reigned forty years, his son Solomon was 
king of Israel, who built that most noble temple of God at 
Jerusalem. In his time Alba was buOt among the Latins, 
from which thereafter the kings began to be styled kings 
not of the Latins, but of the Albans, although in the same 
I^UBL Solomon was succeeded by his son Eehoboam, 
1 Vii^, jEtfoyiK, ▼. n. 




:i40 THE CITY OF COD. [DOOK XVIH 

under whom that people was divided into two kingdoms, and 
its separate parts began to have separate kings. 

21 . Of the kinffs of Latiujn, thfjir»t and ticclfth o/vfkom, JSneas ami 
Avtntinus, were made godi. 

Aftt'.r ^ncas, whom they deified, Latinin had eleven kin^, 

none of whom was deified. But Aveutinus, who was the 

twelfth after >Eneas, having been laid low in war, and buried 

in that hill still called by liis name, was added to the number 

of such gods as they made for themselves. Some, indeed, 

were unwilling to write that he was slain in battle, but said 

Le was nowhere to be found, and that it was not from his 

name, but from tlie alighting of birds, that hill was called 

Aventiuus.' After this no god was made in Latium except 

Eoraulus the founder of Eome. But two kings are fouad 

between these two, the first of whom I shall describe in the 

Virgilian verse : 

*' Next came that Procns, gkiy of the Tntjan wee."' 

That greatest of all kingdoms, the Ass3Tian, had its long 
duj'ation brought to a close in his time, the time of Eome's 
birth drawing nigli. For the Assyrian empu-e was trana- 
feiTed to the Medes after nearly thirteen hundred and five 
years, if we include the reign of Belus, who begot Ninus, 
and, content with a small kingdom, was the fii-st king there. 
Now Procas reigned before Amidius. And Amulius had 
made his brother Numitor's daughter, Bhea by name, who 
was also called Ilia, a vestal virgin, who conceived twin 
sons by Mars, as they will Iiave it, in that way honouring 
or excusing her adultery, adding as a proof that a she-wolf 
nursed the infants when exposed. For they think tliis kiod 
of beast belongs to Mars, so that the she-wolf is believed to 
have given her teats to the infants, because she knew they 
were the sons of Mars her lord ; although there are not want- 
ing persons who say that when the crying babes lay exposed, 
they were fu^t of all picked up by I know not what harlot, 
and sucked her breasts first (now harlots were called lupcc, she- 
wolves, from which their vile abodes arc even yet called lupa- 
narta), and that afterwards they came into the hands of the 
shepherd Faustulus, and wei*e nursed by Acca his wife. Yet 

' Yarro, De Lingua Latina, v. 43. ' ^neid, vL 767. 





BOOK XVm.1 ITENTS DTnUXn HEZEKTAn'S RETCX. 



241 



what wonder is it, if, to rebuke the king who had cruelly 
ordered them to be throw^i into the water, God was pleased, after 
divinely delivering them from the water, to succour, by means 
of a wild beast giving railk, these infants by whom so great a 
city was to be founded ? Aiiiulius was succeeded in the Latian 
kingdom by his brotbur Numitor, the grandlatber of Eomulus ; 
and Eome was founded iu the first year of this Kumitor, who 
from that time reigned along with Ms grandson liomidus. 

22. That Home Wiu/oundtd when the Asfi/r'tan kiiujdom pcrUhcd, at which 
time HfzeJdah rdrftted in Judafi. 

To be brief, the city of Eome was founded, like another 
Babylon, and as it were the daughter of the former Babylon, 
by which God was pleased to conquer the whole world, and 
subdue it far and wide by bringing it into one fellowship of 
government and laws. For there were already powerful and 
brave peoples and nations trained to arms, who did not easily 
yield, and whose subjugation necessarily involved great danger 
and dcstruotion as well as great and horrible labour. For 
when the Assyrian kingdom subdued almost all Asia, although 
this was done by fighting, yet the wars could not be veiy 
fierce or difficult, because the nations were as yet untrained to 
resist, and neither so many nor so great as afterward ; for- 
asmuch as, after that greatest and indeed universal flood, when 
only eight men escaped iu Noah's ark, not much more than a 
thousand years had passed when Ninus subdued all Asia with 
the exception of India. But Rome did not witli the same 
quickness and facility wholly subdue all those nations of the 
east and west which we see brought under the Eomau empire, 
because, in its gi'adual increase, in whatever direction it was ex- 
tended, it found them strong and warlike. At the time when 
Rome was founded, then, the people of Israel had been in the 
land of promise seven hundred and eighteen years. Of these 
years twenty-seven belong to Joshua the son of Nun, and 
after that three hundred and twenty-nine to the period of the 
judgea But from the time when tlie kings began to reign 
there, three hundred and sixty-two years had passed. And 
at that time there was a king in Judah called Ahaz, or, 
as others compute, Hezekiah his successor, the best and 
most pious king, who it is admitted reigned in the times of 

YOU XL <i 




242 



Tin: cmr of god. 



fnooK xvth. 




Romulus. And in that part of the Hebrew nation called 
Israel, Hoshea had begun to reign. 

28. Ofihi Srythrtean Ar'^y^ vAa u hxovm to havf tunff many tMngs ahout 
Ohritt more plainly than thr other sibyh. 

Some say the Eiythrsean sibyl prophesied at this time. 
Now Varro declares there were many sibyls, and not merely 
one. This sibyl of Erythra; certainly wrote some things 
concerning Christ which are quite manifest, and we first read 
them in tlie Latin tongue in verses of bad Latin, and unrhyth- 
mical, through the unskilfidness, as we afterward learned, of 
some interpreter unknown to me. For Flaccianus, a very 
famous man, who was also a proconsul, a man of most ready 
eloquence and much learning, whon we were speaking about 
Christ, produced a Greek manuscript, saying that it was the 
prophecies of the Erythraean sibyl, in wliich he |X)inted out a 
certain passage which had the initial letters of the lines so 
arranged that these words could be read in them : Tt;©-©^^ 
Xpt<rro^ Beov vm ccari^p^ which mean, " Jesus Christ the Son 
of God, the Saviour" And these verses, of which the initial 
letters yield that meaning, contain what follows as translated 
by some one into Latin in good rhythm : 

- Judgment shaH moisten the earth with the sweiit of ita stnndard, 
BB Ever enduring, bi^hold the King shall come through the ages, 
M Scat to be here in the flesh, and Judge at the last of the vorld. 
O O God, tilt? believing and faithless alike shall behold Thee 
>S Uplifted with saints, when at last the ages are ended, 
u Sisted before Him are soola in the fleah for His judgment. 

X Hid in thick yapoura, tlio while desolate lieth the earth. 

•0 Rejected by men are the idols and long hidden treasores ; 

n £^th is consumed by the fire, and it s^'arelieth the ocean ind hesveB^ 

« lesuiiig furth, it destroyflh the terrible portals of hell. 

M Saints in their body and soul freedom and light shall inherit ; 

H Thoiie who are guilty shall bnm in fire nnd brTmstone for erer. 

O Occult actions revealing, each one shall publish his seoreta ; 

M Secrvts of every niau's heait God ahull reveal in tlie light. 

a Thou shall be weeping and wailing, yea, and gnaahing of teeth. ; 

M Eclipsed is the sun, and silenced the stars in their chorus. 

O Over and gone is the s])Iendour of moonlight, melted the hpaven, 

H Uplifted by Him are the valle}^, and cast down the mountains. 

H Utterly gone among men are distinctions of lofty and lowly. 

— Into the plains rMs\x tlic bills, the skies and oceans are mingled. 
O Oh, what Qii end of all tLijigs ! tarth broken in pieces shall peiish ; 
H Swelling together at once sihall the waters and flames flow in rivers. 



BOOK xrni.] 



THE erythr.?:ax sibyl. 



243 



BtLc 



14 bounding the archangel's tmmpet shall peal down from heaven, 
s Orer the wicked who gronn in thrir guilt and their manifold ftorrows. 
H Trembling, the earth shall be opened, rerealinf; chaos and hell. 
S Erer^- king before Qod shall stand in that day to be judged. 
'V Bivei? of fixe and of brimstone shall fall from the heaTBOSi 



In these Latin verses the meaning of the Greek is correctly 
^ven, although not in the exact order of the lines as con- 
nected with the initial letters ; for in three of them, the fifth, 
eighteenth, and nineteenth, where the G^k letter T occurs, 
Latin words could not be found beginning with the corre- 
sponding letter, and yielding a suitable meaning. So that, if 
we note down together the initial letters of all the lines in 
our Latin translation except those three in which we retain 
the letter T in the proper place, they will express in five 
Greek words this meaning, " Jesus Christ the Son of God, the 
Saviour." And the verses are twenty-seven, which is the cube 
of threa Por three times throe are nine ; and nine itself, if 
tripled, so as to rise from the superficial square to the cube, 
mes to twenty-seven. Eut if you join tlie initial letters of 
ese five Greek words, Ti^croD? Xpiaro*; Geov vlo': aomjp, 
"which mean, " Jesus Christ the Son of God, the Saviour," they 
will make the word Ix'^i^, that is, " fish," in which word Christ 
is mystically amderstood, because He was able to live, that is, 
to exist, without sin in the abyss of this mortality as in the 
depth of waters. 
^^ But this sibyl, whether she is the Erythrxan, or, as some 
^^ rather believe, the Cumrcan, in her whole pncm, of which this 
is a very small portion, not only has nothing that can relate 
to the worship of the false or feigned gods, but rather speaks 
^■against them and their worshippers in such a way that we 
^Fmight even think she ought to be reckoned among those who 
belong to the city of God. Lactantius also inseitod in his 
■work the prophecies about Christ of a certain sibyl, he does 
not say which. But I have thought fit to combine in a single 
extract^ which may seem long, what he has set down in many 
short quotations. She says, " Afterward He shall come into 
the injurious Itands of the mibelieving, and they will givo 
God buffets with profane hands, and with impure mouth will 

...... 



1 




244 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[dOOK XVtlT. 



yield Ilia holy back to stripes. And He will hold His peace 
when stnick ^vith the fist, that no one may find out what 
word, or whence, He comes to speak to hell ; and He shall be 
crowned with a crown of thorns. And they gave Uim gall 
for meat, and vinegar for His thirst : they vnU spread this 
table of iuhospitality. For thou thyself, being foolish, hast not 
underst-ood thy God, deluding the minds of mortals, but hast 
l>oth crowned Him with thorns and mingled for llim bitter 
gall. But the veil of the temple shall bo rent ; and at midday 
it shall be darker than night for three hours. And He shall 
die the death, taking sleep for tliree days ; and tlien returning 
from hell, He first shall come to the light, the beginning of 
the resurrection being shown to the reciilled." Lactantius 
made use of these sibylline testimonies, introducing them bit 
by bit in the course of his discussion as the things he intended 
to prove seemed to require, and we have set them down in one 
connected series, uninten-upted by comment, only taking caro 
to mark them by capitals, if only the transcribers do not neglect 
to preserve them hereafter. Some writers, indeed, say that the 
Er}'thra,*an sibyl was not in tlie time of Romulus, but of the 
Trojan war. 

21 Thaf the aeven aagfs JtowisJifd in the reign of RojmtiuA, vfhen tlu ten trtht* 
which \cfre cnlM Israfl vmre led into cfiptixnhf hij the Cfialdcans, and 
BomuluB^ when dead, had divine honours cellared on him. 

While Eomulus reigned, Thales the Milesian is said to have 
lived, being one of the seven sages, wlio succeeded the theo- 
logical poets, of whom Orpheus was the most renowned, and 
were called Sotpoi, that is, sages. During that time the ten 
tribes, which on the division of the people were called Israel. 
were conquered by the Chaldeans and led captive into tlieir 
lands, wliile the two tribes which were called Judah, and had 
the seat of their kingdom in Jerusalem, remained in the land 
of Judea. As Eomulus, when dead, could nowhere be found, 
the Eomans, as is every%vhere notorious, placed him among 
the gods, — a thing which by that time had already ceased to 
be done, and which was not done afterwards till the time of the 
Cajsars, and then not through error, but in flattery ; so that 
Cicero ascribes great praises to I^onuilus, because he merited 
such honours not in rude and mdeamed times. 




nes, when men ' 



BOOK XVTII.] 



HEIGN OF ZEDEKUH, 



246 



were easily deceived, but in times already polished and learned, 
although the subtle and acute loquacity of the philosophers 
had not yet culminated- But altliough the later times did 
not deify dead men, still they did not cease to hold and wor- 
ship as gods those deified of old ; nay, by images, which the 
ancients never had, they even increased the allurements of 
vain and impious superstition, the unclean demons effecting 
this in their heart, and also deceivin^^ them by ly\n^ oracles, 
so that even tlie fabulous crimes of the gods, which were not 
once imagined by a more polite aj;e, were yet basely acted in 
the plays in honour of these same false deities. Numa reigned 
after Eomulus ; and althout^h he liad tliought that Rome would 
1>€ better defended the more gods there were, yet on his death 
lie himself was not counted worthy of a place among them, as 
if it were supposed tlmt he had so crowded heaven that a place 
could not be found for liini there. They report that the Saraian 
sibyl lived while he reigned at Rome, and when Manasseh 

I began to reign over the Hebrews, — an impious king, by whom 
tlie prophet Isaiali is said to have been slain. 
: 
J. 
til 



What phihitophers wtrf famous when Tarfjtiiniiis Pr'iaai* rfignfd orcr the 
SomanSt and Ztdtldah ovtr Ut/t Jlibreiog, uken Jertuaiem mu taken ami 
thi temple overthroum. 

When Zedekiah reigned over the Hebrews, and Tarquinius 
Priscus, the successor of Ancus Martius, over the Romans, the 
Jewish people was led captive into Babylon, Jerusalem and 
the temple built by Solomon being overthrown. For the pro- 
phets, iu chiding them for their iniquity and impiety, predicted 
that these things should come to pass, especially Jeremiah, 
who even stated the number of years Pittacus of Mitylune, 
another of the sages, is reported to have lived at that time. 
And Eusebius writes that, while the people of God were held 
captive in Babylon, the five otlier sages lived, who must be 
added to Tbales, whom we mentioned above, and Pittacus, in 
order to make up the seven. These are Solon of Athens, Chilo 
of Laceda^mon, Periander of Corinth, Cleobulus of Lindus, and 
Bias of Priene. These fioiirishcd after the theological poets, and 
•were called sages, because they excelled other men in a certain 
laudable line of life, and suniiucd up some mural precepts 
in epigrammatic sayings. But they left posterity no literary 




246 



THK CITY OF GOD, 



[book xvin. 



I 



monuments, except that Solon is alleged to have given certain 
laws to the Athenians, and Tlialea was a natural philosopher, 
and left books of his doctrine in short proverbs. In that time 
of the Jewish captivity, Anaximauder, Anaximenes, and Xcno- 
phanes, the natural philosophers^ flourislied Pythagoras also 
lived then, and at this time the nanie philosopher was first used. 

SS. That at the time when the captivity of the Jews wot brought to an entf^ on (he 
compleiion of seventy years,, the Romans aUo were /reed from kingly rule. 

At this time, Cyrus king of Persia, who also ruled the Chal- 
deans and Assyrians, having somewhat relaxed the captivity 
of the Jews, made fifty thousand of them return in order to 
lebuiki the temple. They only began the first foundations 
and built the altar ; but, owing to hostile invasions, thoy were 
unable to go on, and the work was put off to the time of Darius. 
During the same time also those things were done which are 
wriUeu in the book of Judith, which, indeed, the Jews are 
said not to have received into the canon of the Scriptures. 
Under Darius king of Persia, then, ou the completion of the 
seventy years predicted by Jeremiali the prophet, the captiWty 
of th« Jews was brought to an end, and they were restored 
to liberty. Tarquin then reigned as tlie seventh king of the 
Komans. Ou his expulsion, they also began to be free from 
the nile of their kings. Down to this time the people of 
Israel bad prophets ; but, although they were numerous, the 
canonical writings of only a few of them have been preserved 
among the Jews and among us. In closing the previous book, 
I promised to set down something in this one about them, and 
I shall now do so, 

27. 0/tke timea of the propheU whose oracles are contained in boots, and who 
sang many Uiings about the call of the Gentiles at the time when the Ronmn 
kioffdom began and the Assyrian came to an end. 

In order that we may bu able to consider these times, let us 
go back a little to earlier times. At the beginning of the book 
of the prophet Hosca, who is placed first of twelve, it is written, 
" The word of the Lord which came to Unsea in the days of 
Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Idngs of Judah." ' Amos 
also writes that he prophesied in the days of Uzziah, and adds 
the name of Jeroboam king of Israel, who lived at the same 

^ Hob. L 1. 





>K xvni.] 



OF THE HEBREW PROPirETS. 



time.^ Isaiah the son of Amos — either the above-named pro- 
phet, or, as is rather affirmed, another who was not a prophet, but 
was called by the same name — also puts at the head of his book 
these four kings named by Hosea, saying by way of preface 
that he prophesied in their days.^ JDcah also names the same 
times as those of his prophecy, after the days of Vzziah ; ** for 
he names the same three kings as Hosea named, — Jotham, 
Ahaz, and Hezekiah. We find from their own writings that 
these men prophesied contemporaneously. To these are added 
Jonah in the reign of Uzziah, and Joel in that of Jotham, who 
succeeded Uzziah- But we can iimi the date of these two 
prophets in the chronicles,* not in their own wTitings, for they 
say nothing about it themselves, iiow these dayB extend from 
Procas king of the Latins, or his predecessor Aventinus, down 
to Eouiulus king of the Eomans, or eveu to tlie Liiginniiig of 
the reign of his successor, Numa Pompilius. Hezekiali king 
of Judah certainly reigned till tlien. 80 that thus these foun- 
tains of prophecy, as I may call them, burst forth at once during 
those times when the Assyrian kingdom failed and the Eoman 
began ; so that, just as in the first period of the AssjTian king- 
dom Abraham arose, to whom the most distinct promises were 
made that all nations should be blessed in his seed, s o at the 
befflnnin^ of the western Babylon, in the time of whose govem - 
nient Chi'ist was to come in whom these promises were to be |^ ^^ __ 
fulfilled, the oracles of the prophets were given not only in (v*^ 
spoken but in written words, for a testimony that so great a***i 
thing should come to pass. For although the people of Israel 
hardly ever lacked prophets from the time when they began to 
have kings, these were only for their own use, not for that of 
the nations. But when the more manifestly prophetic Scrip- 
ture began to be formed, which was to benefit the nations 
too, it was fitting that it should begin when this city was 
founded which was to rule the nations. 




P 



28. 0/ Ihe thinQS perta'tninff to the go^p^l of Christ vhich Bona and Amo9 
propktsvid. 

The prophet Hosea speaks so very profoundly that it is 

laborious work to penetrate his meaning. But, according to 



' Amos L 1. 
■ Mic. i. 1. 




' Isa. L 1. Isaiali's fatlicr was Ainoz, a diiTeTent Dame, 
* The chronicleii uf KuaeUua and Jerome 



248 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xviil 



promise, we must insert something from his book. He sajs, 
" And it shall come to pass that in the place where it was 
said unto tliem. Ye are not my people, there they shall be 
called the sons of the living God." * Even the apostles under- 
stood this as a prophetic testimony of the calling of the nations 
who did not formerly belong to God ; and because this same 
people of the Gentiles is itself spiritually among the children 
of Abraham, and for that reason is rightly called Israel, thore- 
fore he goes ou to say. " And the children of Judah and the 
children of Israel shall be gathered together in one, and shall 
appoint themselves one headship, and shall ascend from the 
eartL"* We should but weaken the savour of this prophetic 
oracle if we set ourselves to expound it. Let the reader but 
call to mind that comer-stone and those two walls of partition, 
the one of the Jews, the other of the Gentiles,* and he will re- 
cognise them, the one under the term sons of Judah, the other 
as sons of Israel, supporting themselves by one and the same 
headship, and ascending from the earth. But that those carnal 
Israelites who are now unwilling to believe in Christ shall 
afterward believe, that is, their children shall (for they them- 
selves, of course, shall go to their own place by dying), this 
aame prophet testifies, saying, " For the children of Israel shall 
abide many days witliout a king, without a prince, without a 
saciifice, without an altar, without a priesthood, without mani- 
festations." * Who does not see that the Jews are now thus ? 
But let ns hear what he adds : " And afterward shall the chil- 
dren of Israel return, and seek the Lord their God, and David 
their king, and shall he jimazed at the Lord and at His gooil- 
neas in the latter days." ° Notliing is clearer than tills pixH 
phecy, in which by David, as distinguished by the title of king, 
Christ is to be understoodj " who is made,*' as the apostle says, 
" of tlie seed of David according to the Hesh." * This prophet 
has also foretold the resurrection of Christ on the third day, 
as it behoved to be foretold, with prophetic loftiness, when he 
says, " He will heal ua after two days, and in tho third day we 
shall rise again." ^ In agreement with this the apostle says 
to us, " If ye be risen with Christ, seek those things which are 

« Hoa. iii. 4. 



1 Hob, i. 10. 
■ Hos, iiL 6. 



* Hos, i. 11. 

• Horn. i. 3. 



3 Gal. u. 14-20. 
7 Ho8. \L 2. 





BOOK XVII L] 



PREDICTIONS BY ISAIAH. 



249 



above." ^ Amos also prophesies thus concerning such things : 
" Prepare thee, thnt thou mayst invoke thy God, O Israel ; for 
lo, I am binding the thunder, and creatlnj^ the spirit, and an- 
nouncing to men their Christ." ' And in auothtir place he 
says, " In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that 
is fallen, and build up the breaches thereof; and I will raise 
up his ruins, and will build them np again as in the days of 
old : that the residue of men may inquire for me, and all the 
Datious upon whom my name is invoked, saith the Lord tliat 
doeth this." ' 



saj 

01 



29. What things are predicted hy haiah concerning Christ and the Cfiureh, 

The prophecy of Isaiah is not in the book of the twelve 
prophets, who are called the minor from the brevity of their 
writings, as compared with those wlio are called the gitater 
prophets because they published larger volumes. Isaiali be- 
longs to the latter, yet I connect him vdih the two above 
named, because he prophesied at the same time. Isaiah, then, 
together with his rebukes of wickedness, precepts of righteous- 
ness, and predictions of evil, also propliesied much more than 
the rest about Christ and the Church, that is, about the King 
and that city which he founded ; so that some say he should 
be called an evangelist rather than a prophet. But, in order 
to finish this work, I quote only one out of many in this 
place. Speaking in the person of the Father, he says, " Behold, 
my servant shall understand, and shall be exalted and glorified 
very much. As many shall be astonished at Thee." * This is 
about Christ. 

But let us now hear what follows about the Church. He 
says, " Rejoice, barren^ thou that barest not ; break forth 
d cry, thou that didst not travail with child : for mauy moitj 
e the children of the desolate than of her that has an hus- 
,nd"* But these must auflice ; and some things in them 
ought to be expounded ; yet I think those parts sufficient which 
are so plain that even enemies must be compelled against then- 
ill to understand them. 



» CoL iii 1. « Amos ir. 12. 13. » Amos ii. 11, 12 ; Acta xr. 15-17. 

* Ibo. lii. 18-liii. 13. Augustine quotes these piLSSCgcs in fulL 
» Isa. Uv. 1-5. 




250 



THE crry of god. 



[book xvia 



30. What Mlc<ih, Jonah, ajid Joel prophesied in accordance wiUi the New 

Testament. 

The prophet Micah, representing Christ under the figure of 
a great mountain, speaks thus : " It shall come to pass in the 
hist days, that the manifested mountain of the Lord shall be 
prepared an the tops of the mountains, and it shall be exalted 
above the hills ; and people shall hasten unto it Many nations 
shall go, and shall say, Come, let us go up into the mountain of 
the Lord, and into the house of the God of Jacob ; and He 
will show us His way, and we will go in His paths : for out 
of Zion shall proceed the law, and the word of the Lord oat 
of Jerusalem. And He shall judge among many people, and 
rebuke strong nations afar off." ' This prophet predicts the 
very place in which Christ was bom, saying, "And thou, 
Bethlehem, of the house of Ephratah, art the least that caa 
be reckoned atuong the thousands of Judah ; out of thee shall 
come forth unto me a leader, to be the princ-e in Israel ; and His 
going forth is from the beginning, even from the days of eter- 
nity. Therefore will He give them [up] even until the time 
when she that travaileth shall bring forth ; and the remnant 
of His brethren shall be converted to the sons of Israel And 
Ho shall stand, and see, and feed His flock in the strength of 
the Lord, and in the dignity of the name of the Lord His 
Grod : for now shall He be magnified even to the utmost of 
the eartk" ' 

The prophet Jonah, not so much by speech as by his own 
painful experience, prophesied Christ's death and resurrection 
much more clearly than if he had proclaimed them with his 
voice. For why was he taken into the whalers belly and re- 
stored on the third day, but that he might be a sign that 
Christ should retiim from the depths of hell on the third 
day? 

I should be obliged to nse many words in explaining all 
that Joel prophesies in order to make clear those that pertain 
to Clirist and the ChurcL But there is one passage I must 
not pass by, which the apostles also quoted when the Holy 
Spirit came down from above on the assembled believers ac- 
cording to Chrisfs promise. He says, "And it shall come to 



» Mic. iv. 1-3. 




« Mic. V. 2-4. 




BOOK XVin.] FHEDICTIOXS BY TUE MINOR PROPHETS. 



251 



pass after these things, that I will pour out my Spirit upon 
all flesh ; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, 
and your old men shall dream, and your young men shall see 
visions: and even on my servants and mine handmaids in 
those days will I pour out my Spirit" ^ 

31. Of the prtdictione ccnctnung the talvation of the world in Christf in 
Obailkth, A^a/rwm, and ffah<ill-uk. 

The date of three of the minor prophets, Obadiah, IN'ahum, 
and Uabakkuk, is neither mentioned by themselves nor given 
in the chronicles of Euscbius and Jerome. For although 
they put Obadiah with Micah, yet when Slicali prophesied 
does not appear from that part of Uieir writings in wluch the 
dates are noted. And this, I think, has happened through 
their error in negligently cojjying the works of others. But we 
could not find the two othei's now mentioned in the copies of 
the chronicles wliich we have ; yet because they are contained 
in the canon, we ought not to pass them by. 

Obadiah, so far as his \vriting3 are concerned, the briefest 
of all the prophets, speaks against Idnmea, that is, the nation 
of Esau, that reprobate elder of the twin sons of Isaac and 
grandsons of Abraham. Now if, by that form of speech in 
which a part is put for the whole, we take Idumea as put 
for the nations, we may understand of Christ wliat he says 
among other things, " But upon Mount Sion shall be safety, 
and there shall be a Holy One."' And a little after, at the 
end of the same prophecy, he says, " And those who are saved 
again shall come up out of Mount Sion, that they may defend 
Blount Esau, and it shall be a kingdom to the Lord." ° It is 
quite evident this was fulfilled when those saved again out of 
Mount Sion — that is, the believers in Christ from Judca, of 
whom the apostles are chiefly to be acknowledged — went up 
to defend Mount Esau. How could they defend it except by 
making safe, thraugh the preaching of the gospel, those who 
believed that they might be " delivered from the power of 
darkness and translated into the kingdom of God ? " * This 
he expressed as an inference, adding, " And it shall be to the 
Lord a kingdom." For Mount Sion signifies Judea, where 
it is predicted there shall be safety, and a Holy One, that is, 

1 Joel ii. 28, 29. » Obad. 17. » Obad. 21. * CoL i. 18. 




252 THE CITY OF COD. {BOOK XTIIl 

Christ JcsiiB. But Mount Esau is Iduinea, which signifies 
tlie Church of the Gentiles, which, as I have expounded, those 
saved again out of Sion have defended that it should be a 
kingdom to the Lord. This vas obscure before it took place ; 
but what believer does not find it out now that it is done ? 

As for the prophet Nahum, through him God says, *' I will 
exterminate the graven and the molten thiugs : I will make 
thy burial For lo, the feet of Him that bringeth good tidings 
and announceth peace are swift upon the mountains ' 
Jndah, celebrate thy festival days, and perform thy vows ; for 
now they shall not go on any more so as to become anti- 
quated. It is completed, it is consumed, it is taken away. 
He ascendeth who breathes in thy face, delivering thee out of 
tribidation." ' Let him that i-emembers the gospel call to 
mind who hath ascended from hell nud breathed the Holy 
Spirit in the face of Judah, that is, of the Jewish disciples; 
for they belong to the New Testament, whose festival days are 
so spiritually renewed that they cannot become antiquated 
Moreover, we already see the graven and molten things, that 
is, the idols of the false gods, exterminated through the 
gospel, and given up to oblivion as of the grave, and we 
know that this prophecy is fulfilled in this very thing. 

Of what else than tlie advent of Clu-ist, who was to come, 
is Habakkuk understood to say, " And the Lord answered me, 
and said, Write the vision openly on a tablet of boxwood, that 
he that readeth these things may understand. For the vision 
is yet for a time appointed, and it will arise in tlie end, and 
will not become void : il' it tarry, wait for it ; because it will 
surely come, and vrill not be delayed ?" * 

32. 0/ tlie propltecff thai is contained in the prayer and song oj fTahaJrkuk. 

In his prayer, with a soug, to whom but the Loitl Christ 
does he say, "0 Lord, I liave heard Thy hoaiing, and was 
afraid : Lord, I have considered Thy works, and was greatly 
afraid?"^ What is this but the inexpressible admiration of 
the foreknown, new, and sudden salvation of men ? " In the 
midst oi two living creatui'es thou shalt be recognised." What 
is this but cither between the two testaments, or between the 

1 NaJi. J. U-IL h > Uab. iL 2, 3. ' Hab. ui 2. 





BOOK XVIIl.] 



ItAB.VKKrK S PROPH?.CV. 



two tliieves, or between Moses anil Elias talking with Him on 
the mount ? " While the ye.nvA draw niirh. Thou wilt be re- 
cognised ; at the coming of the time Thou ivilt be shown," 
does not even need expasiLion. " Wliile my soul shall be 
troubled at Him, in ^Tath Thou wilt be mindful of mercy." 
What is this but that He puts Himself for the Jews, of whose 
nation He was, who were troubled with great anger and cruci- 
fied Christj when He, mindful of mercy, said, "Father, fovj^ive 
them, for they know not what tliey do ? " ^ " God sluiU come 
from Teman, and the Holy One from the shady and close moun- 
tain." ' What is said here, " He shall come from Teman," some 
interpret "from the south " or " from the south-west," by which 
is signified the noonday, that is, the fervour of charity and the 
splendour of truth. ''The shady and close mountain" might be 
understood in many ways, yet I prefer to take it as meaning 
the depth of the divine Scriptures, in which Christ is pi-ophesied: 
for in the Scriptures there are many things shady and close 
which exercise the mind of the reader ; and Christ comes 
thence when he who has understanding finds Him thera 
" His power covereth up the heavens, and the earth is full ot 
His praise." What is this but what is also said in the psalm, 
" Be Thou exalted, God, above the heavens ; and Thy gloiy 
above all the earth ?"^ " His splendour shall be as the light." 
What is it but that the fame of Him shall illuminate be- 
lievers? "Horns are in His hands." What is this but the 
trophy of the cross ? " And He hath placed the fimi charity 
of His strength"* needs no exposition. *' Be I ore His face 
shall go the word, and it shall go forth into the field after 
His feet.** What is this but that He should both be an- 
nounced before His coming liither and after His return 
hence ? ** He stooil, and the earth was moved." What is 
this but that " He stood " for succour, " and the earth was 
moved " to believe i " He regartled, and the nations melted ;" 
that is. He had compassion, and made the people penitent. 
" The mountains are broken with violence ; '* that is, through 
the power of those who work miracles the pride of the 
haughty is broken. "The everlasting bills flowed down;" 

> Lnlce xxiii. 34, • Hab. iii. 3. 



Ps. Ivii, &, 11. 



* Hab. uL 4. 



25-i 



Tire CITY OF GOD. 



[book XVIZL 



that is» they are humbled in time that they may be lifted 
up for eternity. " I saw His goings [made] eternal for His 
labours;" that is, I beheld His labour of love not left without 
the reward of eternity. " The tents of Ethiopia shall be greatly 
afraid, and the tents of the. land of Midian;" that is, even 
those nations which are not under the Eoman authority, being 
suddenly terrified by the news of Thy wonderful works, shall 
become a Christian people. " Wert Thou angry at the rivers, 
Lord ? or was Thy fury against the rivers ? or was Thy rage 
against the sea?" This is said because He does not now 
come to condenm the world, but that the world through Him 
might be saved.^ "Tor Thou shalt mount upon Thy hotses, 
and Thy riding shall be salvation ;" that is. Thine evangelists 
shall carry Thee, for they are guided by Thee, and Thy 
gospel is salvation to them that believe in Thee. " Bending, 
Thou wilt bend Thy bow against the sceptres, saith the Lord f 
that is, Thou wilt threaten even tlio kings of the earth with 
Thy judgment. "The earth shall be cleft with rivers;" that 
is, by the sermons of those who preach Thee flowing in upon 
them, men's hearts shall be opened to make confession, to 
whom it is said, " Rend your hearts and not yoiir gar- 
ments." * "What docs " The people shall see Thee and grieve " 
mean, but that in mourning they shall be blessed ? ' What 
is " Scattering the waters in marching," but that by walking in 
those who everywhere proclaim Thee, Tliou wilt scatter hither 
and thither the streams of 'Thy doctrine ? What is " The 
abyss uttered its voice ? " Is it not that the depth of the 
human heart expressed what it perceived ? The words, " The 
depth of its phantasy," are an explanation of the previous verse, 
for the depth is the abyss ; and " Uttered its voice ** is to be 
understood before them, that ia, as we have said, it expressed 
what it perceived. Now the phantasy is the vision, which it 
did not hold or conceal, but poured forth in confession. " The 
sun was raised up, and the moon stood still in her course ;" 
that is, Christ ascended into heaven, and the Church was 
established under her Xing. " Thy darts shall go in the 
light;" that is, Thy words shall not be sent in secret, but 
openly. For He had said to His own disciples, " What I tell 
1 Johu iii 17. * Joel ii. 13, » ilatt v. 4. 




XVUT.] 



HABAKKUKS PROPireCT. 



Wr 



u in darkness, that speak ye in the light." ^ " By threaten- 
ing thou shalt diminish the earth ;" that is, by that threatening 
Thou shalt hiimhle men. " And in fury Thou shalt cast down 
the nations ;" for in punishing those who exalt themselves Thou 
dashest them one against another. *' Thou wentest forth for 
the salvation of Thy people, that Thou mightest save Thy 
Christ ; Thou host sent death on the lieads of the wicked." 
None of these words require exposition. " Thou hast lifte<l 
lip the bonds, even to the neck." This may be understood 
even of the good bonds of wisdom, that the feet may be put 
into its fetters, and the neck into its collar. "Thou hast 
struck off in amazement of mind the bonds " must be under- 
stood for. He lifts up the good and strikes off the bad, about 
which it is said to Him, "Thou hast broken asunder my 
bi)nds," ^ and that " in amazement of mind/' that is, wonder- 
fully. "The heads of the mighty shall be moved in it;" to 
wit, in that wonder. " Thoy shall open their teeth like a poor 
man eating secretly." For some of the mighty among the 
Jews shall come to the Lord, admiring His works and woi^ds, 
and shall greedily eat the bread of His doctrine in secret for 
fear of the Jews, just as the Gospel has shown they did. 
" And Thou hast sent into the sea Thy horses, troubling many 
waters," which are nothing else than many people ; for iinless 
all were troubled, some would not be converted with fear, 
others pursued with fury. "I gave heed, and my belly 
trembled at the voice of the prayer of my lips ; and trem- 
bling entered into my bones, and my habit of body was 
troubled under mc." He gave heed to those things which he 
aaid, and was himself terrified nt his own prayer, which he 
had poured forth prophetically, and in which he discerned 
things to come. For when many people are troubled, he saw 
the threatening tribulation of the Chin*ch, ond at once acknow- 
ledged liimself a member of it, and said, " I shall rest in the 

y of tribulation," as being one of those who are rejoicing in 
liope, patient in tribitkition.'* " That I may ascend," he says, 
" among the people of my pilgriiiiage/' deparling quite from the 
xricked people of his carnal kinship, who are not pilgrims in 
this earth, and do not seek the country above.* "Although 

J iUtt. X. 27. " Ps. cx\-L 16. ■ Rom. xii. 12. * fleb. xi 18, 16. 



wt 





DOOK xvin.] 



ZEPHANIAH'S PREDICTIONS. 



257 



our sins,' thus briefly showing both that Christ is our Lord 
and that He stiifered for us. Also in another place he says. 
*■ This is my God, and there shall none other be accounted of 
in comparison of Him ; who hath found out ail the way of 
prudence, and hath given it to Jacob His servant, and to 
Israel His beloved : afterward He was seen on the earth, and 
conversed with men."' Some attribute this testimony not to 
Jeremiah, but to his secretary, who was called Baruch ; but it 
is more commonly ascribed to Jeremiah. Again the same 
prophet says concerning Hiin, " Behold the days come, saith 
the Lord, that I will raise up unto David a righteous shoot, 
and a King shall reign and shall be ^ise, and shall do jinlg- 
ment and justice in the earth. In those days Judah shall be 
saved, and Israel shall dwell contidently : and tliis is the 
name wliich they shall call Him, Our righteous Lord/'' And 
of tlie calling of the nations which was to come to pass, and 
which we now see fidfilled, he thus spoke : " Lord my God, 
and my refuge in the day of evils, to Thee shall the nations 
came from the utmost end of the earth, saying, Truly our 
fathers have worshipped lying images, wherein there is no 
profit."* But that the Jews, by whom He behoved even to be 
slain, were not going to acknowledge Him, this prophet thus 
intimates : " Heavy is the heart through all ; and He is a man, 
and who sliall know Him ? "^ That passage also is his which 
I have quoted in the seventeenth book concerning the new 
testament, of which Christ is the Mediator. For Jeremiah 
himself says, " Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I 
vriU complete over the house of Jacob a new testament," and 
the rest, which may he read tliere.^ 

For the present 1 shall put down those predictions about 
Christ by the prophet Zephaniah, who prophesied with Jere- 
m.iah. " Wait ye upon me, saith the Lord, in the day of my 
resurrection, in the future ; because it is my determination to 
assemble the nations, and gather together the kingdoms.''^ 
And again he says, "The Lord will be terrible upon them, 
and will exterminate all the gods of the earth ; and they shall 



> Lain. iv. 20. 
♦icr. xvi. 19. 
T Zeph. iii {L 

VOL. a 



* Bar. ui. 35-37. 
' Jer. xriL •. 



' Jer. xxiii. 5, 0. 

' Jer. xxjd. 81 ; see 6k. zvii. 3. 



1 




ZEPHAXIAHS PREDICTIONS. 



thus briefly showing both that Christ is our JLord 

le suffered for us. Also in another place be says, 

ly God, and thero shall none other be accounted of 

)n of Him ; who hath found out all the way of 

and liath given it to Jacob His servant, and to 

beloved : afterward He was seen on the earth, and 

with mcn."^ Some attribute this testimony not to 

but to Lis secretaiy, who was called Bantch ; but it 

tmmonly ascribed to Jeremiah. Again the same 

lys concerning Him, " Behold the days come, saith 

that I will raise up unto David a righteous shoot, 

ig shall reign and shall be wise, and shall do judg- 

justice in the earth. In tliose days Judali shall be 

Israel shall dwell confidently : and this ia the 

dch they shall call Him, Our righteovis Loitl/'^ And 

ig of the nations which was to come to pass, and 

now see fulfilled, he tlms spoke : " Lord my God, 

lefoge in the day of evils, to Thee shall the nations 

the utmost end of the earth, saying, Truly our 

ive worshipped lying images, wherein there is no 

But that the Jews, by whom He behoved even to be 

not going to acknowledge Hun, this prophet thus 

: " Heavy is the heart through all ; and He is a man, 

shall know Him ? "^ That passage also is his wliich. 

quoted in the seventeenth book concerning the new 

it, of which Christ is the Mediator. For Jeremiah 

says, " Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I 

iplete over the house of Jacob a new testament," and 

which may be read there.*^ 

le present I shall put down those predictions about 
the prophet Zephaniah, who prophesied with Jere- 
••Wait ye upon me, saith the Lord, iu the day of my 
don, iu the future ; because it is my determination to 
the nations, and gather together the kingdoms."^ 
ho says, " The Lord will be terrible upon them, 
1 exterminate all the gods of the earth; and they shall 



SO. 



» Bar. iii. 35-37. 
* Jer. xvii. 0. 



' Jer. xxlii. 5, fl. 

' Jer. xxxi. 31 : see Bk. xviL 3. 



25G 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XYli:. 



the fig-tree," he says, "shall not blossom, neither shall frait 
be in the vines; the labour of the olive shall lie, and the fields 
shall j^cld no meat; the sheep shall be cut off from the 
meat, and there shall be no oxen in the stalls." He sees tliat 
nation which was to alay Christ about to lose the abundance 
of spiritual supplies, which, in prophetic fashion, he has set 
forth by the figure of earthly plenty. And because that 
nation was to suffer such wi-ath of God, because, being igno- 
rant of the righteousness of God, it wished to establish its 
own/ he immediately says, "Yet will I rejoice in the Lord; I 
will joy in God my salvatioa The Lord God is my strength, 
and He will set my feet in completion ; He will place me 
above the heights, that I may conquer in His song," to wit, 
in that song of which something similar is said in the psalm, 
" He set my feet upon a rock, and directed my goings, and put 
in my mouth a new song, a h}Tnn to our God." ' He there- 
fore conquci's in the song of tlie Lord, who takes plea.sure in 
His praise, not in his own ; that " He that glorieth, let him 
glory in the Lord."' Eut some copies have, " I will joy in God 
my Jesus," which seems to me better than the version of those 
who, wishing to put it in Latin, have not set down that very 
name which for us it is dearer and sweeter to name, 

33. WIuU Jeremiah and Zephauiah havf^ hj the prophetic Spirit, tpoken 
concerning Christ and the caltingt ^ the naiioM, 

Jeremiah, like Isaiah, is one of the greater prophets, not of 
the minor, like the others from whose writings I have just 
given extracts. He prophesied when Josiah reigned in Jeru- 
salem, and Ancus Maitius at Eome, when the captivity of the 
Jews was already at hand ; and he coiitiuued to prophesy 
down to the fifth month of the captivity, as we find from his 
writings. Zephaniah, one of the minor prophets, w put along 
with liim, because he himself says that he prophesied in the 
days of Josiah; but he does not say till wJicn. Jeremiah thus 
prophesied not only in the times of Ancus Martius, but also 
in those of Tarquinius Priscus, whom the llomans had for 
their fifth king. For he had already begun to reign when 
that captivity took place, Jeremiah, in prophesying of Christ, 
says, " The breath of our mouth, the Lord Christ, was taken in 
* Horn. X. 3. * Pa il. 2, 3. » Jer. ix. 23, 24, as in 1 Cor. i. 31. 



LDOSe 

very 





nooK xriiL] 



ZEPHAKIAIIS PREDICTIONS. 



257 



OUT sins," thus brietly showing both that Christ is our Lord 
and that He suffered for us. Abo in another place he says» 
"This is my God, and tliere shall none other bo accounted of 
in comparison of Him ; who liatb found out all the way of 
prudence, and liath ^^aven it to Jacob His ser\'ant, and to 
Israel His beloved : afterward He was seen on the earth, and 
conversed with men."* Some attribute this testimony not to 
Jeremiah, but to Ids sccretaiy, who was called Baruch ; but it 
is more commonly ascribed to Jeremiah. Again the same 
prophet says concerning Him, " Behold the days come, saith 
the Lord, that I will raise up unto David a righteous shoot. 
land a King sliall reign and shall be wise, and shall do juJg- 
lent and justice in the earth. In those days Judah shall be 
saved, and Israel shall dwell confidently : and this is the 
[name which they shall call Him, Our righteous Lord.*'^ And 
[of the calling of the nations which was to come to pass, and 
which we now see fulfilled, he thus spoke : " Lord my God, 
and my refuge in the day of evils, to Thee slinll the nations 
come from the utmost end of the earth, saying, Truly our 
fathers have worshipped l>nng images, wherein there is no 
profit."* But that the Jews, by is'hom He behoved even to be 
slain, were not going to acknowledge Him, this prophet thus 
intimates : *' Heavy is the heart through all j and He is a man, 
and who shall know Him ? "^ That passage also is hia which 
I have quoted in the seventeenth book concerning the new 
testament, of which Christ is the Mediator. For Jeremiali 
himself says, " Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, tliut I 
will complete over the house of Jacob a new testament," and 
the rest, which may be read tliere.** 

For the present I shall put dowji those predictions about 
Christ by the prophet Zephaniah, who prophesied with Jere- 
miah. " Wait ye upon me, saith the Lord, in the day of my 
resurrection, in the future; because it is my determination to 
assemble the nations, and gather together the kingdoms."^ 
And again he says, " The Lord will be terrible upon them, 
and will exterminate all the gods of the earth ; and they shall 



» Lam. iv. 20. 
* Jer. xvi. 19. 
" Zejih. iiL 8, 

VOL. II, 



" Bar. iii. 35-37. 
' Jer. xriL 9. 



^ Jer. xxiii. 5, 6, 

* Jer. uLxi. 31 ; see 6k. xvii. 3. 



23S 



THE Cmr OF GOD. 



[book xvm. 



worship Hiin every luan from liis place, even all the isles of 
the nations."^ And a little after he says, "Then will I turn 
to the people a tongue, and to His offspring, that they may 
call upon the name of the Lord, and serve Him under one 
yoke. From the herders of the rivers of Ethiopia shall Uiey 
bring sacrifices unto me. In that day thou shalt not be con- 
founded for all thy curious inventions, which thou hast done 
impiously against nie : for then I will t^ike away from thee 
the naughtiness of thy trespass ; ' and thou shalt no more 
modify thyself above thy holy mountain. And I will leave 
in thee a meek and humble people, and they who shall be left 
of Israel shall fear the name of the Lord.''^ These are the 
renmant of whom the apostle quotes that which is elsewhere 
prophesied : " Though the number ot the children of Israel be 
as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved,"' These 
are the remnant of that nation who have believed in Christ 



84. 0/the prophecy of Darnel and EieHdj oUier tmo qf tht greater propltdi, 

Daniel and Ezekiel, other two of the greater prophets, also 
first prophesied in the very captivity of Babylon. Daniel even 
defined the time when Christ was to come and suffer by the 
exact date. It would take too long Lo show tliia by computa- 
tion, and it has been done often by others before us. But of 
His power and glory he has thus s])oken : " I saw in a night 
vision, and, behold, one like the Son of man was coining with 
the clouds of heaven, and He came even to the Ancient of 
days, and He was brought into His presence. And to Him 
there was given dominion, and honour, and a kingdom : and 
toll people, tribes, and tongues shall serve Him. Hia power is 
an everlasting power, which shall not pass away, and His 
kingdom shall not be destroyed."* 

Ezekiel also, speaking prophetically in the person of Crod 
the Father, thus foretells Christ, speaking of Him in the pro- 
phetic manner as DaAdd because He assumed fiesh of the 
seed of David, and on account of that form of a servant in 
which He was made man, He who is the Son of God is also 
called the servant of God, He saySj " And I will set up over 



» Zeph. ii. 11. 

s l»a. X. 22 : Horn, ix 27. 



* Zoph. iii. 9-12. 

* Daii. vii 13. 14. 





BOOK XVUl] 



PROPHECIES OF HAGGAI, 



or. 



59 



luy slieep one Shepherd, who will feed them, even my servant 
David ; and He shall feed them, and He shall be their shep- 
herd. And I the Lord will be their God, and lay servant 
David a prince in the midst of them. I the Lord have 
spoken."* And in another place he says, "And one King 
shall be over them all : and they shall no more be two 
nations, neither shall they be divided any more into two 
kingdoms : neither shall they defile themselves any more with 
their idols, and their abominations, and all their iniquities. 
And I will save them out of all their dwelling-places wherein 
they have sinned, and will cleanse them ; and they shall be 
my people, and I will fae their God, And my servant IJand 
shall be king over them, and there shall be one Shepherd for 
them all."^ 
35. Of thi prophecy qf the three prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malaelii, 

There remain tliree minor prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, 
and Malachi, who prophesied at the close of the captivity. 
Of these Haggai more openly prophesies of Christ and the 
Church thus briefly : " Thus saith the Lord of hosts, Yet one 
little while, and I will shake the heaven, and the earth, and 
the sea, and the diy land ; and I will move all nation's, and 
the desired of all nations sliall come.'*' The fulfilment of 
this pi-ophecy is in part already seen, and in part hoped for 
in the end. For He moved the heaven by the testimony of 
the angels and the stars, when Christ became incarnate. He 
moved tlie eaith by the great miracle of His birth of the 
virgin. He moved the sea and the dry land, when Christ 
was proclaimed both in the iales and in the whole world. So 
we see all nations moved to the faith ; and the fullilment of 
wliat follows, '■ And the desired of M nations shall come," is 
looked for at His last coming. For ere men can desire and 
wait for Him, they must believe and love Him. 

Zechariah says of Christ and the Church, *' Eejoice greatly, 

daughter of Sion ; shout joyfully, O daughter of Jerusalem ; 
behold, thy King shall come unto thee, just and the Saviour ; 
HimseK poor, and mounting an ass, and a colt the foal of an 
ass : and His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the 
river even to the ends of the earth."* How tliis was done, 

1 Ezek. xxxir. 23. ' £iek. xxxvii. 22-24. > IXaif. ii. 6. * Zedi. ix. 9, 10. 





260 THE CITY OP COD. [BOOK XTni. 



when the Lord Christ on His journey used a beast of biuden 
of this kind, we read in the Gospel, where, also, as much of 
this prophecy is quoted as appears sufficient for the context 
In another place, speaking in the Spirit of prophecy to Christ 
Himself of the remission of sins tlirough His Mood, he tmya, 
" Thou also, by the blood of Thy testament, hast sent forth 
Thy prisoners from the lake wherein is no water."^ Dif- 
ferent opinions may he held, consistently with right belief, as 
to what he meant by this lake. Yet it seems to me that no 
meaning suits better than that of the depth of human miseiy, 
which is, as it were, dry and barren, where there are nv» 
streams of righteousness, but only the miio of iiiifjuity. For 
it is said of it in the Psalms, " And He led me forth out of 
the lako of misery, and from the miry clay."' 

Malaciii, foretelling: the Church which we now behold pro- 
jja^^^ted through Cluist, says most openly to the Jews, in the 
person of God, "I have no pleasure in you, and I will not 
accept a gift at your hand. For from the rising even to the 
going down of the sun, my name is great among the nations \ 
and in ever)' place sacrifice shall be made, and a pure oblation 
shall be offered unto my name : for my name shall be great 
among the nation;?, saith the Lord."^ Since we can already 
see this sacrifice offered to God in every place, from the rising 
of the sun to his going down, throu^'h Clirist's priesthood after 
the order of Melchisedec, while the Jews, to whom it was 
said, " I have no pleasure in you, neither will I accept a gift 
at your hand," cannot deny that their sacrifice has ceased, why 
do they still look for another Christ, when they read this in 
the prophecy, and see it fulfilled, which could not bo fulfilled 
except through Him ? Aud a little after he says of Him, in 
the person of God, " My covenant was with Him of life and 
peace ; and I gave to Him that He miglit fear me with fear, 
iiiul be afraid before my name. The law of truth was in Hb 
mouth : directing in peace ile hath walked with me, and hath 
turned mauy away from iniquity. For the Priest's lips shall 
keep knowledge, and they shall seek the law at His mouth : 
for He is the Angel of the Ijord Almighty."* Nor is it to be 
wondered at that Christ Jesus is called tho Angel of the 
» ZccIl ix- U, ■ Pi 3d. 2. « ilal. L 10, 11. * Mai. u. 5-7. 




BOOK XTTir.] 



PROPHECIES OF MALACm. 



:61 



Almighty God. For just as He is called a sen-ant on account 
of the form of a servant in which He came to men, so He is 
called an angel on account of the evangel which He proclaimed 
to men. For if we interpret these Greek words, evajif^d is 
" good news " and nngd is "messenger." Again he says of Him, 
" Eehold I will send mine angel, and He will look out the 
way before my face: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall sud- 
denly come into His temple, even the Angel of the testament, 
whom ye desire. Behold, He cometh, saith the Loixl Aiiiiighty, 
and who shall ahide the day of HLs entry, or who shall stand 



at His appearing 



^" I 



In this place he has foretold both the 



i»^' 



W 



first and second advent of Christ: the first, to wit, of which he 
says, " And He shall come suddenly into His temple ; " that 
is, into His flesli, of whicli He said in t!ie Gospel, " Destroy 
this temple, and iu three days I will raise it up again"*'* And 
of the second advent he says, " Behold, He cometh, saith the 
Lord Almighty, and who shall abide the day of His entry, or 
who shall stand at His appearing ?" But what he says, " Tlie 
Lord whom ye seek, and the Angel of the testament whom ye 
desire," just means that even the Jews, according to the Scrip- 
tures which they reatl, shall seek and desire Christ. But 
many of them did not acknowledge that He whom they 
sought and desired had come, being blinded in their hearts, 
which were preoccupied with their oM'n merits. Now what 
he here calls tlic testament^ either above, where he says, " My 
testament had been with Him," or here, where he has called 
Him the Angel of the testament, we ought, beyond a doubt, to 
take to be the new testament, in which the things promised 
are eternal, and not the old, in which they are only temporal. 
Yet many who are weak are troubled when they sec the 
icked abound in such temporal things, because they value 
them greatly, and serve the true God to be rewarded with 
theuL On Ibis account, to distinguish the eternal blessedness 
of the new testament, which shall be given only to the 
good, from the earthly felicity of the old, which for the 
est part is given to the bad as well, the same prophet says, 
Ye have made your words burdensome to me : yet ye have 
said, In what have we spoken ill of Thee ? Ye have said, 

1 Mul. i;i. 1, % ' John u. 1». 





262 THE cmr of god. [book xvm 

Foolish is every one who serves God ; and wLat profit is it 
that we have kept His observances, and that we have walked 
as suppliants before the face of the Lord Almighty ? And 
now we call the aliens blessed ; yea, all that do wicked things 
are built up again ; yea, they are opposed to God and are 
saved. They that feared the Li*rd uttered these reproaciies 
every one to his neighbour : and the Lord hearkened and 
heard ; and He vrrote. a bonk of remembmnce before Him, for 
them that fear the Lord and that rcvere His name."' By that 
book is meant the New Testament. Finally, let us hear wliat 
follows: "And they shall be an acquisition for me, saith the 
Lord Almighty, in the day which I make j and I will choose 
them as a man chooseth his son that serveth him. And ye 
shall return, and shall discern between the just and the un- 
just; and between him that serveth God and Mm that serveth 
Him not. For, behold, the day cometh burning as an oven, 
and it shall burn them up ; and all the aliens and all that do 
wickedly shall be stubble : and the day that shall come will 
set them on fire, snith the Lord Almighty, and shall leave 
neither root nor branch. And unto you tliat fuar my name 
shall the Sun of Righteousness arise, and health shall be in 
His wings ; and ye shall go forth, and exult as calves let loose 
from bonds. And ye shall tread down the wicked, and they 
shall bo ashes under your feet, in the day in which I shall do 
[this], saith the Lord Almighty."' This day is the day of judg- 
ment, of which, if God wUl, we shall speak more fully in its 
own place. 

36. About Eidrcu and the hook$ qf the MarcabfTB. 

After these three prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, 
during the same period of the liberation of the people from 
the Babylonian servitude Esdras also wrote, who is historical 
rather than prophetical, as is also the book called Esther, which 
is found to relate, for the praise of God, events not far from 
those times ; unless, perhaps, Esdras is to be understood ts 
prophesying of ChrLst in that passage where, on a question 
having arisen among certain young men as to what is the 
strongest thing, when one had said kings, another wine, the 
third women, who for the most part rule kings, yet that 

> MftL iii. 13-16. = Mai. ui. IT-W. 3. 





BOOK xvni] 



AWnQUlTY OF PROrHECT. 



same third youth demonstrated that the truth is victorious 
over ?dL^ For by consulting the Gospel we learn that Christ 
is the Truth. From this time, when the temple was rebuilt, 
down to the time of Aristobulus, the Jews had not kings but 
princes ; and the reckoning of their dates is found, not in the 
Holy Scriptures which are called canonical, but in others, 
among which are also the books of the Maccabeea These 
are held as canonical, not by the Jews, but by the Church, on 
account of the extreme and woudciTuI sufferings of certain 
martyrs, who. before Christ had come in the flesh, contended 
for the law of God even unto deaths and endured most grievous 
and horrible evils. 

37. That prophetic rtcords are/mmd which are mart ancient than any fountain 
o/tht GnUile philosophy. 

lu the time of our prophets, then, whose writings had 
already come to the knowledge of almost all nations, the 
philosophers of the nations liad not yet arisen, — at least, not 
those who were called by that name, which originated with 
Pythagoras the Samian, who was becoming famous at the 
lime when the Jeivish captivity ended. Much more, then, 
are the other pliilosophers found to be later than the prophets. 
For even Socrates the Athenian, the master of all who were 
then most famous, holding the pre-eminence in that depart- 
ment that is called the moral or active, is found after Esdras 
in the chronicles. Plato also was bom not much later, who 
far outwent the other disciples of Socrates. If, besides these, 
we take their predecessors, who had not yet been styled 
philosophers, to wit, the seven sages, and then the physicists, 
who succeeded Thales, and imitated his studious search into 
the nature of things, namely, Anaximander, Ana.ximenes, and 
Anaxagoras, and some others, before Pythagoras first pro- 
fessed himself a philosopher, even these did not precede the 
whole of our prophets in antiquity of time, since Thales, 
whom the others succeeded, is said to have flourished in the 
reign of Eomulus, when the stream of prophecy burst forth 
from the fountains of Israel in those writings Avhich spread 
over the whole world. So that only those theological poets, 

>heus, Linus, and Musa?ua, and, it may be, some others 
^ Esdras iii. and iv. 




264 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[r.00K xxm. 



among the Greeks, are found earlier in date than the Hebrew 
prophets whose "writiiigs we hold as authoritative. But not 
even these preceded in time our true divine, Moses, who 
authentically preached the one true God, and whose writings 
arc tirst in the authoritative canon; and therefore the Greek?, 
in whose tongue the literature of this age chiefly appears, have 
no ground for boasting of their wisdom, in which our religion, 
wherein is true wisdom, is not evidently more ancient at 
least, if not superior. Yet it must be confessed that before 
Moses there had already been, not indeed among the Greeks, 
but among barbarous nations, as in E;2:ypt, some doctrine 
wliich might be called their wisdom, else it would not have 
been -ftTitten in the holy books that Moses was learned in all 
the wisdom of the Egyptians/ as he was, wlien, being bom 
there, and adopted and nursed by Pharaoh's daughter, he was 
also liberally educated. Yet not even the wisdom of the 
Egyptians could be antecedent in time to the wisdom of our 
pTOpliets, because even Abmliam was a prophet And what 
wisdom coidd there be in Eg^'pt before Isis had given them 
letters, whoai they thought fit to worship as a godde.ss after 
her death ? ifl'ow Isis is declared to have been the daughter 
of Inachus, who first began to reign in Argos when the grand- 
sons of Abraham are known to have been abeady boi-n, 

38. That (he t^^denUutkal canon ha» not admlttfd ctrtain wridngs on accomt 
oj tfifir too ffreat aniiqultj/^ U^ft tftrouQh them faUe Uiiiiffa nhould be in- 
tertnti instead oJ true. 

If I may recall far more ancient times, our patriarch Noah 
was certainly even before that gi-eat deluge, and I might not 
undeservedly call him a prophet, forasmuch as the ark he made, 
in which he escaped with his family, was itself a prophecy of 
our times,^ Wliat of Enoch, the seventh from Adam ? Does 
not tlie canonical epistle of the Apostle Jude declare that he 
prophesied ? ^ But the writings of these men could not be 
held as authoritative either among the Jews or us, on account 
of their too great antiquity, which made it seem needful to 
regard them with suspicion, lest fidsc tliiugs should be set 
forth instead of true. For some writings wliich are said to 
be theirs are quoted by those who, according to their own 

» AcU TiL 22. ■ Heb. xi. 7 ; 3 IVt. iii. ZO, 21. * Jude U. 




BOOK XVfn] OF THE BOOK OF ENOCH, 265 

humour, loosely believe what they please. But the purity of 
the canon has not admitted these writings, not Lectiuse the 
authority of these men who pleased God is rejected, but be- 
cause they are not beUeved to be theirs. Nor ought it to 
appear strange if writings for which so great antiquity is 
claimed are held in suspicion, seeing that in the very history 
of the kings of Judah and Israel containing their acts, which 
we believe to belong to the canonical Scripture, very many 
things are mentioned which are not explained there, but are 
said to be found in other books which the prophets wrote, the 
very names of these prophets being sometimes given, and yet 
they are not found iu the canon wliich the people of God re- 
ceived. Now I confess the reason of this is hidden from me ; 
only I think that even those men, to whom certainly tlie Holy 
Spirit revealed those things which ought to be held as of re- 
ligious authority, might ^\Tite some things as men by historical 
diligence, and others as prophets by divine inspiration ; and 
these things were so distinct, that it was judged that the 
former should be ascribed to themselves, but the latter to 
God speaking through them ; and so the one pertained to the 
abundance of knowledge, the other to the authoiity of religion. 
In that authority the canon is guarded. So that> if any MTit- 
ings outside of it arc now brought forwanl under the name of 
the ancient prophets, they cannot serve even as an aid to 
knowledge, because it is uncertain whether they are genuine ; 
and on this account they are not trusted, especially those of 
them in which some tilings are found that are even contrary 
to the truth of the canonical books, so that it is quite ap- 
parent they do not belong to them. 

39. About the Hthreto written charactrra vhich that languagr. alvcayt poeteued. 

Now we must not believe that Heber, from whose name 
the M'ord Hebrew is derived, presen'ed and transmitted the 
Hebrew language to Abraham only as a s]>oken language, and 
that the Hebrew letters began with the giving of the law 
through Moses ; but rather that this language, along with its 
letters, was preserved by that succession of fathera Moses, 
indeed, appointed some among the people of God to teach 
letters, before they could know any letters of the divine law. 




The Scripture calls these men ypafifiareta-ayayyd^, who may 

be called in Latin ijidndorcs or introdudora of letters, be- 
cause they, as it "were, introduce them into the hearts of the 
learners, or rather lead those whom they teach into them. 
Tlierefore no nation coulii vaunt itself over our patriarchs and 
prophets by any wicked vanity for the antiquity of its vrisdom ; 
since not even Egypt, which is wont falsely and vainly to 
glory in the antiquity of hei doctrines, is found to have pre- 
ceded in time the wisdom of our patriarchs in her own wis- 
dom, such as it is. Neither will any one dare to say that they 
were most skilful in Avonderful sciences before they knew letters, 
that is, before Isis came and taught them there. Besides, what, 
for the most part, was that memorable doctrine of theirs which 
was caUed wisdom but astronomy, and it may be some other 
sciences of that kind, which usually have moi-e power to exer- 
cise men's wit than to enlighten their minds with true wisdom ? 
As regards philosophy, whicli professes to teach men something 
which shall make them happy, studies of that kind flourished 
in those lands about the times of Mercury whom they called 
Trismegistus, long before the sages and philosophers of Greece, 
but yet after Abi'aham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph, and even 
after Moses himself. At that time, indeed, when Moses was 
bom. Atlas is found to have lived, that great astronomer, the 
brother of Prometheus, and maternal grandson of the elder 
Mercury, of whom that Mercuiy Trismegistus was the grand- 
son. 

40. Ahout the mo»t mmdadou* vanity of the EfpjjUiana, m tcheh they ascribe to 
their science an antiquity of a hundred thovaand yean. 

In vain, then, do some babble witli most empty presump- 
tion, saying that Eg)'pt has uuderstood the reckoning of the 
stars for more than a hundred thousand years. For in what 
books have they collected that number who learned letters 
from Isis their mistress, not much more than two thousand 
years ago ? Varro, who has declared this, is no small autlio- 
rity in history, and it does not disagree with the truth of the 
divine books. For as it is not yet six thousand years since 
the first man, who is called Adam, are not those to be ridiculed 
rather than refuted who try to persuade us of anything re- 
garding a space of time so different from, and contrary to, the 



BOOK XVni.] 0? TirK CANOKTCAL S0EIPTURE3. 



267 



■£ 



ascertained trulJi ? Tor what hi3tOTian of the past should 
we credit more than him who has also predicted things to 
come which we now see fulfilled ? And the very disagree- 
ment of the historians among themselves furnishes a good 
reason why we ought rather to believe him who does not 
contradict the divine history which we hold. But, on the 
otlier hand, the citizens of the impious city, scattered ever>'- 
where through the earth, when they read the most learned 
writers, none of whom seems to he of contemptible authority, 
and find them disagreeing among themselves about affairs 
most remote from the memory of our age, cannot find out 
whom they ought to trust But we, being sustained by divine 
authority in the liistory of our religion, have no doubt that 
whatever is opposed to it is most false, whatever may be the 
case regarding other things in secular books, which, whether 
true or false, yield nothing of moment to our living rightly 
and happily. 

41. About Uie discord of philomphic opinion, arul the concord of (he Saipturts 
that are ktld at caw>n\cal by the Church. 

But let US omit further examination of history, and return 
to the pliilosophera from whom we digrt^ssp.d to these things. 
They seem to have laboured in their studies for no other 
end than to find out how to live in a way proper for laying 
hold of blessedness. Why, then, have the disciples dis- 
sented from their masters, and the fellow-disciples from one 
another, except because as men they have sought after these 
things by human sense and human reasonings ? Now, 
although there might be among them a desire of glory, so 
that each wished to be thought wiser and more acute than 
another, and in no way addicted to the judgment ol others, 
but the inventor of his own dogma and opinion, yet I may 
grant that there were some, or even very many of them, 
whose love of tnith severed them from their teachers or fel- 
low-disciples, that they might strive for what they thought 
was the tnith, whether it was so or not. But what can 
Jiuman misery do, or how or where can it reach forth, so as 
attain blessedness, if divine authority does not lead it ? 
Finally, let our authors, among whom the canon of the sacred 
books is fixed and bounded, be fax from disagreeing in any 



1 





268 



THE aTY OF GOD. 



[book xvin. 



respect It is not without good reason, then, that not merely 
a few people prating in the schools and gjTiinasia in captious 
disputations, but so many and great people, both learned and 
iiulcained, in countries and cities, have believed that God 
spoke to them or by them, i.e. the canonical writers, when 
they wrote these books. There ought, indeed, to be but few of 
them, lest on account of their multitude what ought to be 
religiously esteemed should grow cheap ; and yet not so few 
that their agreement should not be wonderful. For among 
tlie multitude of philosophers, who in their works have left 
behind them tho monuments of their dogmas, no one will 
easily find any who agi*ee in all their opinions. But to show 
this is too long a task for tins work. 

But what author of any sect is so approved' in this demon* 
worshipping city, that the rest who have differed from or op- 
posed him in opinion have been disapproved ? The Epicureans 
asserted that human affairs were not under the providence of 
the gods ; and the Stoics, holding the opposite opinion, agreed 
that they were riiled and defended by favourable and tutelaiy 
gods. Yet were not both sects famous among the Athenians ? 
I wonder, then, why Anaxagoras was accused of a crime for 
saying that the sun was a burning stone, and denying that it 
wa3 a god at all ; while in the same city Epicurus flourished 
gloriously and lived securely, although he not only did not 
believe tliat the sun or any star was a god, but contended 
that neither Jupiter nor any of the gods dwelt in the world 
at all, so that the pi-aycrs and supplications of men might 
reach them 1 Were not both Aristippus and Antisthenes there, 
two noble pliilosopiiers and both Socratic ? yet they jilaced the 
chief end of life within botmds so diverse and contradictory, 
that the first made the delight of the body the chief good, 
while the other asserted that man was made happy mainly 
by the virtue of the mind. The one also said that the wife 
man should flee from the republic ; the other, that he should 
administer its affans. Yet did not each gather disciples to 
follow his own sect ? Indeed, in the conspicuous and well- 
known porch, in gymnasia, in gai-dens, in places public and 
private, they openly strove in bands each for his own opinion, 
some asserting there was one world, others innumerable worlds; 




BOOK XA'III.] OF THE CANONICAL SCniPTDnES. 



269 



8ome that this world had a beginning, others that it had 
not ; some that it would perish, others that it would exist 
always ; some that it was governed by the divine mind, 
others by chance and accident; some that souls are immortal, 
others that they are mortal, — and of those who asserted their 
immortality, some said they transmigrated tlirough beasts. 
others that it was by no means so, while of those wlio asserted 
their mortality, some said they perished immediately after the 
body, others that they survived either a little while or a longer 
time, but not always ; some fixing supreme good in the body, 
some in the mind, some in both ; others adding to the min<l 
and body external good things ; some thinking that the bodily 
senses ought to be trusted always, some not always, others 
never. Now what people, senate, power, or public dignity of 
the impious city has ever taken care to judge between all 
these and other well-nigh innumerable dissensions of tlie 
philosophers, approving and accepting some, and disapproving 
and rejecting others ? Has it not held in its bosom at random, 
I without any judgment, and confusedl)^ so many controversiua 
of men at variance, not about fields, houses, or anything of 
a pecuniaiy nature, but about those things which make life 
I either miserable or happy ? Even if some true things were 
' aaid in it, yet falsehoods were uttered with the same liceuce ; 
BO that such a city has not amiss received the title of the 
mystic Biibyloa Por Babylon means confusion, as we re- 
member we have already explained. Nor does it matter to 
the devil, ita king, how they wrangle among themselves in 
contradictory errors, since all alike descn'edly belong to him 
on account of their gi'eat and varied impiety. 

But that nation, that people, that city, that repiiblic, these 
Israelites, to whom the oracles of God were entrusted, by no 
means confounded with similar licence false prophets with the 
true prophets ; but, agreeing together, and differing in nothing, 
acknowledged and uplield the autlientiu authors of their sacred 
books. These were their philosophers, these M*ere their sages, 
divines, prophets, and teachers of probity and piety. Who- 
ever was wise and lived acconling to them was wise and lived 
Cliug to meu, but according to God who hath spoken 
If sacrilege is forbidden there, God hath forbidden 




270 THE CITY OF COD. [BOOK XVIIL 

it. If it is said, " Honour thy father and thy mother," ' God 
hath commanded it If it is said, "Thou shalt not commit 
adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal," ^ and otlier 
similar commandmcnta, not hiunan lips but the divine oracles 
have enounced them. Whatever truth certain philosophen^ 
amid their falae opinions, were able to see, and strove by 
laborious discussions to persuade men of, — such as that God 
has made this world, and Himself most providently governs 
it, or of the nobility of the virtues, of the love of country, of 
fidelity in friendship, of good works and evcr^i-hing pertain- 
ing to virtuous manners, although they knew not to what end 
and what rule all these things were to be referred, — all these, by 
words prophetic, that is, divine, although spoken by men, were 
commended to the people in that city, and not inc^ilcated by 
contention in arguments, so tliat he who should know them 
might be afraid of conteniuing, not the wit of men, but the 
oracle of God. 

42. By icfiat dispeiucUion of Ood'g providence the aaercd Scriptures of tkt Old 
Testament foere transiated out qf Bdtrew into Greek, (hat they vnghi k 
made known to ail the nations. 

One of the Ptolemies, kings of Egypt, desired to know and 
have these sacred books. For after Alexander of Macedon, 
who is also styled the Great, had by liis most wonderful, but 
by no means enduring power, subdued the wholo of Asia, yea, 
almost the whole world, partly by force of nnns, partly by 
terror, and, among other kingdoms of the East, had entered ond 
obtained Judca also, on his duatlt his generals did not peace- 
ably divide that most ample kingdom among them for a pos- 
session, but ruther dissipated it, wasting all things by wars. 
Then Egypt began to have the Ptolemies as her kings. The 
first of them, the son of Lagus, carried many captive out of 
Judea into Egypt. But another Ptolemy, ciilled Philadelphus, 
who succeeded liim, permitted all whom he liad brought under 
the yoke to return free ; and, more than that, sent kingly gifts 
to the templo of God, and begged Eleazar, who was the high 
priest, to give him tie Scriptui-es, which he had heard by 
report were truly divine, and therefore greatly desired to have 
in that most noble library he had made. When the high 
> £x. XX. 12. * £x. XX. 13-] 5, the order u in Mark z. 19. 




BOOK XVm.] ATTTHORITY OP TKE SEPTUAGIKT. 



271 



priest had seat them to him in Hebrew, he afterwards de- 
manded interpreters of Mm, and there were given him seventy- 
two, out of each of the twelve tribes six men, most learned in 
both languages, to wifc, the Hebrew and Greek; and their 
translation is now by custom called the Septuagint. It is 
reported, indeed, that there was an agreement in their words 
so wonderful, stupendous, and plainly divine, that when tliey 
had sat at this work, each one apart (for so it pleased Ptolemy 
to test their fidelity), they diflered from each other in no word 
which had the same meaning and force, or in the order of the 
words ; but, as if the translators had been one, so what all Lad 
translated was one, because in very deed the one spirit had 
been in them aD. And they received so wonderful a gift of 
God, in order that the authority of these Scriptures might be 
commended not as human but divine, as indeed it was, for the 
beneUt of the nations who should at some time believe, as we 
now see them doing. 

i3. Of the authority of the ScptitagirU iraiulation, which, waving the honour 
<^tM Hebrew ori^jina^, ia to be pr^errtd to aii traiulatioru. 

For while there were other interpreters who translated these 
sacred oracles out of the Hebrew tongue into Greek, as Aquila, 
SjTnmachus, and Theodotion, and also that translation which, 
as the name of the author is unknown, is quoted as the fifth 
edition, yet the Chui'ch has received this Septuagint txansla- 
tdon just as if it were the only one ; and it has been used by 
the Greek Christian people, most of whom are not aware that 
there is any other. From this translation there has also been 
made a translation in the Latin tongue, which the Latin 
churches use. Our times, however, have enjoyed the advan- 
tage of the presbyter Jerome, a man most learned, and skilltd 
in all three languages, who translated these same Scriptures 
into the Latin speech, not from the Greek, but from the 
Hebrew. But although the Jews acknowledge tliis very 
learned labour of his to be faitliful, while they contend that 
the Septuagint translators have erred in many places, still the 
churches of Christ judge that no one should be preferred to 
the authority of so many men, chosen for this very great work 
by Eleazar, who was then high priest ; for even if there had 
not appeared in them one spirit, without doubt divine, and 




272 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XVm 

the seventy learned nitjn had, after the manner of men, com- 
pared together the words of their tmnslation, that what pleased 
them all niight stand, no single translator ought to be pre- 
ferred to them ; but since so great a sign of divinity has 
appeared in them, certainly, if any other translator of their 
Scnplures from the Hebrew into any other tongue is faithful, 
in that case he agrees witli these seventy translators, and if 
ho ii5 not found to a^^ce with thera, then we ought to believe 
that the prophetic gift is with them. For tlie same Spirit 
■who was in the prophets when they spoke these things was 
also in the seventy men when they translated them, so that 
assuredly tliey could also say something else, just as if tlie 
prophet himself had said both, because it would be the same 
Spirit w]io said both ; and could say the same thing diiferently, 
so that, although the words were not the same, yet the same 
meaning should sliiue forth to those of good understanding; 
and could omit or add something, so that even by this it 
lijight be shown that tliere was in that work not liuniaa 
bondage, which the translator owed to the words, but rather 
divine power, which filled and ruled the mind of the trans- 
lator. Some, however, have thought that the Greek copies of 
the Septuagiat version should be emended from tlie Hebrew 
copies ; yet they did not dare to take away what the Hebrew 
lacked and the Septuagint had, but only added what m'os 
found in the Hebrew copies and was lacking in the Septua- 
gint, and noted them by placing at the beginning of the verses 
certain marks in tlie form of stars wliicli they call asterisks. 
And thoae things wlucli the Hebrew copies Iiave not, but the 
Septuagint have, they have in like mamier marked at the 
beginning of the verses by horizontal spit-ahaped marks like 
those by which we denote ounces ; and many copies having 
these marks are circulated even in Latin-^ But we cannot, 
without inspecting both kinds of copies, find out those things 
which are neither omitted nor added, but expressed differently, 
whether they yield another meaning not in itself unsuitable, 
or can be shown to explain the same meaning in another way. 
If, then, as it behoves us, we behold nothing else in tliese 
Scriptures tlian what tiie Spirit of God has spoken through 

^ Vax. readiug, " both in Greek ood IaUo." 





BOOK xvm. 



SEPTTTAGINT ANT) ITEBnKW OTTTGINAI.. 



r 



men. if anything is in the Hebrew copies and is not in the 
version of the Seventy, tlie Spirit of (_Iod did not choose to 
say it through them, but only tlirough the prophets. But 
whatever is in the Septuagint and not in the Hebrew copies, 
the same Spirit chose rather to say through the latter, thus 
showing that both were prophets. For in that manner He 
spoke as He chose, some things through Isaiah, some through 
Jeremiah, some through several jirophets, or clsrj the same 
thing tlirongh this prophet and through that. Further, what- 
ever is found in both editions, that one and the same Spirit 
^vilIed to say through both, but so as that the former pre- 
ceded in prophesying, and the latter followed iu prophetically 
interpreting tliem ; because, as the one Spirit of peace was in 
the former when they spoke tTue and concordant words, so the 
selfsame one Spirit hath appeared in the latter, when, without 
mutual conference, they yet interpreted all things as if with 
one month. 

44, How iht threat of the dtttruction ofth^ yineiuttg U tohe vndmtood, icfuch 
in tfte Hebrew extends to forty dafjHy trhxU in the Septuagint U is con- 
fc tracUd to thrte. 

But some one may say, " How shall 1 know whether the 
prophet Jonah said to the Ninevites, *Yet three days and Nineveh 
shall be ovcrtlirown/ or forty days ?"^ For who does not see 
that the prophet could not say both, when he was sent to 
terrify the city by the threat of imminent ruin ? For if its 
destniction was to take place on the third day, it certainly 
could not be on the fortieth ; but if on the fortieth, then cer- 
tainly not on the tliird. K, then, I am asked which of these 
Jonah may have said, I rather think what is read in tlie 
Hebrew, " Yet forty days and Nineveh sliall be overthrown," 
Yet the Seventy, interpreting long afterwartl, could say what 
■was different and yet pertinent to the matter, and agree in 
tlic selfsame meaning, althougli under a different siguilicutian. 
And this may admonish the reader not to despise the authority 
of either, but to raise himself above the history, and search for 
those things which the history itself was written to set forth. 
These things, indeed, took place in the city of Nineveh, but 

ey also signified something else too great to apply to that 

^ Jon. iii. 4, 

VOL. a B 




274 



THE CITY OP GOD. 



[dock xvin. 



city ; just as, when it happened that the prophet himself was 
three days in the whale's belly, it signified besides, that He 
who is Lord of all the prophets should be three days in the 
depths of hell. Wherefore, if that city is rightly held as 
prophetically representing the Church of the Gentiles, to wit, 
as brought down hy penitence, so as no longer to be what it 
had been, since this was done by Christ in the Church of 
the Gentiles, which Nineveh represented, Christ Himself was 
signified l>uth by the forty and by the three days : by the 
forty, because He spent that number of days with His disciples 
after the resurrection, and then ascended into heaven, but by 
the three days, because He rose on the third day. So that, if 
the reader desires nothing else than to adhere to the histoiy 
of events, he may be aroused from his sleep by the Septuagint 
interpreters, as well as the prophets, to search into the depth 
of the prophecy, as if they had said, In the forty days seek 
Him in whom thou mayest also find the three days, — the one 
thou wilt find in His ascension, the otlier in His resurrectioa 
Because that which could be most suitably signified by both 
numbers, of which one is used by Jonah the prophet, the other 
by the prophecy of the Septuagint version, the one and self- 
same Spirit hath spoken. I dread prolixity, so that I must 
not demonstrate this by many instances in which the seventy 
interpreters may be thought to difler from the Hebrew, and 
yet, when well understood, are found to agree. For which 
reason I also, accurdijig to my capacity, following the foot- 
steps of the apostles, who themselves have quoted prophetic 
testimonies from both, that is, from the Hebrew and the 
Septuagint, have thought that both should be iLsed as autho* 
ritative, since both are one, and divine. But let us now follow 
out as we can what remains. 

45. Thai the Jews cetutd to have prophets after tlie rebuild iiig of /A« tempk, 
and frtym that time until the birth of Christ were ajUieUd with cOTUinw^ 
adversity, to prove thai the building 0/ another temple had been promised 

bif prophetic voices. 

The Jewish nation no doubt became worse after it ceased 
to have propliets, just at the very time when, on the rebuild- 
ing of the temple after the captivity in Babylon, it hoped to 
become better. For so, indeed, did that carnal people under- 




CLOSE OF PROPHETIC PERIOD. 



275 



nc 



E 



U^ff 



stand what was foretold by Haggai the prophet, saying, " The 
glory of this latter house shall be greater than that of t!ie 
former,"^ Now, that this is said of the new testament, he 
showed a little above, where he says, evidently promising 
Christ, "And I will move all nations, and the desired One sliall 
come to all nations."' lu this passage the Septuagiut tmns- 
lators, giving another sense more suitable to the body than 
the Head, that is, to the Church than to Christ, have said by 
prophetic authority, "The things shall come that are chosen 
of the Lord from all nations," that is, men, of whom Jesus 
saith in the Gospel, '*Many are called, but few are chosen.'" 
Fox" by such chosen ones, of the nations there is buUt, through 
the new testament, with living stones, a house of God far 
more glorious than that temple w^as which was constructed 
by king Solomon, and rebuilt after the captivity. For this 
reason, then, that nation had no prophets from that time, 
hut was alllicted with many phigues by kings of alien race, 
and by the Eomans themselves, lest they should fancy that 
this prophecy of Haggai was fulfilled by that rebuilding of 

e temple. 

For not long after, on the arrival of Alexander, it was sub- 
,ued, when, although there was no pillaging, because they dared 
not resist him, and thus, being very easily suMued, received 
him peaceably, yet the glory of that house was not so great 
it was when under the free power of their own kings. 
Alexander, indeed, offered up sacrifices in the temple of God, 
not as a convert to His worship in true piety, but thinking, 

ith impious folly, that He was to be worshipped along with 
iSalse gods. Then Ptolemy son of Lagus, whom I have idi-eady 
mentioned, after Alexander's death carried them captive into 
Egypt. His successor, Ptolemy Phihidelphus, most bene- 
olently dismissed them ; and by him it was brought about, 
I have narrated a little before, that we should have the 
Septuagint version of the Scriptures. Then they were crushed 
by the wars which are explained in the books of the Maccabees. 
After\vard they were taken captive by Ptolemy king of Alex- 
andria, who was called Epiphanes. Then Antiochus king of 
Syria compelled them by many and most grievous evils to 
^ Hag. iU 9, * Uag. ii. 7. ' Matt. xxii. U. 



worship idols, and fiUed the temple itself with the sacrile^^ious 
superstitions of the Gentiles. Yet their most vigorous leader 
Judus, who is also called Afaccaljicua, after beating the jrcnerals 
of Antiophus, cleansed it from all that defilement of idolatry. 

But not long after, one AlcimuSj althou^li an alien from the 
sacerdotal tribe, was, through ambition, made pontiff, which 
was an impious diing. After almost fifty years, during which 
they never liad peace, although they prospered in some airaii% 
Aiistobulus fii*yt a-ssumed the diadem auiou^' them, and was 
made both Idng and pontiff. Before that, indeed, from the 
time of their return from the Babylonish captivity and the 
rebuilding of the temple, they had not kings, hut generals or 
principrs. Altliough a king himself may be called a prince, 
from his principality in governing, and a leader, because he 
leads the army, but it does not foUow that all who are i»rinces 
and leaders may also be called kings, as that Arist^^bulus w.i«. 
He was succeeded by Alexander, also both king and pontiO', 
who is reported to have reigned over them cruelly. After 
him his wife Alexandra was queen of the Jews, and from her 
time downwards more grievous cvUs pursued them ; for this 
Alexandra's sons, Aristobulus and Hyrcauus, when contend- 
ing with each other for the kingdom, called in the Eonian 
forces against the nation of Israel. For Ilvrcanus asked 
assistance from them against his brother. At that time 
Home had already subdued Africa and Greece^ and ruled 
extensively in other parts of tlie world also, and yet, as if 
unable to bear licr own weight, had, in a manner, broken 
herself by her own size. For indeed she had come to grave 
domestic seditions, and from that to social wars, and by and 
by to civil wars, and had enfeebled and worn herself out so 
much, that the changed state of the republic, in wMch she 
should be governed by kings, was now imminent. Pompey 
then, a most illustrious prince of the Roman people, having 
entered Judea witli an ai-my, took the city, threw open the 
temple, not with the devotion of a suppliant, but with the 
authority of a conqueror, and went, not revcreutl)% but pro- 
fanely, into the holy of holies, where it was lawful for none 
but the pontiff to enter. Having established HjTcanus in the 
pontificate, and set Autipater over the subjugated nation as 





BOOK XVIII.] 



BIRTH OF OTJR LOnP. 



277 



guardian or procurator, as they were then called, he led 
Aristobulus with him hound. From that time tlit: Jews (ilso 
began to be Roman tributaries. Afterward Cassius plundered 
the very temple. Then after a few years it was tlieir desert 
to have Herod, a king of foreign birth, in whose reign Christ 
was honi. For tlie time had now come signified by the 
prophetic Spirit tlirough the mouth of the patriarch Jacob, 
wtien he says, " There shall not be lacking a prince out of 
Judah, nor a teacher from his loins, uiilil He shall come for 
wlmm it is reserved; and He is the expectation of the nations,"' 
Tliere lacked not tlterefore a Jewish prince of the Jews until 
that Herod, who was the first king of a foreign race received 
by them. Therefore it was now the time when He should 
come for whom that was reser^'ed wliich is promised in tlie 
New Testament, that He should be the expectation of the 
nations. But it was not possible that the nations should 
expect He would come, as we see the}' did, to do judgment in 
tlie spleiidom' of power, unless they should ihsl believe in 
Him when He came to suffer judgment in the bumOity of 
patience. 

46. Of thf hirUi of our Saviour, irltfrfhj tJtf. Word tra* nadf /Ugh ; awl of t?te 
(iiAptn'moH qf the Jetcn nmoHj all nat'tontt, a* had Acfji jtyojthenieii. 

Wliilc Hei'od, therefore, reigned in Judea, and Ca?5ar 
Augustus was emperor at Eome, the state of the republic 
being already changed, and the world being set at peace by 
iiim, Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judah, man manifest out 
of a human vii^in, God hidden out of God the Father. For ao 
had the prophet foretold: "Behold, a vin;in ahall conceive in 
the womb, and bring fortli a Son, and they shall call His name 
Immanuel, which, being interjireted, is, God with ua."" He 
did many miracles that He might commend Ood in Himself, 
some of which, even as many as seemed sufficient to proclaim 
Him, are contained in the evangelic Scripture. The lirst of 
these is, that He was so wonderfully born, and the last, that 
with His body raised up again from the dead He ascended 
into heaven. But the Jews who slew Him, and would not 
believe in Him, because it behoved Him to die and rise again, 
were yet more miserably wasted by the Romans, and utterly 



' Gen. xlix. 10. 



* Isa. vii. 14, as in Matt. i. 23. 



u 



278 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xtto. 



rooted out &om their kiugdom, where aliens had already 
ruled over them, and were dispersed through the lands (so 
that indeed there is no place -where they are not), and are 
thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have 
not forged the prophecies about Clirist And very many of 
them, considering this, even before His passion, but chiefly 
after His resurrection, believed on Him, of whom it was pre- 
dicted, "Though the number of the children of Israel be as 
the sand of the sea, the remnant shall be saved.*'* But the 
rest are blinded, of -whom it was predicted, " Let their table 
be made before them a trap, and a retribution, and a stumbling- 
block. Let their eyes be darkened lest they see, and bow 
down tlieir back alway."' Therefore, when they do not be- 
lieve our Scriptures, their own, wliich they blindly read, are 
fullilled in them, lest perchance any one should say that the 
Christians have forged these prophecies about Christ which 
are quoted un(Jer ilie name of tliR sibyl, or of otliors, if such 
there be, who do not belong to the Jewish people. For us, 
indeed, those suffice which are quoted from the books of our 
enemies, to whom we make our acknowledgment, on account 
of this testimony wliicb, in spite of themselves, they contribute 
by their possession of these books, while they themselves are 
dispersed among all njitions, wherever the Church of Christ 
is spread abroad. For a prophecy about this thing was sent 
before in the Psalms, which they ulso read, where it is written, 
" My God, His mercy shall prevent me. My God hath sliown 
me concerning mine nnemies, that Thou shalt nut slay them^ 
lest they should at last forget Thy law : disperse them in Thy 
might."^ Therefore God has shown the Church in her enemies 
the Jews the grace of His compassion, since, as saith the 
apostle, '' their offence is the salvation of the Gentiles."* 
And therefore He has not slain them, that is, He has not let 
the knowledge that they are Jews be lost in them, although 
they have been conquered by the Romans, lest they should 
forget the law of God, and their testimony should be of no 
avail in this matter ol whicli we' treat. But it was not 
enough that he should say, " Slay them not, lest they should 



' Isa. I. 22, na in RonL ix. 27, 28. 
» P». Ixix. 10. 11. 



* Vs. Ixii. 22, 28 ; Bom. xi. 9, 10. 

* Horn. xi. 11. 




BOOK kvm.] REVELATlOy XOT COKFINED TO ISRAEL. 



279 



at last forget Thy law/' unless he bad alflo added, " JJiiiperso 
them ;" because if they had only been in their own laud with 
that testimony of the Scriptures, and not everywhere, certainly 
the Church which is ever^'where could not have had them aa 
witnesses among all nations to the prophecies which were 
sent before couceniing Christ 

47. Whether before Christian timet there toere any ovUide of the ItraeHte 
race \cho belonged te ihe feilounfup of the heapadjf city. 

AVTierefore il' wo read of any foreigner — that is, one neither 
bom of Israel nor received by that people into the canon of 
the sacred books — having prophesied something about Christ, 
if it has come or shall come to our knowledge, we can refer 
to it over and above ; not that this is necessary, even if 
wanting, but because it is not incongiiious to believe that 
even in other nations there may have been men to whom this 
mystery was revealed, and who wer** also impelled to prucLiim 
it, whether they were partakers of the same grace or had no 
experience of it, but were taught by bad angels, who, as we 
know, even confessed the present Christ, whom the Jews did 
not acknowledge. Xor do 1 tliink the Jews themselves dare 
contend that no one has belonged to God except the Israelites, 
since the increase of Israel began on the rejection of his elder 
bixither. For in veiy deed there was no other people who 
were specially called the people of God ; but tliey cannot 
deny that there have been ceitain men even of other nations 
rho belonged, not by eaitldy but heavenly fellowship, to the 
"^true Israelites, the citizens of the country that is above. Be- 
cause, if they deny this, they can be must easily coiil'uted by 
the case of the holy and wonderful man Job, who was neither 
a native nor a proselyte, that is, a stranger joining the people 
of Israel^ but, being bred of the Idumean race, arose there 
and died there too, and who is so praised by the divine oracle, 
that no man of his times is put on a level with him as regards 
justice and piety. And although we do not find Ids date in 
the chronicles, yet from his book, wldch for its merit tlie 
Israelites have received as of canonical authority, we gather 
that he was in the third generation after Israel. And I 
doubt not it was divinely provided, tlmt from this one case 
we misht know that anions other nations also there mijiht be 



^ 




230 



TITE CtTY OF GOD. 



[book xvin. 



men pertaiuing ta the spiritual Jerusalem who have lived 
accoitlirg to God and have pleased Hiin. And it is not to 
be supposed that this was granted to any one, unless the one 
Medialur between God and men, the Miiu Christ Jesus/ was 
divinely revealed to Jiim ; who was pre-announced to the saints 
of old as yet to come in the flesh, e\'eu aa He is announced 
to us as having come, that the selfsame faith through Him 
may lead all to Gud '^vho are predestinated to be tlie city of 
God, the house of God^ and the temple of God. But what- 
ever prophecies concerniuf^ the grace of God through Chrisl 
Jesus are quoted, they may be thought to have been forged 
by the Christians. So that there is nothing of more weight 
for confuting all sorts of aliens, if they contend about this 
matter, and for supporting om* friends, if tliey are truly wise, 
than to quote those divine predictions about Christ which 
are "WTiten in the books of the Jews, who have been torn fi*om 
their native abode and dispersed over the whole world in 
order to bear this testimony, so that the Churcli of Chi-ist has 
everywhere increased. 

i8. That JfaggdVa propfifcy, hi vrhtch he ^aid that the glory of the hovttof 
Ood would be greater tlmn that of the fret Jtad ffem,^ vxu renlftj ful- 
filed, not m th» rebuilding qfthc tetnple, but i/t the Church o/ChriM. 

This house of God is more glorious tlian that first one 
which was constructed of wood and stone, metals, and other 
ju'ccious things. Tlierefore the prophecy of Haggai was not 
ftilfiUed in tlie rebuilding of that temple. For it can never 
be shown to have had so much glory after it was rebuilt as 
it had in the time of Solomon ; yea, rather, the glory of that 
house is shown to have been dinjinished, first by the ceasing 
of prophecy, and then by the nation itself suffering so great 
calamities, even to the final destruction made by the Romans, 
as the things above-mentioned prove. But tliis house which 
pertains to the new testament is just as much more gloriouB 
as the living stones, even believing, renewed men, of which it 
is constructed are better. But it was t}'pitied by the rebuild- 
ing of that temple for this reason, because the very renovation 
of that edifice typifies in the prophetic oracle another testa- 
ment which is called the new. When, therefore, God said by 



* 1 Tim. il. 5. 



• Hag. U. ft 




BOOK XVUI.] THE INCRE.\SE OF THE CTIURCIT. 



231 



the prophet just named, "And I will ^ve peace in tliia 
place/' ^ He is to be understood who is t}iii[ied by that typifid 
place ; for since by that rebuilt place is typified the Church 
which was to be built by Christ, nothing else can be accepted 
as the meaning of the saying, " I will give peace in this 
place," except I will give peace in the place which that place 
signifies. For all typical things seem in some way to per- 
sonate those wliom they typify, as it is said by the apiwLh'. 
"That Eock was Christ"* Therefore the glory of this new 
teataTnent liouse is greater than the glory of the old testa- 
ment house ; and it will show itself as greater when it shall 
bo dedicated. For then " shall come the desired of all na- 
ftions,"^ as we read in the Hebrew. For before His advenl 
He had not yet been desired by all nations. For they knew 
not Him whom they ought to desire, in whom they bad not 
believed. Then, also, according to the Septungint interpreta- 
tion (for it also is a prophetic meanitig), "shall come those 
who are elected of the Lord out of all nations," For then 
indeed there shall come only those who are elected, whereof 
the apostle saith, "According as He hath chosen iis in Him 
l)efore the foundation of the world."* For the Master 
Builder who said» "Many are called, but few are chosen/'* 
did not say this of those who, on being called, came in such 
a way as to be cast out from the feast, but woidd point out 
the house built up of the elect, wliich henceforth shall ilnnul 
no ruin. Yet because the churches are also full of those whc» 
sbaU be separated by the winnowing as in the tbreshing-Hno;-, 
the glory of tliis house is not so apparent now as it shall be 
when every one who is there shall be there always. 

49. Of t/te indiscrhninaie incTfa*/; of the Churcht wfterrin wtany reprobate arr in 
tAut tcorld mixed icith tftr rltct. 

In this wickeil world, in these evil days, when the Chiircli 
measures her future loftiness by her present humility, and is 
exercised by goading fears, tormenting sorrows, disquietin^u; 
labours, and dangerous temptations, when she soberly rejoices, 
rejoicing only in hope, there are many reprobate mingled with 
the good, and both are gathered togetlier by the gospel as in 



* Hag. iL D. 

* Eph. i, 4, 



' 1 Cor. X. 4; Ex. xvii. fi. 
*Mfttt. ixii.'ll-14. 



> Hag. it 7- 



u 




282 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book xvni 



a drag not ;^ and in this worlds as in a sea^ both swim endosed 
without distinction in the net, until it is brought ashore, whei* 
the wicked must be separated from the good, that in the good, 
as in His temple, God may be all in all We acknowledge, 
indeed, thafc His word is now fulfilled who spake in the psahn, 
and said, " I iiave announced and spoken ; they are multiplied 
above number."^ This takes place now, since He has spoken, 
first by the mouth of liis forenmner John, and al'terward by 
His Own mouth, saying, "Repent: for the kingdom of heaven 
is at hand"* He chose disciplea, whom He also called aposdes,* 
of lowly birth, unhonoiired, and illiterate, so that whatever 
great thing they might be or do. Ho might be and do it in 
them. He had one among them whose wickedness He could 
use well in order to accomplish His appointed passion, and 
fiimish His Cliurch an example of bearing A\ith the wicked. 
Having sovra the holy gospel as much as that behoved to be 
done by His bodily presence, He suffered, died, and rose again, 
showing by His passion what we ought to suffer for the truth, 
and by His resurrection what we ought to hope for in adver- 
sity ; saving always tlie mystery of the sacrament, by which 
Hia blood was shed for the remission of sins. He held con- 
verse on the earth forty days with His disciples, and in their 
sight ascended into heaven, and after ten days sent the pro- 
mised Holy Spirit, It was given as the chief and most neces- 
sary sign of His coming on those who had believed, that every 
one of them spoke in the tongues of all nations ; thus signify- 
ing that the unity of the catholic Chiu'ch would embrace all 
nations, and would in like manner speak in all tongues. 

60. 0/ tfte jjreaching ofUie govjiel, which is made vwrc/amoiu cmd p o um fli 
by Ifit suferingt qf H^ preachera. 

Then was fulfdled that prophecy, " Out of Sion shall go 
forth the law, and the word of the Lord out of Jerusalem ;"* 
and the prediction of the Lord Christ Himself, when, after the 
resurrection, " He opened the understanding " of His amazed 
disciples " that they might imderstpnd the Scriptures, and 
said unto them that thus it is written, and thus it behoved 
Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third d&y. and 



'Matt. xlli. 4: 

* Luke vL 13. 



50. 



- Ps. xl. 5. 
' Iso. ii. 3. 



3 M&tt ilL 3p It. 17. 



BOOK XVm.] THE PREACHING OF TITE APOSTLES. 



283 



that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in 
His name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem."^ And 
again, when, in reply to their questioning about the day of 
His last coming, He said, " It is not for you to know the 
times or the seasons which the Pather hath put in His own 
power; but ye shall receive the power of the Holy Ghost 
coming upon you, and ye shall Itc witnesses unto mc both in 
Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and Samaria, and even unto the 
ends of the earth."'' First of all, the Church spread herself 
abroad from Jerusalem ; and when very many in Judea and 
Samaria had believed, she also went into other nations by 
those who announced the gospel, whom, as lights. He Himself 
liad both prepared by His word and kindled by His Holy 
Spirit, For He had said to them, " Fear ye not them which 
kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul."*' And that 
they might not be frozen with fear, they burned with the fire 
of charity. Finally, the gospel of Christ was preached in the 
whole world, not only by those who had seen and heard Him 
both before His passion and after His resurrection, but also after 
their death by their successors, aniid the horrible persecutions, 
diverse torments and deaths of the martyre, God also bearing 
them witness, both with signs and wonders, and divers miracles 
and gifts of the Huly Ghost,* that the people of the nations, 
believing in Him who was crucified fur their redemption, might 
venerate with Christian love the blood of the martyrs which 
they had poured forth with devilish fury, and the very kings 
by whose laws the Church liad been laid waste might become 
profitably suliject to that name they had cruelly striven to 
take away from the earth, and might begin to persecute the 
fialse gods for whose sake the worshippers of the true God had 
formerly been persecuted. 



'•61. TKat the caUtcUe faifJi may he confirmed even by the dissenskme of the 

htretiat. 



I 

^B But the devil, seeing the temples of the demons deserted, 

and the human race running to the name of the liberating 
Mediator, has moved the heretics under the Christian name 
to resist the Christian doctrine, as if they coidd be kept in 



1 Lake xxiv. 45-47. 
» Matt. X. 28. 



a Acts i. 7, 8. 
• Hob. ii, 4. 





I 



the city of God indifferently without any correction, just as 
the city of confusion indifferejitly held the philosophers who 
■were of diverse and adverse opinions. Those, therefore, in 
the Church of Clirist who savour anything morbid and de- 
praved, and, on being corrected that they may savour what 
is ■wliolesonie and riglit, cniiMimaciousIy i*esist, and will not 
amend their pestiferous and deadly dogmas, but persist in de- 
fending them, become heretics, and, going without, are to be 
reckoned as enemies who serve for her discijtline. For even 
thus tlicy profit by their wickedness those true catholic mem- 
bers of Clirist, since God makes a good use even of the wicked. 
and all things work together for gual to thera that love Hiin.' 
For all the enemies of the Church, whatever error blinds or 
malice depraves them, exercise her patience if they receive 
the power to atHict her corporally ; and if they only oppose 
her by wicked thought, they exercise her wisdom : but at 
the same timCj if these enemies are loved, they exercise her 
benevolence, or even her benelicence, whether she deals with 
them by persuasive doctrine or by terrible discipline. And 
thus the devil, the prince of the impious city, when he stiis 
up his own vessels against the city of God that sojourns in 
this world, is permitted to do her no harm. For without 
doubt the divuie providence procures for her both consolation 
through prosperity, that she may not be broken by adversity. 
and trial through adversity, that she may not be corrupted by 
prosperity ; and thus each is tempered by tlie other, as we 
recognise in the Psalms that ^■oice which arises from no other 
cause, " According to the nuiltitude of my gi-iefs in my heart, 
Thy consolations have delighted my soul."^ Hence also is 
that saying of the aposlle, " Eejoicing in hope, patient in 
tribulation."^ 

For it is not to be thought that what the same teacher 
says can at any time fjiil, '* Whoever will live piously in 
Christ shall suffer persecution."* Because even when those 
who are without do not nige, and thus there seems to be, and 
really is, tranquillity, wliich brings very much consolation, 
especially to the weak, yet there are not wanting, yea, there 



' Kom, viiL 23. 
' fiom. xii. IZ 



' Ps. xcir. 19. 
* 2 Tim. iii. 12. 





•BOOK xvin.] 



rSE OF HEBETICS. 



285 



are many within who by their abandoned manners torment 
the hearts of those who live piansly, since by them the 
Christian and catholic name is blasphemed ; and the dearer 
that name is to those who will live pioiisly in Christ, the 
more do they grieve that through the wicked, who have a 
])lace within, it comes to be less loved than pious minds 
desire. The heretics themselves also, since they are thought 
to have the Christian name and Bacramcnts, Scriptiircs, and 
profession, cause great grief in the hearts of tlie pious, both 
because many who wish to be Christians are comnelled by 
their dissensions to hesitate, and many evil-speakers also find 
in them matter for blaspheming tlie Christian name, because 
they too are at any rate called Christians. By these and 
similur dopmved manners and errors of men, those who will 
live piously in Christ suffer persecution, even when no one 
molests or vexes their body ; for they sirffer this persecution, 
not in their bodies, but in their hearts. Whence is that word, 
" According to the midtitude of my griefs in my heart ; " for 
he does not say, in my body. Yet, on the other hand, none 
I if them can ]jerish, because the immutable divine promises 
are thought of. And because the apostle says, " The Lord 
knoweth them that are His;^ for whom He did foreknow. He 
also predestinated [to bo] conformed to the image of His 
Son/"* none of them can perish ; therefore it follows in that 
psalm, " Thy consolations have delighted my soul"* But 
tliat grief which arises in the hearts of the pious, who are 
persecxited by the manners of bad or false Christians, is pro- 
titable to the sufferers, because it proceeds from the charity 
in which they do not wish them either to perish or to hinder 
the salvation of others. Finally, great consolations grow out 
of their chastisement, which imbue the souls of the pious 
with a fecundity as great as the pains with which they were 
troubled concerning their own perdition. Thus in this world, 
in these evil days, not only from the time of the bodily pre- 
sence of Christ and His apostles, but even from that of Abel, 
whom first his M-icked brother slew because he was righteous,* 
and thenceforth even to the end of this world, the Church has 



» 2 Tim. it 19. 
• Ts. iciv. 19. 



- TUiia. viu, 29. 

* 1 Jolin, iii. 12. 



286 



THE crrr ov god. 



[book x1 



I 



gODe forward on pilgrimage amid the persecutions of tbe 
world and tlie consolations of God. 

52. WkcUier ice should btUeve tohai motju tJiinJc, Iftat, at the ten persecutions whidt 
are past have been fulfilled^ there rtmahui no other beyond the eUvtMtk, 
which must hajtpen in the vay tivie of Antichrist, 

I do not think, indeed, that •what some have thought or 
may think is rashly said or believed, that until the time of 
Antichrist the Church of Clirial is not to suifer any perseca- 
tioas besides those she has already suffered, — that is, ten, — 
aud that the eleventh and last shaU be inflicted by Antichrist 
They reckon as the iirst that made by Nero, the second bj' 
Bomitian, the third by Trajan, the fourth by Antoninus, the 
fifth by Severus, the sixth by Maximin, the seventh by Decius, 
the eighth by Yalerian, the ninth by Aurelian, the tenth by 
Diocletian and Maximian. For as there were ten plagues 
in Egypt before the people of God could begin to go oat, 
they think this is to be referred to as showing that the last 
persecution by Antichrist must be like the eleventh plague, 
in which the Egyptians, while following the Hebrews with 
hostility, perished in the Eed Sea when the people of God 
passed through on dry land. Yet I do not tliink persecutious 
were prophetically signified by what was done in Egj'pt, how- 
ever nicely and ingeniously those who think so may seem to 
have compared the two in detail, not by the prophetic Spirit, 
l>ut by the conjecture of the human mind, which sometimes 
liits the ti-uth, aud sometimes is deceived. But what can 
those who think this say of the persecution in which the 
Lord Himself was crucified ? In winch number will thej" 
put it ? And if they tliink the reckoning is to be made ex- 
clusive of this one, as if those must be counted which pertain 
to the body, and not that in which the Head Himself was set 
upon and slain, what can they make of that one which, after 
Christ ascended into lieaven, took place in Jerusalem, when 
the blessed Stephen was stoned ; when James the brother of 
John was slaughtered with the sword ; when the Apostle 
Peter was imprisoned to be kiDed, and was set free by the 
angel; when the brethren were driven away and scattered 
from Jerusalem ; when Saul, who afterward became the 
Apostle Paul, wasted the Church ; and when he himself, pub- 





>K XVIU.] 



OF THE TEN PERSECDTIOKS, 



287 



lishing the glad tidings of the faith he had persecuted, suffered 
such things as he had inflicted, either from the Jews or from 
other nations, where he most fervently preached Christ every- 
where ? Why, then, do they think fit to start with Nero, 
when the Church in her growth had reached the times of 
Nero amid tlie most cruel persecutions, about which it would 
be too long to say anything ? But if they think that only 
the persecutions made by kings ought to be reckoned, it was 
king Herod who also made a most grievous one after the 
ascension of the Lord. And what account do tlicy give of 
Julian, whom they do not number in the ten ? Did not he 
persecute the Church, who forbade the Christiana to teach or 
learn liberal letters 1 Under him, the elder Valentinian, who 
was the third emperor after bira, stood forth as a confessor of 
the Christian faith, and was dismissed from his command in 
the army. I shall say nothing of what he did at Antioch, 
except to mention his being struck with wonder at the free- 
dom and cheerfulness of one most faithful and stedfast young 
man, who, when many were seized to be tortured, was tortured 
during a whole day, and sang under the instrument of torture, 
iintil the emperor feared lest he should succumb under the 
continued cruelties and put him to shame at last, which made 
him dread and fear that he would be yet more dishonourably 
put to the blush by the rest. Lastly, within our own recol- 
lection, did not Vdens the Arian, brother of the foresaid 
Valentinian, waste the catholic Church by great persecution 
throughout the East ? But how imreasonable it is not to 
consider that the Church, which bears fniit and grows through 
the whole -world, may suffer persecution from kings in some 
nations even when she does not suffer it in others ! Perhaps, 
however, it was not to be reckoned a persecution when the 
king of the Goths, in Gothia itself, persecuted the Cliristians 
with wonderful cruelty, when there were none but catholics 
there, of whom very many were crowned with martyrdom, as we 
have heard from certain brethren who had been there at that 
time as boys, and unhesitatingly called to mind that they had 
aeen these things ? And what took place in Persia of late ? 
Was not persecution so hot against the Christians (if even yet 
it is allayed) that some of the fugitives from it came even to 





2SS 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[dook xvni 



Kaman towns ? "VVhcn I tlnnk nf these and the like thiiis^, 
it does aot seem to me tLat the numbex' ot persecutions •with 
which the Church is to be tried can be definitely stated. But, 
ou the other hand, it is no less rash to affirm that there will 
l>e some persecutiona by kings besides that last one, abont 
which no Christian is in doubt. Therefore we leave this un- 
decided, supporting or refuting neither side of this question, 
but oidy restraining men from the audacious presumption of 
aJlirmiDg either of them. 

53. Of the hidden thne tif the /nal persecution. 

Truly Jesus Himself shall extinguish by His presence tltat 
last persecution which is to be made by Anticluist For so 
it in written, that " He shall slay him with the breath of His 
mouth, and empty him with the brightness of His presence.*** 
It is customary t^o ask, "VVlien shall that be ? But this is 
unite unreasonable. For had it been profitable for us to 
know this, by whom could it better have been told than by 
<iod Himself, the Master, when the disciples questioned Hiip? 
I'or they were not silent when with Him, but inquired of 
Him, saying, " Lord, wilt Thou at this time present the king- 
dom to Israel, or when 'i "^ But He said, " It is not for you 
to know the times, which the Father hatli put in His own 
])(iwer." "When they got that answer, they luid not at all 
questioned Him about the hour, or day, or year, but about the 
lime. lu vain, then, do we attempt to compute definitely the 
years that may remain to tlxis world, when we may hear from 
the mouth of the Truth that it is not for us to know this. 
Yet some have said that four hundred, some five hundred, 
others a thousand years, may be completed from the ascension 
of the Lord up to His final coming. But to point out how 
each of them supports las own opinion would take too long, 
and is not necessary ; for indeed they use human conjectures, 
and bring forward nothing certain from the authority of the 
canonical Scriptui'cs. But on this subject He puts aside the 
figures of the calculators, and orders eOence, who says, " It is 
not for you to know the times, which the Father hath put in 
His own power." 

> Isa. xL i ; 2 Thess. L 9. * Acta 1^7. 





EOOK XA'ITT.] OF TFTE FINAL PEKSECUTIOy. 



!S9 



But becaase this sentence is in the Gospel, it is no wonder 
tlmt the "worshippers of the many and false gods have been 
none the less restrained from feigning that by the responses 
of the demons, whom they worship as gods, it has been fixed 
liow long the Christian religion is to last. For wlien they 
saw that it could not be consumed by so many and great per- 
secutions, but rather drew from them wondeiful enlargements, 
tliey invented I know not what Greek verses, as if ]>oured 
forth by a divine oracle to some one consulting it, in which, 
indeed, they moke Christ innocent of this, as it were, sacri- 
legious crime, but add that Peter by enchantments brought it 
about that the name of Christ should be worshipped for tliree 
hundred and sixty-five years, and, after the completion of 
that number of years, should at once take end. Oh the hearts 
of learned men ! Oh, learned wits, meet to believe such things 
aboiU Christ as you are not willing to believe in Christ, that 
His disciple Tctcr did not learn magic arts from Him, yet 
that, although He was innocent. His disciple was an enchanter, 
and chose that His name rather than his own should be wor- 
shipped through his magic arts, his great labours and perils, 
and at last even the shedding of his blood I If Peter tlie 
enchanter made the world so love Christ, what did Christ the 
innocent do to make Peter so love Him ? Let them nnswer 
themselves then, and, if they can, let tliem understand that 
the worldj for the sake of eternal life, was made to love Christ 
by that same supernal grace which made Peter also love 
Christ for, the sake of the eternal life to be received from 
Him, and that even to the extent of suifering temporal death 
for Him. And then^ what kind of gods are these who are 
able to predict such tilings, yet are not able to avert them, 
succumbing in such a way to a single enchanter and wicked 
magician (who, as they say, having slain a yearling boy and 
torn him to pieces, buried him with nefarious rites), that 
they permitted the sect hostile to themselves to gain strength 
for so great a time, and to surmount the hoirid cruelties of s(» 
many great persecutiong, not by resisting but by suffering, and 

procure the overthrow of their own images, temples, rituals, 
and oracles 1 Finally, what god was it — not ours, certainly, 
but one of their own — who was either enticed or compelled 

VOL. n. T 




290 THE CITY OF GOD. [bOOK XVUL 

by 80 great wickedness to perform these things ? For those 
verses say that Peter bound, not any demon, but a god to do 
these things. Such a god have they who liave not Christ 

34. Of the veryfoolUh lie of the pagans, in feigning Uiat the Christian, r^f^ou 
was not to Uut bffjond Uiree hundred and aixttf-Jife years, 

I might collect these and many similar arguments, if that 
year hatl not already passed by which lying divination hai 
promised, and deceived vanity has believed. But as a few 
years ago tlirce hundi-ed and sixty-five years were completed 
since the time %v]ien the woi-ship of tlie name of Christ was 
established by His presence in the flesh, and by the aposUe^ 
what other proof need we seek to refute that falsehood ? For, 
not to place the beginning of tliis period at the nativity of 
Christ, because as an infant and boy He had no disciples, yet, 
when He began to have them, beyond doubt the Christian 
doctrine and religion then became known through His bodily 
presence, that is, after He was baptized in the river Jordan 
by the ministry of John. For on this accoimt that prophecy 
went before concerning Him : " He shall reign from sea even 
to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth."* 
But since, l:)eforB He suffered and rose from the dead, the faith 
had not yet been defined to all, but was defined in the resur- 
rection of Christ (for so the Apostle Paid speaks to the 
Athenians, saying. " But now He announces to men that all 
everywhere should repent, because He hath appointed a day 
in which to judge the world in equity, by the Man in whom 
He hath defined the faith to all men, raising Him from the 
dead "'), it is better that, in settling this question, we should 
start fiom that point, especially because the Holy Spirit was 
then given, just as He behoved to be given after the resurrec- 
tion of Chi'ist in that city from which the second law, that 
is, the new testament, ought to begin. For the fii*3t, which 
is called the old testament, was given from Mount Sinai 
through Moses. But concerning this which was to be given 
by Christ it was predicted, " Out of Sion shall go forth the 
law, and the word of the Lord out of Jerusalem ; " * whence 
He Himself said, that repentance in His name behoved to be 
preached among all nations, but yet beginning at JernsalenL* 
' Fb. IxxiL a. * Acts xrii. 30, 31. * laa. ii. 3. * Luke xxir. i7. 





BOOK XVUI.] DURATION OF THE CHRISTIAN RELICIOX. 



291 



There, therefore, the worship of this name took its rise, that 
Jesus should be believed in, who died and rose again. Tliere 
this faith blazed up with such noble beginnings, that several 
thousand men, being converted to the naine of Cltrist with 
■wonderful alacrity, sold their goods for distribution among the 
needy, thus, by a holy resolution and most ardent charity, 
coming to voluntary poverty, and prepared themselves, amid 
the Jews who raged and thirsted for their blood, to contend 
for the tnitli even to death, not with anned power, but with 
more powerfid patience. If this was accomplished by no 
magic arts, why do they hesitate to believe that the other 
could be done Lliroughout the whole world by the same divine 
power hy wliich this was done ? But supposing Peter wrought 
that enchantment so tliat so great a multitude of men at 
Jerusalem was thus kindled to worship the name of Christ, 
who had either seized and fastened Him to the cross, or re- 
viled Him when fastened there, we must still inr[uirc when 
the tlnee hundred and sixty-five years must be completed, 
counting from that year. Now Christ died wht-n the Gemini 
were consuls, on the eighth day before the kalends ol ApiiL 
He rose the third day, as the apostles have proved by the 
evidence of their own senses. Then forty days after, He 
ascended into heaven. Ten days after, tluit is, on the fiftieth 
after His resurrection. He sent the Holy Spirit ; then thi-ee 
thousand men believed when the apoatlea pi-eached Him. 
Then, tlierefore, arose the worship of that name, as we be- 
lieve, and according to the real Lrutli, by the efficacy of the 
Holy Spirit, but, as impious vanity has feigned or thought, 
ly the magic arts of Peter. A little afterward, too, on a 
Tiponderful sign being Avrought, when at Peter's own word a 
certain beggar, so lame from his mother's womb that he was 
carried by others and laid down at the gate of the temple, 
where he begged alms, was made whole in the name of Jesus 
Chi-ist, and leaped up, five thousand men believed, and thence- 
fortli the Church grew by sundry accessions of believers. Thus 
we gatlier the very day with which tliat year began, namely, 
thtit on which the Holy Spirit was sent, that is, dmjng the 
ides of May. And, on counting the consuls, the three hun- 
dred and sL\ty-live years are found completed on the same 



L 



^d xl ml 



TIIE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XVlIt 



ides in the consulate of Honorius and Eutycliiauus. Now, in 
tlie following year, in the consulate of ilallius Tlieodorus, 
"when, according to that oracle of the demons or figment of 
men, there ought already to have heen no Christian religion, 
it was not necessary to inquire what perchance was done in 
other parta of the earth. But, as we know, in the most noted 
and eminent city Carthage, in Africa, Gaudentius and Jo\*ius, 
officers of the Emperor Hononus, on the fourteenth day hefore 
the kalends of April, overthrew the temples and broke the 
images of the false "^^ods. And from that time to the present, 
during almost thirty years, who does not see how much the 
worship of the name of Christ has increased, especially after 
many of those became Christians who had been kept back from 
the faitli by thinking that divination true, but saw wlieu that 
same number of years was completed that it was empty and 
ridiculous 1 We, therefore, who are called and arc Cluistiaus, 
do not believe in Peter, but in TTim whom Peter believed, — 
being editied by Peter s sermons about Cluist, not poisoned by 
his incantations ; and not deceived by his enchantments, but 
aided by his good deeds. Christ Himself, wlio was Peter's 
Master in the doctrine which leads to eternal life, is our 
Master too, 

Eut let us now at last finish this book, after thus far treat- 
ing of, and showing as far as seemed sufficient, wliat is the 
mortal course of the two cities, the heavenly and tlie earthly, 
wbich are mingled together from the beginning down to the 
end. Of these, the earthly one has made to herself of whom 
she w^ould, either from any other quarter, or even from among 
men, false gods whom she might serve by sacrifice ; but she 
which is heavenly, and is a pilgrim on the earth, does not 
make false god.s, but is herself njade by the true God, ot 
whom she herself must be the true sacrifice. Yet both alike 
either enjoy temporal good tilings, or are afHicted with tem- 
poral evils, but with diverse faith, diverse hope, and diverse 
love, until they must be separated by the last judgment, and 
each must receive her own end. of which there is no end. 
About these ends of both we must next treat 





XL\'.] 



THK END OF GOOD AND OF EVIL. 



293 



BOOK NINETEENTH. 

ARGUMEKT. 

IN THIS BOOK THE KfD OP THE TWO CITIEK, THE EAETHLT JtXD THE HSAVEKLT, 
IS DISCUSSED. AUGUSTINK KEVIEWK HIE OPIMONB OF THE PUILOBOFUERS 
HEUARDING THE RUI'REME tiOOD, AND TUCIU VAtN ETFOniS TO HAKE FOR 
THEVSELVES A UAPPFNEaS IN TIIIB LIPE ; AND, WHILE KB REFDTEB THEai% 
HE TAKES OCCASION TO SHOW WHAT THE PEACE AND HAPPINESS BELONO- 
IKG TO TOE HEAVENLY CITY, OE THE PEOPUS OF CitfilST, AHE BOTH NOW 
AND HEftEArrEK. 



1. Thai Varro hns made out that two hunrtred and eit/httt-rijfht diffrrent xrctg 
of yhdosophif might be farmed Oy the carious opinioM rcganiing ths 
aupreme good. 

AS I see that I have still to discuss the fit destinies of the 
two cities, the earthly and tlie heavenly, I nnist first 
explain, so far as the limits of this work allow me, the reason- 
ings by which men have attempted to make for themselves a 
happiness in this unhappy life, in order that it may be evident, 
not only from divine autliurity, but also from sucli reasons 
as can he adduced to unbelievers, how the empty dreams of 
the philosophers differ from the lio])o whioli God gives to ua, 
and li-om the substantial fuliilnient of it which He will give 
us as our blessedness. Philosupliera have expressed a threat 
variety of diverse opinions regarding the ends of goods and of 
[evils, and this question they have eagerly canvassed, that they 
might, it* possible, discover what makes a man happy. For 
the end of our good is that for the sake of wliich other tilings 
are to be desired^ while it is to be desired for its own sake ; 
and the end of evil is that on account of which other things 
ore to be shunned, while it is avoided on its own account 
Thus, by the end of t/ood, we at present mean, not that by 
■which good is destroyeil, so that it no longer exists, but that 
fcy which it is tiuishcd, so that it becomes complete ; and by 
[the end of evil we mean^ not that wliich abolishes it, but that 
whicli completes its development. These two ends, therefore, 
are the supreme good and the supreme evil ; and, as I have 




294 



Tirc cmr of god. 



[book XIX. 



said, those who have in this vain life professed the study of 
wisdom have been at great pains to discover these ends, and 
to obtain the supreme good and avoid the supreme evil in 
this life. And although they erred in a variety of ways, yet 
natural insight has prevented them from wandering from the 
truth so far that they have not placed the supreme good and 
evil, some in the soul, some in the body, and some in both. 
Prom this tripartite distribution of the sects of phQosophy, 
Marcus Vairo, in his hook lit Philosopkia} has drawn so large 
a variety of opinions, that, by a subtle and minute anal3*sis of 
distinctions, he numbers without difhculty as many as 288 
sect5, — not that these have actually existed, but sects which 
are possible. 

To illustrate briefly what he means, I must begin with his 
own introductory statement in the above-mentioned book, 
that there are four things which men desire, as it were by 
nature without a master, without the help of any instruction, 
without industry or the art of living which is called ^'irtoe, 
and which is certainly learned:* either pleasure, which is 
an agreeable stirring of the bodily sense ; or repose, which 
excludes every bodily inconvenience; or both these, which 
Epicurus calls by the one name, pleasure; or the primar}* 
objects of nature,^ which comprehend the things already named 
and other things, either bodily, such as health, and safety, and 
integrity of the members, or spiritual, such as the greater and 
less mental gifts that are found in men. Now these four 
things — pleaaure, repose, the two combined, and the primary 
objects of nature — exist in us in such sort that we must either 
desire virtue on their account, or tliem for the sake of virtue, 
or both for their own sake ; and consequently there arise from 
this distinction twelve sects, for each is by this consideration 
tripled. I will iDustrate this in one instance, and, having 
done so, it will not be difficult to understand the others. 
According, then, as bodily i>leasure is subjected, preferred, or 
united to virtue, there are three sects. It is subjected to 
virtue when it is chosen as subservient to virtua Thus it is 



» Kot extant 

' vVIluUing to tlie vexed question whether virtne conid 

' ThA prima mUungy or «/«» umn fun* of the Stoics. 





BOOK XIX.] VJUUIO ON SECTS OF PITn.OSOPUT, 



205 



a duty of virtue to live for one's country, and for its sake to 
beget cliildren, neither of "whicli can be done without bodily 
pleasure. For there is pleasure in eatinjr and drinking, plea- 
sure also in sexual intercourse. But when it is preferred to 
virtue, it is desired for its own sake, and virtue is chosen only 
for its sake, and to effect notliing else than the attainment or 
preservation of bodily pleasure. And this, indeed, is to make 
life hideous ; for where virtue is the slave of pleasure it no 
longer deserves the name of virtue. Yet even this disgrace- 
ful distortion has found some philosophers to patronize and 
defend it. Then virtue is united to pleasure when neither is 
desired for the other's sake, but both for their own. And 
therefore, as pleasure, according as it is subjected, preferred, or 
united to virtue, makes three sects, so also do repose, plea- 
sure and repose combined, and the prime natural blessings, 
make their three sects each. For as men's opinions vary, and 
these four things are sometimes subjected, sometimes prefeired, 
and sometimes united to virtue, there are produced twelve 
sects. But this number again is doubled by the addition of 
one difference, viz. the social life ; for %vhoever attaches him- 
seK to any of these sects does so either for lua own sake alone, 
or for the sake of a companion, for whom he ought to wish 
what he desires for himself. And thus there will be twelve 
of those who think some one of these opinions shoidd be held 
for their own sakes, and other twelve who decide that they 
ought to follow thia or that philosophy not for their own snkes 
only, but also for the sake of others whose good they desire as 
their own. These twenty-four sects again are doiibled, and 
become fort}'-eight by adding a difference taken from the Kew 
Academy. For each of these four and twenty sects can hold 
and defend their opinion as certain, as the Stoics defended the 
position that the supreme good of man consisted solely in 
virtue; or they can be held as probable, but not certain, as 
the New Academics did. There are, therefore, twenty-four 
who hold their philosophy as certainly true, other twenty- 
four who hold their opinions as probable, but not certain. 
Again, as each person who attaches himself to any of these 
sects may adopt the mode of lifo either of the Cynics or of 
the other philosophers, this distinction will double the number. 




296 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[dock xn; 



and so make ninety-sLx sects. Then, lastly, as each of these 
sects may be adhered to either hy mea who love a life of ease, 
as those who have through choice or necessity addicted them- 
selves to study, or by men who love a busy life, as those who, 
while philosophizing, have been much occupied with state 
affairs and public business, or by men who choose a mixed life, 
in imit-ation of those who have apportioned their time portly 
to erudite leisure, partly to necessary business : by these dif- 
ferences the number of the sects is tripled, and becomes 288. 
I have thus, as briefly and lucidly as I could, given in my 
own words the opinions which Varro expresses in his book. 
But how he refutes all the rest of these sects, and cliooses one, 
the Old Academy, instituted by Plato, and continuing to 
Polemo, the fourth teacher of that school of philosophy which 
held that their system was certain ; and how on this ground 
he distinguishes it from the New Academy,^ which began with 
Polemo's successor Arcesilaus, and held that all things are un- 
certain ; and huw lie seeks to esUiblish tliat the Old Academy 
was as free from error as from doubt, — all this, I say, were too 
long to enter upon in detail, and yet I must not altogether 
pEiss it by iu silence. Varro then rejects, as a first step, all 
those differences which have multiplied the number of sects ; 
and the ground on w^hich he does so is that they are not dif- 
ferences about tlie supreme good. He maintains that in 
philosophy a sect is created only by its having an opinion of 
its own dilVerent from other schools on the point of the ends- 
in-chief. Tor man has no other reason for pliilosophizing 
than that he may be happy ; but that which makes him happy 
is itself the supreme good. In other words, the supreme good 
is the reason of philosophising; and therefore that cannot be 
called a sect of philosophy which pursues no way of its o-wn 
towards the supreme f^ood Thus, when it is asked whether a 
wise man will adopt the social life, and desire and be in- 
terested ill the supreme good of his friend as in his own, or 
will, on the contraiy, do all that he does merely for his own 
sake, there is no question licrc about the supreme good, but 
only about the propriety of associating or not associating a 
friend in its participution : whether the wise man will do this 

i Jtre^ueutly called tlw Kiddie Academy ; the New be^iauiiig with C&meuks. 





^ 
N 



BOOK XIX.] VAREO'S ELimNATION" OP THB BBCTS. 297 

not for his owu sake, but for the sake of his ixiend in %vho&e 
good he delights as in his ovm. So, too, when it is asked 
whether all things about which philosophy is concerned are 
to be considered uncertain, as by the New Academy, or cer- 
tain, as the other philosophers maintain, the question here is 
not what end should be pursued, but whether or not we are to 
believe in the substantial existence of that end ; or, to put it 
more pliuuly, whether he who pursues the supreme good must 
maintain that it is a true good, or only that it appears to him 
to be true, though possibly it may be delusive, — both pursuing 
one and the same good. The distinction, too, which is founded 
on the dress and manners of the Cynics, does not touch the 
question of the chief good, but only the question whether he 
who pursues that good which seems to himself true should 
live as do the Cynics, There were, in fact, men who, though 
they pursued different things as the supreme good, some 
choosing pleasure, others virtue, yet adopted that mode of life 
which gave the Cynics their name. Tims, whatever it is 
which distinguishes the Cynics from other philosophers, this 
has no bearing on the choice and pursuit of that good which 
constitutes happiness. For if it had any such bearing, then 
the same habits of life would necessitate the pursxiit of the 
same chief good, and diverse habits would necessitate the pur- 
suit of different ends. 

2. How VarrOt 6y removing alt tfte diferfneen which do not form *«/*, hut are 
iiurdtf tecondary queatioixt, rtathes thrtt d^nitiom of the chi^good, of 
vhich toe must choose otu. 

Tlie same may be said of those three kinds of life, the hfe 
of studious leisure and search after truth, the life of eju>y 
engagement in affairs, and the life in which both these are 
mingled. When it is asked, which of these should be adopted, 
tliis involves no controvei'sy aboiit the end of good, but inquires 
which of these three puts a man in the best position for finding 
and retaining the supreme good. For this good, as soon as 
a man finds it, makes him happy; but lettered leisure, or public 
business, or the alternation of these, do not necessarily con- 
stitute happiness. Many, in fact, find it possible to adopt one 
or other of these modes of life, and yet to miss what 
man happy. The question, therefore, regarding the 



t makes a J 

3 supreme ^J 



:93 



THE CTTT OF GOD. 



[book xnc 



good and the supreme evil, and "which distingaishes sects of 
pliilosophy, is one ; and these questions concerning the social 
life, the doubt of the Academy, the dress and food of the 
Cynics, the three modes of life — the active, the contemplative, 
and the mixed — these are different questions, into none of 
•which the question of the chief good enters. And therefore, 
as Marcus VaiTo multiplied the sects to the number of 288 
(or wliatevcr larger number he chose) by introducing these 
four dilferences derived from the social life, the New Academy, 
the Cynics, and the threefold form of life, so, by renioving 
these differences as having no bearing on the supreme good, 
and as therefore not conatiluting what can properly be called 
sects, he returns to those twelve schools which concern them* 
selves with inquiring what that good is which makes man 
happy, and he shows that one of these is true, the rest false. 
In other words, he dismisses the distinction founded on the 
threefold mode of life, and so decreases the whole number by 
two-thirds, reducing the sects to niuety-six Then, putting 
aside the Cyiiic peculiarities, the number decreases by a half, 
to forty-eight. Taking away next the distinction occasioned 
by the hesitancy of the New Academy, the number is again 
halved, and reduced to twenty-four. Treating in a similar 
way the diversity introduced by the consideration of the 
social life, there are left but twelve, which this difference had 
doubled to twenty-four. Eegai-ding these twelve, no reason 
can be assigned why they should not be called sects. For in 
them the sole inquiry is regarding the supreme good and the 
ultimate evil, — that is to say, regarding the supreme good, for 
this being found, the opposite evil is thereby found. Now, to 
make these twelve sects, he multiplies by three these four 
things— pleasure, repose, pleasure and repose combined, and the 
primary objects of nature which Yairo calls primigenia. For 
as these four things are sometimes subordinated to virtue, so 
that they seem to be desiied not for their own sake, but for 
virtue's sake ; sometimes preferred to it, so that virtue seems 
to be necessary not on its own account, but in order to attain 
these things ; sometimes joined with it, so that both they and 
virtue are desired for their own sakes, — we must multiply the 
four by three, and thus we get twelve sects. But from those 





BOOK XIX.] VAimO ADHERES TO TTTE OLD ACADEMY. 299' 

four tilings Varro eliminates three — ^pleasure, repose, pleasure 
and repose combined — not because he thinks these are not 
worthy of the place assigned them, but because they are 
included in the primary objects of nature. And what need 
is there, at any rate, to make a threefold division out of these 
two ends, pleasare and repose, taking them first severally and 
then conjunctly, since both they, and many other things besides, 
are comprehended in the primary objects of nature ? Which 
of the three remaining sects must be chosen ? This is the 
question that Vairo dwells upon. For whether one of these 
three or some other be chosen, reason forbids that more than 
one be true. This we shall afterguards sec ; but meanwhile 
let us explain as briefly and distinctly as we can how Varro 
makes his selection from these three, that is, from the sects 
which severally hold that the primary objects of nature are to 
be desired for virtue's sake, that virtue is to be desired for 
their sake, and that virtue and these objects are to be desired 
each for their own sake. 

3. Which of the three leading opinwiB regarding the ehiff good should be pre' 
/errtd, according to Varro, who/oltoxot Antiochits and the Old Academy. 

Wliich of these tluee is true and to be adopted he attempts 
to show in the following manner. As it is the supreme 
«if>od, not of a tree, or of a beast, or of a god, but of man, 
that pliilosophy is in quest of, he thinks that, first of all, 
we must define man. He is of opinion that there are two 
parts in human nature, body and soul, and makes no doubt 
that of these Uvo the soul is the better and by far the more 
worthy part. But whether the soul alone is the man, so that 
the body holds the same relation to it as a horse to the 
horseman, this he thinks has to be ascertained. The horse- 
man is not a horse and a man, but only a man, yet he is 
called a horseman, because he is in some relation to the horse. 
Again, is the body alone the man, having a relation to the 
soul such as the cup has to the drink ? For it is not the cup 
and the drink it contains which are called the cup, but the 
cup alone ; yet it is so called because it is made to hold tlie 
drink. Or, lastly, is it neither the soul alone nor the body 
alone, but both together, which are man, the body and the soul 
being each a part, but the whole man being both together, as 



300 



THE CITY OF GOP. 



[book xii 



we call two horses yoked together a pair, of which pair the 
near aud the off horse is each a part, but we do not call either 
of them, no matter how connected with the other, a pair, but 
only both together ? Of these three alternatives, then, Varro 
chooses the tliird, that man is neither the body alone, nor the 
soul alone, but both together. And therefore the liighest good, 
in which lies the happiness of man, is composed of goods 
of both kinds, both bodily and spiritual. And consequently 
he thinks that the primary objects of nature are to be sought 
for their own sake, and that virtue, which is the art of living, 
and can be communicated by instruction, is the most excellent 
of spiritual goods. Tliis virtue, then^ or art of regulating life, 
■when it has received these primary objects of nature which 
existed independently of it, and prior to any instruction, 
seeks them all, and itself also, for its own sake ; and it uses 
them, as it also iwes itself, that from them all it may derive 
profit and enjoyment, trreater or less according as they are 
themselves greater or less ; and while it takes pleasure in all 
of them, it despises the less that it may obtain or retain tlic 
greater when occasion demands. Now, of all goods, spiritual 
or bodily, there is none at all to eonqiare with virtue. For 
virtue makes a good use both of itself and of all other goods 
in which lies man's happiness ; ami wliere it is absent, no 
matter how many good things a man has, they are not for his 
good, and consequently shoidd not be called good things while 
they belong to one who makes them useless by using them 
badly. Tlie life of man, tlien, is called happy wlien it enjoys 
virtue and these other spiritual and bodily good things "without 
which virtue is impossible. It is called happier if it enjoys 
some or many other good things which are not essential to 
virtue ; and happiest of all, if it lacks not one uf thu good 
things which pertain to the body and the souL For life is 
not the same thing aa \'irtue, since not every life, but a wisely 
regulated life, is virtue ; and yet, while there can be life of 
some kind without virtue, there cannot be virtue without life. 
This I might apply to memory and reason, and such mental 
faculties ; for these exist prior to instruction, and without them 
there cannot bo any instniction, and consequently no ^irtue, 
since virtue is learned. But bodily advantages, such as swift- 





BOOK XTX. 



rmilSTlAN IDEA OF THE SUPUEMK GOOD. 



ness of foot, beauty, or strengtli, are not essential to virtue, 
neither is ■virtue essential to them, and yet they are good 
things; and, according to our philosophei-s, even these advan- 
tages are desired by virtue for its own sake, and are used and 
enjoyed by it in a becoming manner. 

They sjiy that this happy life is also social, and loves the 
advantages of its friends as its own, and for their sake wishes 
for Uieiii Avhat it desires for itself, whether these friends live 
in the same family, as a wife, children, domestics ; or in the 
locality where ones home is, as the citizens of the same to^vn; 
or in the world at large, as the nations bound in common human 
hrotherliood ; or in the universe itself, comprehended in tlie 
heavens and the earth, as those whom they call gods, and 
provide tis friends for the wise man, and whom we more 
familiarly call angels. Moreover, they say that, regarding the 
supreme good and evD, there is no room for doubt, and that 
they therefore differ from the New Academy in tliis respect, 
and they are not concerned whether a philosopher pursues 
those ends which they think true in the Cynic dress and 
manner of life or in some other. And, lastly, in regard to 
the three modes of life, the contemplative, the active, and the 
composite, they declare in favour of the thu-d, Tliat these 
were the opinions and doctrines of the Old Academy, Vanx) 
asserts on the authority of Antiochus, Cicero's master and Iiis 
>wn, though Cicero makes him out to liavo been more frequently 
in accordance w^ith the Stoics than with the Old Academy. 
But of what importance is this to us, who ought to judge the 
matter on its own merits, rather tlian to understand accurately 



I 



what different men have thought about it ? 

4. R7ia/ the Chriaiintu Mievt regarding the snpr^mr good and evU^ in oppQiti* 
tion to the p/titosojtherr, ic/io have maintaiHtd that the sitprtme good U in 
(hnnftetvm* 



If, then, we be asked what the city of God has to say 
upon these points, and, in the first place, what its opinion 
regarding tlie supreme good and evil is, it will reply that life 
eternal is the supreme good, death eternal the supreme evil, 
and that to obtain the one and escape the other we must live 

^txightly. And tlius it is written, " The just lives by faitli," ^ for 

H^ ■ Hab. U. 4. 



30! 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XIX. 



M'e do not as yet see our good, and must therefore live by 
faith ; neither have we in ourselves power to live rightly, but 
can do so only if He who has given us faith to believe in His 
help do help us when we believe and pray. As for those who 
have supposed that the sovereign good and evil are to be 
found in tliia life, and have placed it either in the soul or the 
body, or in both, or, to speak more explicitly, either in plea- 
sure or in virtue, or in both; in repose or in virtue, or in 
both; in pleasure and repose, or in virtue, or in all combined; 
in the primary objects of nature, or in virtue, or in both, — aQ 
these have, with a marvellous shallowness, sought to find their 
blessedness in this life and in themselves. Contempt hafl 
been pouied upon such ideas by the Truth, saying by the pro- 
phet, "The Lord knoweth the thouglits of men" (or, as the 
Apostle Paul cites the passage, " The Lord knowetli 
tlioughts of the wise " ) " that tliey are vain." * 

For what flood of eloquence can suffice to detail the miseriiT 
of this life ? Cicero, in the Consolation on the death of his 
daughter, has spent all h is aliility in la mentation : but how 
inadequate was even Jus ability here ? For when, whi 
how, in this life can these primary objects of nature be 
sessed so that they may not be assailed by unforeseen acci- 
dents ? Is the body of the wise man exempt Irom any pain 
which may disjiel pleasure, from any dis qnictude_ whieh may 
banish repose ? The amputation or decay of the members of 
the body puts an end to iU integrity, deformity blights its 
beauty, weakness its health, lassitude its yigour, sleepiness or 
sluggishness its activity, — and which of these is it that may 
not assail the flesh of the wise man ? Comely and fitting atti- 
tudes and movements of the body are numbered among the 
prime natural blessings ; but what if some sickness makes the 
members tremble ? what if a man suffers from curvature of 
the spine to such an extent that liis hands reach the ground, 
and he goes upon all-fours like a quadruped ? Does not this 
destroy all beauty and grace in the body, whether at rest or in 
motion ? Wlmt shall I say of the fundamental blessin^3_o£ 
the soul, sense and intellect, of which the one is given for the 
perception, and the other for the compn^hension of truth ? 
* Pfi. xciv. 11, and 1 Cor. uL 20. 





But what kind of sense is it that remains when a man be- 
comes deaf and blind ? where are reason and intellect when 
disease makes a man delirious ? We can scarcely^ or not at 
all, refrain from tears, when we think of or see the actions and 
words of such frantic persons, and consider how different fi*om 
and even opposed to their own sober jvidgment and ordinary 
conduct their present demeanour is. And what shall I say of 
those who sufler from deraaniacal possession ? Where is their 
own intelligence hidden and buried while the miilignant spirit 
is using their body and soid according to his own will ? And 
who is quite sure that no such thing can happen to the -wise 
man in this life ? Then, as to the perception of tnith, what 
can we hope for even in this way while in the body, as we read 
in tlie true hook of Wisdom, " The comiptible body weigheth 
down the soul, and tlie earthly tabernacle presseth down the 
jEind that uiu.st'ih 'i p^m^iOiOllj^. things ?'' * And eagerness, 
or desire of acuun, if this is the right meaning to put npon 
the Greek op;*?;, is also reckoned among tlie primary advan- 
tages of nature ; and yet is it not this wliich produces those 
pitiable movements of the insane, and those actions which we 
shudder to se^, when sense is deceived and reason deranged ? 

lu fine,,yirtue itself, which is not among the primary objects 
of nature, but succeeils to them as t!ie result of learning, though 
it holds the highest place among human good things, what is 
its occupation save to^roge £erpetual w^ with vices, — not 
those that ai*e outside of us, but within ; not other men's, but 
our own, — a war which is waged especially by that vii-tue 
which the Greeks call aw^poavvr), and we temper ance.^ and 
which bridles carnal lusts, and prevents them from winning 
the consent of the spirit to wicked deeds ? For we must not 
fancy that there is no vice in us, when, as the apostle says, 
"The flesh lusteth against the spirit;"" for to this vice there is 
a contrary virtue, when, as the same writer says, " The spirit 
lusteth against the flesh." "For these two," he says, "are con- 
trary one to the other, so that you cannot do the things which 
you would." But what is it we wish to do when we seek to 
attain the supreme good, unless thiit the flesh should cease 
to lust against the spirit, and that there be no vice in us 

' Wisdom ix. 15, * Cicero, Tusc Quasi iii. S. ■ GaL t. 37, 



1 



304 



TITK CITY OF GOD. 



[book 



against which the spirit may lust ? And os we cannot attain 
to this in the present life, liowever ardently we desire it, 
let U9 by God's liulp accomplisli at least this, to preserve the 
soul from succumbing and yielding to the flesh that lusU 
against it, and to refuse our consent to the perpetration of 
sin. Far be it from us, then, to fancy that while we are still 
engaged in this ijitestine war, we have already found the 
happiness which we seek to reach by victory. And who is 
there so wise that he has no conEict at all to maintain against 
his vices ? 

Wliat simll I say of that virtue which is called prudence? 
Is not all its vigilance spent in the discernment of good from 
evil things, ao that no mistake may be admitted about wliat 
we should desire and what avoid ? And thus it is itself a 
proof that we are in the midst of evils, or tliat evils are in us; 
for it teaches us that it is an evil to consent to sin, and a 
good to refuse tins consent. And yet this evil, to which pm- 
deuce teaches and temperance enables us not to consent, is 
removed from this life neither by prudence nor by temper- 
auce. And justice, whose ofiice it is to render to every man 
his due, wliereby there is in man himself a certain just order 
of nature, so that the soul is subjected to God, and the flesh 
to the soul, and consequently both soul and flesh to God, — 
does not tliis virtue demonstrate that it is as yet rathe r labour- 
ing towards its end than resting in its finished work 1 For 
the soul is so much the less subjected to God as it is less 
occupied with tlie thougljt of God ; and the flesh is so much J,1io 
less subjected to the spirit as it lusts more vehemently against 
the spirit. So long, therefore, as we are beset by this weakness, 
this plague, tliis disease, how shall we dare to say that we are 
safe ? and if not safe, then how can we be already enjoying 
our final beatitude? Then tliat virtue which goes by the 
name of fortitude is the plainest proof of the ills of life, for 
it is these ills which it is compelled to bear patiently. And 
this holds good, no matter though the ripest wisdom co-exists 
with it. And I am at a loss to understand how the Stoic 
philosopher can presume to say that these are no ills, though 
at the same time they allow the wise man to commit suicide 
and pass out of this life if they become so giievous that he 





feOOK XIX.] 



TnE MISERY OF THIS LIFE. 



305 



cannot or ought not to endnre them. But such is the stupid 
jpride of these men who fancy that the s uprem e jiood can be 
found in this life, and that they can. become liappy by tbe^Lr 
Xivai resources, that their wise man, or at least the man whom 
they fancifully depict as such, is always happy, even though 
he become blind, deaf, dumb, mutilated, racked with pains, 
or suffer any conceivable calamity such as may compel him to 
make away with himself ; and they are not ashamed to call 
the life_ that ^Jieset with tliese evils happj^ happy life, 
which seeks the aid of death to end it I If it is happy, let the 
wise man remain in it ; but if these ills drive hiiu out of 
it, in what sense is it happy ? Or how can they say that 
these are not evils which conq^uer the virtue of fortitude, and 
force it not only to yield, but so to rave that it in one 
breath calls life happy and recoiumeuds it to be given up ? 
For who is so blind as not to see that i f it we re happ y it 
would _not^ he fled from? And if they say we shoul<l flee 
from it on account of the infirmities that beset it, why then 
do they not lower their pride and acknowledge that it is 
miserable ? Was it, I would ask, fortitude or weakness which 
prompted Cato to kill himself ? for he would not have done 
flo had he not been too weak to endure Caesar's victory. 
Wliere, then, is his fortitude ? It has yielded, it has suc- 
cuTubed, it has been so thoroughly overcome as to abandon, 
forsake, flee this happy life. Or was it no longer happy ? 
Then it was miserable. How, then, were these not evils 
which made life miserable, and a l-Iiing to be escaped from ? 

And therefore those who admit that these are evils, as the 
Peripatetics do, and the Old Acudemy, the sect Mdiich Van-o 
advocates, express a more intelligible doctrine ; i)ut theirs 
also is a surprising mistake, for they contend that this is a 
happy life which is beset by these evils, even though they be 
so great that he who endures them should commit suicide to 
escape them. " Pains and anguish of In^dy," says Varro, " are 
evils, and so much the worse in proportion to their severity ; 
and to escape them you must quit this life." What life, I 
pray ? This life, he says, which is oppressed by such evils. 
Tlien it is happy in the midst of these very evils on account 
of which you say we must ijuit it ? Or do you call it happy 

vou IL V 




306 



THE crrif OF GOD. 



[book XIX. 



because you are at liberty to escape these evils by death 7 
What, then, if by some secret judgment of God you were 
held fast and not permitted to die, nor suffered to live with- 
out these evils ? In that case, at least, you would say that 
such a life waa miserable. It is soon relinquished, no doubt, 
but this does not make it not ituserable ; for were it eternal, 
you yourself would pronounce it miserable. Its breviW, 
therefore, does not clear it of misery ; neitlier ought it to be 
called happiness because it is a brief misery. Certainly there 
is a nii^t;hty force in these evils which compel a man — acoord- 
ing to them, even a wise man — to cease to be a man that he 
may escape them, though they say, and say truly, that it is 
as it were the first and strongest demand of nature that a 
man cherish himself, and naturally therefore avoid death, and 
should so stand Ids own friend as to wish and vehemently 
aim at continuing to exist as a living creature, and subsisting 
in this union of soul and body. There is a mighty force in 
these evils to overcome this natural instinct by which death 
is by every means and vnih all a man's efforts avoided, and 
to overcome it so completely that what was avoided is desired, 
sought after, and if it cannot in auy other way be obtained, 
is inflicted by the man on himself There is a mighty force 
in these evils which make fortitude a homicide. — if, indeed, 
that is to be called fortitude which is so thoroughly overcome 
by these evils, that it not only cannot preserve by patience 
the man whom it undertook to govern and defend, but is 
itseli' obliged U^ kill him. The wise man, I admit, ought to 
bear death with patience, but when it ia inflicted by another. 
Tf, then, as these men maintain, he is obliged to inflict it on 
Iiimself, certainly it must be owned that the ills which com- 
pel him to this are not only e\'ils, but intolerable evils. The 
life, then, which is either subject to accidents, or environed 
with evils so considerable and grievous, could never have been 
called happy, if the men who give it this name had conde- 
scended to yield to the truth, and to be conquered by valid 
arguments, when they inquired after the happy life, as they 
yield to unhappinesa, and are overcome by overwhelming 
evils, when they put themselves to death, and if they had not 
fancied that the supreme good was to be found in this mortal 




TNCONSTSTE!fCT OP STOICISM. 



S07 



/ 



life; for the very virtues of this life, which are certainly its 
best and most useful possessions, are all the more telling 
proofs of its miseries in proportion as they are helpful a^ipainst 
the violence of its dangers, toils, and woes. For if these are 
true ^-i^tues, — and such cannot exist save in those who have 
true piety, — they do not profess to be able to deliver the men 
who possess them from all miseries; for true virtues tell no 
such lies, but they profess that by the hope of the future 
world this life, which is miserably involved in the many and 
great evils of this world, is happy as it is also safe. For if 
not yet safe, how could it be happy ? And therefore the 
Apostle Paul, speaking not of men without prudence, temper- 
ance, fortitude, and justice, but of those whose lives were 
regidated by true jJiety, and whose virtues were therefore true, 
says, "For we are saved by hope ; now hope which is seen 
is not hope ; for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for ? 
But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience 
wait for it"^ As, therefore, we are saved, so we are made 
happy by hope. And as we^ do not _ as yet poss ess a present^ 
but look for a future solvation, so is it with our happiness, 
and this " with patience ; " for we are encompassed with evils, 
which we ought patiently to endure, until we come to the 
ineffable enjoyment of immixed good ; for there shall be no 
longer anything to endure. Salvation, such as it shall be in 
the world to come, shall itself be our final happiness. And 
this happiness these philosophers refuse to believe in, becanae 
they do not seejt, and attempt to fabricate for _ themselves a 
jtaii[))ii* s. In this life, based upon a virtue which is as deceit- 
ful as it is proud. 

5. Oftht social life, which, tliowjh moat deslrahUt ia/rrqunUly disturhefl b*f 
many dutr6»sa. 

We give a much more unlimited approval to their idea tlmt 
the life of the wise man must be social. For how could the 
city of God (concerning which we are already writing no less 
tlian the nineteenth hook of this work) either take a begin- 
ning or be developed, or attain its proper destiny, if the life 
of the saints were not a social life ? But who can enumerate 
all the great grievances with which human society abounds in 

' £om. viii. 24. 




308 



TITE CITY OF GOD. 



[nooK XIX. 



tlio misery of this mortal state ? Who can weigh them ? 
Hear how one of their comic writers makes one of his cha- 
racters express the common feelinga of a]l men in this matter: 
" I am married ; this is one misery. Children are bom to me ; 
they are additional cares."^ Whnt shall I say of the miseries 
of love whicli Terence also recounts — " slights, suspicions, 
quarrels, war to-day, peace to-morrow?"* Is not human life 
full of such things ? Do they not often occur even in 
honourabie friendships ? On all hands we experience these 
slights, suspicions, quarrels, war, all of which are undoubted 
evils; while, on the other hand, peace is a doubtful good, be- 
cause we do not know the heart of our fiiend, and tliough 
we did know it to-day, we should be as ignomnt of what it 
might be to-morrow. \^Tio ought to be, or who are more 
friendly than those who live in the same family ? And yet 
who can rely even upon this friendship, seeing that secret 
treachery has often broken it up, and produced enmity as bitter 
as the amity was sweet, or seemed sweet by the most perfect 
dissimulation ? It is on this account that the words of Cicero 
so move the heart of every one, and provoke a sigh : " There 
ai'e no snarea more daugtrous than tliosc. whicli lurk under 
the guise of duty or the name of relationship. For the man 
who i.s your dcclaretl foe you can easily Laflle by precaution ; 
but this hidden, intestine, and domestic danger not merely 
exists, but overwhelms you before yon can foresee and examine 
it."" It is also to this that allusion is made by the divine 
saying, " A man's foes are those of his own household/'* — wortls 
which one cannot hear without pain ; for though a man have 
sufficient fortitude to endure it with equanimity, and sufficient 
sagacity to baffle the malice of a pretended friend, yet if he 
himself is a good man, he cannot but be greatly pained at the 
discovery- of the perfidy of wicked men, whether they have 
always been wicked and merely feigned goodness, or have 
fallen from a better to a malicioiis disposition. If, then, home, 
the natural refuge from tlie ills of life, is itself not safe, what 
shall we say of the city, wliich, as it is larger, is so much the 
more filled with lawsuits civil and criminal, and is never 



^ Tercnt. Adt-iph. v. 4. 
' In Verrcin^ ii. 1. 15. 



* Eunuch, i. 1 

* Matt. X. 8S. 




BOOK Xrx] I'XREASOXADLENTSS OF TORTLT.E. 



309 



free from the fear, if sometimes from the actual outbreak, of 
distui'bing and bloody msurrections and civil wars ? 

6. 0/tht error qf human JutlfpnaiU taTien the truth u hidJea. 

What shall I say of these judgments which men pronounce 
on men, aud which are necessary in communities, whatever 
outward peace they enjoy ? Melancholy and lamentable 
judgments they are, since the judf^ea are men who cannot 
discern the consciences of those at their bar, and are therefoi-e 
frequently compelled to put innocent witnesses to tlie tortuie 
to ascertain the truth regardin;;^ the crimes of other men. 
What shall I say of torture applied to the accused himself ? 
He is tortured to discover whether he is guilty, so tliat, thougli 
innocent, he suffers most undoubted punishment for crime that 
is still doubtful, not because it is proved that he committed it, 
but because it is not ascertained that he did not commit it 
Thais the ignorance of the judge frequently involves an innocent 
pei-son in sufi^^ring. And what is still moi-e unendurable — a 
thing, indeed, to be bewailed, and, if that were possible, watered 
witli fountains of tears — is this, that when the judge puts the 
accused to the question, that lie may not imwittingly put an 
innocent man to death, the result of this lamentable ignorance 
is that tliis very person, whom he tortured that he might nut 
condemn him if innocent, is condemned to death both tortured 
and innocent. For if he has chosen, in obedience to the 
pliilosophical instructions to the wise man, to quit this life 
rather than endure any longer such tortures, he declares that 
he has committed the crime which in fact he has not com- 
mitted. And when he has been condemned and put to 
death, tlie judge is still in ignorance whether he has put to 
death an innocent or a guilty person, though he put the 
accused to the torture for the very purpose of saving himself 
from condemning the innocent ; and consequently he has 
both tortured an innocent man to discover his innocence, and 
has put him to dcatli without discovering it. If such dark- 
ness shrouds social life, will a wise judge take his seat on 
the bencli or no ? Beyond question he will. Tor human 
society, which he thinks it a wickedness to abandon, constrains 
him and compels him to this duty. And he thinks it no 





310 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[DOOK XIX. 



wickedness that innocent witnesses ore tortured regarding the 
crLmes of which other men are accused ; or that the accused 
are put to the torturCj so thafe they are often overcome with 
anguish, and, though innocent, make false confessions regard- 
ing themselves, and are punLshed ; or that, tliough they be not 
condemned to die, they often die during, or in consequence of, 
the torture ; or that sometiuies the accusers, who perhaps 
have been prompted by a desire to benefit society by bringing 
criminals to justice, are themselves condemned through the 
ignorance of the judge, because they are unable to prove the 
truth of their accusations though they are true, and because 
the witnesses lie, and the accused endures the torture without 
being moved to confession. These numerous and important 
evils he does not consider sins ; for the >vise judge does these 
things, not with any intention of doing harm, but because his 
ignorance compels him, and because human society claiznfi 
him as a judge. But though we therefore acquit the judge 
of malice, we must none the leas condemn human life as 
miserable. And if he is compelled to torture and punish the 
innocent because his office and his ignorance constrain him, is 
he a liappy as well its a guiltless man ? Surely it were proof 
of more profound considerateness and finer feeling were he to 
recognise the misery of these necessities, and shrink from his 
own implication in that misery ; and had he any piety about 
him, he would cr^-- to God, " From my necessities deliver Thou 
me. 

7. OfUie diversify of lanffuarjM^ by wKlck the inttrcourge of men is\ 
and of tfie misery ofwarx^ cvm of thoat called jtut. 

After the state or city comes the world, the third circle 
human society, — the first being the house, and tlic second the 
city. And the world, as it is larger, so it is fuller of dangers, 
03 the greater sea is the more dangerous. And here, in the 
first place, man is separated from man by the difference of 
languages. For if two men, each ignorant of the other's 
language, meet, and are not compelled to pass, but, on tlie 
contrary, to remain in company, dimib animals, though of 
different species, would more easily hold intercourse than 
they, human beings tliough they be. For their common 

' Pt. XXV, 17. 






BOOK XK.] WANT OF CONCORD AMONG JfEN, 



311 



nature is no help to friendliness wlien they are prevented by 
diversity of language from conveying their sentiments to one 
another ; so that a man woidd more readily hold intercourse 
with his dog than with a foreigner. But the imperial city 
has endeavoured to impose on subject nations not only lier 
yoke, but her language, as a bond of peace, so that inter- 
preters, far from being scarce, are numberless. This is true ; 
but how many great wars, how much slaughter and bloodshed, 
have provided this unity ! And though these are past, the 
end of these miseries has not yet coma For though there 
have never been wanting, nor are yet wanting, hostile nations 
beyoud the empire, against whom wars have been and are 
waged, yet, supposing there were no such nations, tiie very 
extent of the empire itself has produced wars of a more ob- 
noxious description — social and civil wars — and with these 
the whole race lias been agitated, either by the actual conflict 
or the fear of a renewed outbreak. H I attenipted to give an 
adequate description of these manifold disasters, these stem 
and lasting necessities, though I atn qmte unequal to the 
task, what limit could I set ? But, say they, the wise man 
will wage just wars. As if he would not all the rather 
lament the necessity of just wars, if he remembers that he is 
a man ; for if they were not just he would not wage them, 
and would therefore be delivered from all wars. For it is the 
\vrong-doing <:)f the opposing pai-ty which compels the wise 
man to wage just wars ; and this wrong-doing, even though it 
gave rise to no war, would still be matter of grief to man be- 
cause it is man's \vrong-doing. Let every one, then, who 
thinks with pain on all these great evils, so horrible, so ruth- 
less, acknowledge that tliis is misery. And if any one eitlier 
endures or tliinks of them without mental pain, this is a more 
miserable plight still, for he thinks himself happy because he 
has lost human feeling. 

B. That the frifmhhip of good men cannot be tecurel^ re»ud »n, so long <t* lAe 
dangerit oj Uiis U/e force ua lo he anxioua. 

In our present n-retched condition we frequently mistake a 

■friend for an enemy, and an enemy for a friend. And if we 

escape this pitiable blindness, is not the unfeigned confidence 

and mutual love of true and srood friends our one solace in 



312 



THE CITY OF COD. 



[book XIX. 



human society, iiUed as it is with itiisuuderstandings and 
calamities ? And yet the more friends we Lave, and the more 
widely they are scattered,, tlie more numerous are our fears 
tliat some portion of tlie vast masses of the disasters of life 
may light upon them. For we are not only anxious lest tliey 
suffer from famine, war, disease, captivity, or the inconceiv- 
alilc horrors of slavery, but we are also affected with the 
much more painfid dread that their friendship may be 
changed into perfidy, malice, and injustice. And when these 
contingencies actually occur, — as they do the more frequently 
the more friends we have, and the more widely they are 
scattered, — and when they come to our knowledge, who hut 
the man wlio has experienced it can tell with what pangs the 
heart is torn ? We would, in fact, prefer to hear that they 
were dead, olthoDgh we coidd not without anguish hear of 
even this. For if their life has solaced us with the charms of 
friendship, can it hi\ tl»at their death should ati'ect us with no 
sadness ? He who will have none of this sadness must, if 
possible, have no friendly intercourse. Let lum interdict or 
extinguish friendly affection ; let him burst with ruthless in- 
sensibility the bonds of every human relationship ; or let him 
contrive so to use them that no sweetness shall distil into his 
spirit But if this is utterly impossible, how shall we con- 
trive to feel no bitterness in the death of those whose life has 
been sweet to us ? Hence arises tliat grief which affects the 
tender heart Kke a wound or a bruise, and which is healed by 
the application of kindly consolation. For though the cure 
is afl'dcted all the more easily and rapidly the better condition 
the soul is in, we must not on this account suppose that there 
is nothing at all to heal Although, then, our present life is 
afflicted, sometimes in a milder, sometimes in a more painful 
degree, by the death of those very dear to us, and especially 
of useful public men, yet we would prefer to hear that such 
men were dead rather than to hear or perceive that they had 
fallen from the faith, or from virtue, — in other wortls, that 
they were spiritually dead. Of this vast material for misery 
the earth is full, and therefore it is written, " Is not humau 
life upon earth a trial ? "^ And with the same reference the 

1 Jot vii. 1. 




BOOK XIX.] FRIENDSHIP OF AXGELS XOT AVAILADLa 



Lord says, "Woe to Uie world because of offences!"* and 
again, " Because iniquity abounded, the love of many shall 
wax cold."* And hence we enjoy some gratification when 
our good friends die ; for though their death leaves us in 
sorrow, we have tlie consolatory assurance that they are 
beyond the ills by which in this life even the best of men are 
broken down or corruptedj or are in danger of both results. 

9, Of t?ie friendship of the hofj/ angels^ irftic/i men cannot he sure of in tfiU llff, 
omntj to the d«ix\t of the demons who hold in boudaf/e the worshippers of 
aplnraiity qf godt. 

The philosophers who wished us to have the gods for our 
friends rank tlie friendsiiip of the holy angels in the fouilh 
circle of society, advancing now from the three circles of 
society on earth to the universe, and embracing Leaven itself. 
And in tliis friendship we liave indeed no fear that the angels 
■will grieve us by their death or deterioration. But as wc 
cannot mingle with them as familiarly as with men (which 
itself is one of the grievances of tliis life), and as Satan, as 
■we read/ sometimes transforms himself into an angel of light, 
to tempt those whom it is necessai-y to discipline, or just to 
deceive, there is gi'eat need of God's mercy to presence us 
from making friends of demons in disguise, while we fancy 
we have good angels for our friends ; for the astuteness and 
deceitfulness of these wicked spirits is equalled by their hurt- 
fulness. And is this not a great misery of human life, that 
we are involved in such ignorance as, but for God*s mercy, 
makes us a prey to these demons ? And it is very certain 
that the pliilosophers of the godless city, who have main- 
tained that the gods were their friends, had fallen a prey to 
the malignant demons who rule that city, and whose eternal 
punishment is to bo shared by it. Por tho nature of these 
beings is sufficiently e^nnced by the sacred or rather sacri- 
legious observances which fonu their worship, and by the 
filthy games in which their crimes are celebrated, and which 
they themselves originated and exacted from their worshippers 
as a £t propitiation. 



» Matt xvii, 7. 



» MitL xiiT. 12. • 2 Cor. xi. U. 




314 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XIX. 



10. 77t€ reward prepared for the 9(Unis ajter they have tndvred the 
trial qfthU /j/c. 

But not even the saints and faithful worshippera of the 
one ti-ue and most high God are safe from the manifold temp- 
tations and deceits of the demons. For in this ahode of 
weakness, and in these wiclced days, this state of anxiety has 
also its use, stirnvdating us to seek with keener longing for 
that security where peace is complete and unassailable. There 
we sh&n enjoy the gifts of nature, that is to say, all that God 
the Creator of all natures has bestowed upon ours, — gifts not 
only good, but eternal, — not only of the spirit, healed now by 
wisdom, but also of the body renewed by the resurrection. 
There the virtues shall no longer be struggling against any 
vice or evil, but shall enjoy the reward of victory, the etenud 
peace which no adversary shall disturb. This is the final 
blessedness, this the ultimate consummation, the unending end- 
Here^ indeed, we are said to be blessed when we have such 
peace as can be enjoyed in a good life ; but such blessedness 
is mere misery compared to that final felicity. When we 
mortals possess such pea.ce as this mortal life can afford, 
virtue, if we are living rightly, makes a right use of the ad- 
vantages of this peaceful condition ; and when we have it not, 
virtue makes a good use even of the e\'ils a man suffers. 
But this is true virtue, when it refers all the advantages it 
makes a good use of, and all that it does in making good use 
of good and evil things, and itself also, to that end in which 
we shall enjoy the best and greatest peace possibla 

11. 0/ the happijiesi qf the eternal peaeey wJdeh eofutUutea tKe end or true 
per/ection of tlie sainU. 

And thus we may say of peace, as we have said of eternal 
life, that it is the end of our good \ and the rather because 
the Psalmist says of the city of God, the subject of this labo- 
rious work, " Praise the Lord, O Jerusalem ; praise thy God, 
Zion : for He hath strengthened the bars of thy gates ; He 
hath blessed thy children within thee ; who hath made thy 
borders peace." ^ For when the bars of her gates shall be 
strengthened, none shall go in or come out from her ; conse- 
quently we ought to understand the peace of her borders as 
» Ps. cxlviL 12-14. 





BOOK XIX.] 



OF ETKRN.VL PEACE. 



315 



that final peace we are wishing to declai-e. For even the 
mystical name of the city itself, that is, Jerusalem, means, aa I 
have abeadj said, " Vision of Peace." But aa the word peace is 
employed in connection with things in this world in which 
certainly life eternal has no place, we have preferred to call 
the end or supreme good of this city life eternal rather thnn 
peace. Of this end the apostle says, "But now, beinfT freed 
from sin, and become ser\*ants to God, ye have your fruit imtfi 
holiness, and the end life eternal"^ But, on the other hand, 
as those who are not familiar with Scripture may suppose that 
the life of the >vicked is eternal life, either becftuse of the 
immortality of the soul, which some of the philosopliers even 
have recognised, or because of the endless punishment of the 
wicked, which forms a part of our faith, and which seems 
impossible unless the wicked live for ever, it may therefore 
bo advisable, in order that every one may readily understand 
what we mean, to say that the end or supreme good of this 
city is either peace in eternal life, or etenml life in peace. For 
peace is a good so great, that even in this earthly and mortal 
life there is no word wc hear with such pleasure, nothing we 
desire with such zest, or find to be more thoroughly gratify- 
ing. So that if we dwell for a little longer on this subject, 
we shall not, in my opinion, be wearisome to our re^iders, who 
will attend both for the sake of understanding wliat is the 
end of this city of which we speak, and for the sake of the 
sweetness of peace which is dear to all. 

12, That even thefiercentsa of war and all Che dUqutftudt o/men maix 
Unoards this one end ofpcaet^ which every nature dmren. 

Whoever gives even moderate attention to human affairs 
and to our common nature, will recognise that if there is 
no man who does not wish to be joyful, neither is there 
any one who does not wish to have peade. For even they 
who make war desire nothing but victory, — desire, that is 
to say, to attain to peace with glory. For what else is victory 
than the conquest of those who resist us ? and when this is 
done there is peace. It is therefore with the desire for peace 
that wars are waged, even by those who take pleasure in 
exercising their wai'like nature in command and battle. And 

> Rom. vi 22. 



SIC THE CITY OF COD. [BOOK XEL 

hence it is obvioiis that peace is the end sought for by war. 
Tot eveiy man seeks peace by "waging Avar, but no man seeks 
■war by making; peace. For eveu they who intentionally 
interrupt the peace in which they are living have no hatred 
of peace, but only vrish it changed into a peace that suite 
them bettor. They do not^ therei'ore, wish to have no peace, 
but only one more to their mind And in the case of sedition, 
■when men have separated thnmselves from the community, 
they yet do not eflect what they w*ish, unless they niaintaui 
some kind of peace with their fellow -conspirators. And 
therefore even robl>ers take care to maintain peace with their 
comrades, that they may with greater effect and greater safety 
invade the peace of other men. And if an individual happen 
to be of such unrivalled strengthj and to be so jealous of part- 
nership, that he trusts himself with no comrades, but makes 
his own plots, and commits depredations and murders on his 
own account, yet he maintains some shadow of peace with 
such persons as he is unable to kill, and from whom he 
wishes to conceal his deeds. In his own home, too, he makes 
it his aim to be at peace with his wife and children, and any 
other members of his household ; for imqiiestionably their 
prompt obedience to his every look is a source of pleasure to 
him. And if this be not rendered, he is angry, he chides and 
puniahea ; and even by this storm he secures the calm peace 
of his own home, as occasion demands. For he sees that 
peace cannot bu maintained uidess all the members of the 
same domestic circle be subject to one head, sucli ns he liim- 
self is in his o\vn house. And therefore if a city or nation 
ofifered to submit itself to him, to serve him in tho same style 
as he had made his household serve him, he wo^dd no longer 
lurk in a brigand's hiding-places, but lift his head in open 
day as a king, though the same covetousness and wickedness 
should remain in him. And thus all inen desire to have 
peace with their own circle whom they wish to govern as 
suits themselves. For even those whom they make war 
against they wiah to make their own, and impose on them 
the laws of their own peace. 

But let \\s suppose a man such as poetry and mythology 
speak of, — a man so inaociable and savage as to be called rather 





BOOK XIX.] 



VTACT. DESIRED BYAir MEN*. 



317 



a semi-man than a man} Although, then, his kingdom was 
the solitiide of a dreary cave, and he himself was so sinj^ularly 
had-hearted that he was named Koko^^ wliich is the Greek 
word for had ; though he had no wife to soothe him with endear- 
ing talk, no children to play with, no sons to do his bidding, no 
friend to eidiven liiin with intercourse, not even his father 
Vulcan (though in one respect he was happier than his father, 
not having begotten a monster like himself) ; although he -^ave 
to no man, but took as he wi.^lied whatever he could, from 
whomsoever be could, when he could ; yet in that sohtary deu, 
the floor of which, as Virgil^ says, was always reeking with 
recent slaughter, there was notliing else than peace sought, a 
peace in wliich no one should molest him, or disquiet him with 
any assault or alanu. "With his own body he desired to T)e at 
peace J and he was satisfied only in proportion a3 he had this 
peace. For he ruled his members, and they obeyed him ; and 
for the sake of pacifying his mortal nature, which rebelled when 
it needed an}-thing» and of allaying the sedition of hunger wliich 
tlireatened to banish the soul from the body, he made forays, 
slew, and devoured, but used the ferocity and savagcness he 
displayed in these actions only for the pTC3er\"ation of his own 
life's peace. So that, had he been willing to make with other 
men the same peace whicli he made with himself in liis own 
cave, he would neither have been called bad, nor a monster, 
nor a semi-man. Or if the uppearance of his body and his 
vomiting smolcy fires frightened men from having any dealings 
with him, perha|>s his tierce ways arose not from a desire to 
do mischief, but from the necessity of finding a living. But he 
may have had no existence, or^ at least, he was not such as the 
poets fancifull}^ describe liim, for they bad to exalt Ilercides, 
nnd did so at the expense of Cacus. It is better, then, to 
believe that such a man or scmi-nian never existed, and that 
this, in cuiamoii with numy other fancies of the poet-?, is mere 
fiction. For the most savage animals (and he is said to have 
been almost a wUd beast) encompass their own species with a 
ring of protecting peace. They cohabit, beget, produce, suckle, 
and bring up their young, though very many of them are not 
gregarious, but solitary, — not like sheep, deer, pigeons, starlings, 

* He refers to the giant Cacua. * j£neidt viiL 1&5, 




318 



THE CITY or GOD. 



BOOK XTX 



bees, but such as lions, foxes, eagles, bats. For what tigress 
does not gently pniT over her cubs, and lay aside her ferocity 
to fondle them ? Wiat kite, solitary as he is when circling 
over his prey, does not seek a mate, build a nest, hatch the 
eggs, bring up the young bii'ds, and maintain "with the mother 
of his family as peaceful a domestic alliance as he can ? How 
much more powerfully do the laws of mans nature move him 
to liold fellowship and maintain peace with all men so far as 
in liim lies, since even wicked men wage war to maintain the 
peace of their own circle, and wish that, if possible, all men 
belonged to them, that all men and things might serve but one 
head, and Tuight, either through love or fear, yield themselves 
to peace with him ! It is thus that pride in its perversity apes 
God It abhors equality TiVith other men under Him ; but, 
instead of His rule, it seeks to impose a rule of its own upon 
its equals. It abhors, that is to say, the just peace of God, 
and loves its own unjust peace ; but it cannot help loving peace 
of one kind or other. For there is no vice so clean contrary 
to nature that it obliterates even the faintest traces of nature. 
He, then, who prefers what is right to what is wrong, and 
what is well-ordered to what is perverted, sees that the peace 
of unjust men is not worthy to be called peace in comparison 
with the peace of the jtist. And yet even what is pen^erted 
must of necessity be in harmony with, and in dependence on. 
and in some part of the order of things, for otherwise it would 
have no existence at all Suppose a man hangs with his liead 
downwaids, this is certainly a per\'erted attitude of body and 
arrangement of its members ; for that which nature requires 
to be above is beneath, and vice versa. This perversity disturbs 
the peace of the body, and is therefore painftd Nevertheless 
the spirit is at peace with its body, and labours for its preserva- 
tion, and lifMice the suffering; but if it is banished from the 
body by its pains, then, so long as the bodily framework holds 
together, there is in the remains a kind of peace among the 
members, and hence the body remains suspended. And inas- 
much as the earthy body tends towards the earth, and rests on 
the bond by which it is suspended, it tends thus to its natural 
peace, and the voice of its own weight demands a place for it 
to rest ; and though now lifeless and without feeling, it does 





BSbX XK.] 



OUS KINDS OF PEA 



S19 



not fall from the peace that is natural to its place in creation, 
whether it already has it, or is tending towards it. For if you 
apply embahuiag preparations to prevent the bodily frame from 
mouldering and dissolving, a land of peace still unites part to 
part, and keeps the whole body in a suitable place on the earth, 
— in other words, in a place that is at peace with the body. If, 
on the other band, the body receive no such care, but be left 
to the natural course, it is disturbed by exhalations that do not 
harmonize with one another, and that offend our senses ; for 
it is this which is perceived in putrefaction until it is assimi- 
lated to the elements of the world, and particle by particle 
enters into peace with them. Yet throughout this process the 
laws of the most high Creator and Governor are strictly observed, 
for it is by Him the peace of the universe is administered. For 
although minute animals are produced firom the carcase of a 
lai^'er animal, all tliese httle atoms, by the law of the same 
Creator, serve the animals they belong to in peace. And although 
the flesh of dead animals be eaten by othei-s, no matter where 
it be carried, nor what it be brought into contact with, nor what 
it be converted and changed into, it still is riJed by the same 
laws which per\'ade all things for the conservation of every 
mortal race, and which bring things that £t one another into 
harmony. 

13. Of the universal p€ac€ vluch the laxc of nature preservts through all digturb- 
anceft afu2 &y which every one rcaehea kia desert in a way regulated hy 
the just Judge. 

The peace of the body then consists in the duly proportioned 
arrangement of its parts. The peace of the irrational soul is 
the harmonious repose of the appetites, and that of the rational 
soul the hannony of knowledge and action. The peace of body 
and sold is the well-ordered and harmonious life and health of 
the living creature. Peace between man and God is the well- 
ordered obedience of faith to eternal law. Peace between man 
and man is well-ordered concord. Domestic peace is the well- 
ordered concord between those of the family who rule and 
those who obey. Civil peace is a similar concord among the 
citizens. The peace of the celestial city is the perfectly ordered 
and harmonious enjoyment of God, and of one another in God, 
The peace of all tilings is the tranq[uillity of order. Order is 



320 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XIX. 




the distribution wliich allots things equal and unequal, each to 
its own place. And Iience, though the misemble, in so far as 
they are such, do certainly not enjoy peace, but are severed 
from that tranquillity of order in whicli there is no disturbance, 
nevertheless, iuasmuch as they are deser\'edly and justly mise- 
rable, they are by their very misery connected with order. 
They are not, indeed, conjoined with the blessed, but they are 
disjtjuied from them by the law of order. And though they 
are disquieted, their circiunstances are notwithstanding adjusted 
t€ them^ and consequently they have some tranquillity of order, 
and therefore some peace. But they are wi-etched because, 
although not wholly miserable, they are not in that place where 
any mixture ci misery is impossible. They would, however, 
be more wretched if they liad not that peace which arises from 
being in harmony with the natural order of things. When 
they suffer, their peace is in so far disturbed ; but their peace 
continues in so far as they do not suffer, and in so far as their 
uatiu'e continues to exist. As, then, there may be life without 
pain, while there cannot be pain without some kind of life, 
so there may be peace without war, but there cannot be war 
without some kind of peace, because war supposes the exist- 
ence of some natures to wage it, and these natures cannot 
exist without peace of one kind or other. 

And therefore there is a nature in which evil does not or 
even cannot exist; but there cannot be a nature in which 
there is no good. Hence not even the nature of the devil 
himself is evil, in so far as it is nature, but it was made evil 
by being perverted. Thus he did not abide in the truth,* but 
could not escape the judgment of the Truth ; he did not abide 
in the tranquillity of oixler, but did not therefore escape tlie 
power of the Ordainer. The good imparted by God to his 
nature did not screen him from tlie justice of God by which 
order was preserved in liis punishment ; neither did God 
punish the good which He had created, but the evil which 
the devil had committed. God did not take back all He had 
imparted to his nature, but something He took and something 
He left, that there might remain enough to be sensible of the 
loss of what was taken. And this very sensibility to pain is 

' Jolm viiL ii. 




BOOK XIX. 



Tire BLEssryGS of this life. 



eviileuce of the good wliich has been taken away and the 
good which has been left. For, were nothing good left, tliere 
could be no pnia on account of the good which had been lost 
For he who sins is still worse if he rejoices in liis loss of 
righteousness. But he who is in paii], if lie derives no benefit 
frani it, mourns at least the loss of health. And as righteous- 
ness and health are both good things, and as the loss of any 
good thing is matter of grief, not of joy, — if, at least, there is 
no compensation, as spiritual righteousness may compensate 
fur the loss of bodily health, — certaiidy it is more suitable 
for a wicked man to grieve in punishment than to i-ejoice in 
his fault. As, then, the joy of a sinner who has abandoned 
what is good ia evidence of a bad will, so his grief for the 
good he has lost when he is punished is evidence of a good 
nature. For he who laments the peace his nature has lost is 
stirred to do so by some relics of peace whicti make his nature 
friendly to itself. And it is very just that in the final 
pumshment the wicked and godless should in anguish bewail 
the loss of the natural advantages they enjoyed, and should 
perceive that they were most justly taken from them by that 
God whose benign liberality they had despised. God, then, 
the most wise Creator and most just Ordainer of all natures, 
who placed the huniati race upon earth as its greatest orna- 
ment, imparted to men some good things adapted to this life, 
to wit, temporal peace, such as we can enjoy in this life from 
health and safety and human fellowship, and all things need- 
ful for the preservation and recovery of tliis peace, such as 
the objects wliich are accommodated to our outward senses, 
light, ni,L;ht, the aii*, and waters suitable for us, and everj'- 
tliing the body requires to sustain, shelter, heal, or beautify 
it: and all under this most equitable condition, that every 
man who made a good use of these advantages suited to the 
peace of this mortal condition, should receive ampler and 
better blessings, namely, the peace of immortality, accompanied 
by gloiy and houour in on endless life made fit for the enjoy- 
ment of God and of one another in God ; but that he who 
used the present blessings badly should both lose them and 
should not receive the others. 



TOL. IL 



L 




322 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book m. 



14. OfUie. ordrr and law which ollain iii htaren and earthy whereby it comes to 
pa9s thai hunuut society u tervtd hy those who ruie iC. 

The whole use, then, of things temporal liaa a reference to 
this result of eartlily peace in the eartlily community, while 
iu the city of God it is connected with eternid peace. And 
therefore, if we were irrational animals, we should desire 
nothing beyond the pi-oper arrangement of the parts of the 
body and the satisfaction of the appetites, — nothing, there- 
fore, but bodily comfort and abundance of pleasures, that the 
peace of the body might contribute to the peace of the souL 
For if bodily peace be awanting, a bar is put to the peace 
even of the irrational soul, since it cannot obtain the gratiH- 
cation of its appetites. And these two together help out the 
mutual pen.ce of soul and body, the peace of harmonious life 
and health. For as animals, by shunning pain, show that they 
love bodily peace, and, by pursuing pleasure to gratify their 
appetites, show that they love peace of soul, so their slirinking 
from death is a sufficient indication of their intense love of 
that peace which binds soul and body in close alliance. But, 
as man has a rational soul, he subordinates all this which he 
has in common with the beasts to the peace of liis rational 
soul, that his intellect may have free play and may regulate 
his actions, and that he may thus enjoy the well-ordered har- 
mony of knowlciigc and action which constitutes, as we have 
said, the peace of the rational soul And for this purpoee he 
must desire to be neither molested by pain, nor disturbed by 
desire, nor extinguislied by death, that he may arrive at some 
useful knowledge by which he may regulate his life and 
manners. But, owing to the liability of the human mind to 
fall into mistakes, tliis very pursuit of knowledge may be a 
snare to him luiless he baa a divine Master, whom he may 
uhcy without misgiving, and who may at the same time give 
aim such help as to preserve his own freedom. And because, 
so long as he is in this mortal body, he is a stranger to God, 
he walks by faith, not by sight ; and he therefore refers all 
peace, bodily or spiritual or both, to that peace which mortal 
man has with the immortal God, so that he exhibits the well- 
ordered obedience of faith to eternal law. But as this divine 
blaster incidcates two precepts, — the love of God and the 





BOOK XIX.] 



DOMESTIC A^D SOCIAL KULE. 



323 



love of our neighbour, — and as in these precepts a man finds 
tliree thuigs he has to love, — God, himself, and his neighbour, 
— and that he who loves God loves himseli thereby, it follows 
that he must endeavour to get his neighbour to love God, 
since he is ordered to love his neighbour as himsi^lL He 
ought to make this endeavour in behalf of his wife^ his chil- 
dren, his household, all within his reach, even as he would 
wish his neighbour to do the same for him. if he needed it ; 
and consequently he will be at peace, or in well-ordered con- 
cord, with all men, as far as in him lies. And this is the 
order of this concord, that a man, in the first place, injure no 
one, and, in the second, do good to every one he can reacL 
Primarily, therefore, his own household are his care, for the 
law of nature and of society gives him readier access to them 
and greater opportunity of serving them. And hence the 
apostle says, "Now, if any provide not for his own, and 
specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the 
faith, and is worse than an iofidcL" ^ This is the origin of 
domestic peace, or the well-ordered concord of those in the 
family who rule and those who obey. For they who care 
for the rest ride, — the husband the wife, the parents the 
children, the masters the servants; and they who are cared 
for obey, — tlie women their husbands, the children their 
parents, the servants their masters. But in the family of 
the just man who lives by faith and is as yet a pilgrim 
journeying on to tlie celestial city, even those who rule 
sen^e those whom they seem to command; for they nde 
not from a love of power, but from a sense of the duty they 
owe to others — not because they are proud of authority, but 
because they love mercy. 

15. 0/ the llhftrfy proper to manV naturf, and the servitude hUrodueed bjf ri», — 
a sert^tude i» lokich iJve man toho*e will it ioicktd La the slave <^fhi$ om 
Uut, though he ia/ree wo far as regards other men. 

This is prescribed by tlie order of nature : it is thus that 
God has created man. For " let them," He says, " have 
dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the 
air, and over every creeping thing which crcepeth on the 
eai-th.'"^ He did not intend that His rational creature, who 

> X Tim. V. 8. * Ken. i. 26, 



)( 



324 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XTC 



was made in His image, should have dominion over anything 

but the irrational creation, — not man over man, bat man over 
tliG beasts. And licnce the righteous men in primitive times 
were made shepherds of cattle rather than kings of men, God 
intending tlnis to taiuli xis what the relative position of the 
creatm-es is, and what the desert of sin ; for it is with justice, 
we believe, that the condition of slavery is the result of siri. 
And tills is why we do not find the word " slave " in any jwut 
of Scriptiu*e until rigliteous Noali branded the fiiii of his son 
with this name. Ifc is a name, therefore, introduced by ain 
and not by nature. The origin of the Latin avoixI for slave 
is supposed to be found in tlie circumstance that those who 
by the law of war were liable to be killed were sometimes 
preserved by their victors, and were hence called ser^'unts.* 
And these circumstances could never have arisen save tlu-ough 
sin. For even when we wage a just war. our adversaries 
must be sinning ; and every victory, even thougli gained by 
wicknd men, is a result of the first judgment of God, who 
humbles the vanquished either for the sake of removing or 
of pnnisliing their sins. Witness that man of God, Daniel, 
whOj when he was in captivity, confessed to God his own sins 
and the sins of his people, and declares with pious grief that 
these were the cause of the captivity.* Tlio jninic cause, then, 
of slaveiy is sin, which brings man under the dominion of his 
fellow, — that which does not haj>pen save by the judgment ol 
God, with whom is no unrighteousness, and who knows how 
to award fit punishments to every variety of offence. But our 
Master in heaven says, " Every one who doeth sin is the ser- 
vant of sin."^ And thus there are many \nckcd masters who 
have religious men as tlicir slaves, and who are yet tliemselves 
in bondage ; " for of whom a man is overcome, of the same 
is he brought in bondage."* And beyond question it is a 
happier thing to be the slave of a man than of a lust ; for even 
this very lust of ruling, to mention no others, lays waste men's 
hearts with the most ruthless dominion. Moreover, when men 
are subjected to one another in a peaceful order, tho lowly 
position does as much good to the sei-vant as the proud posi- 



/ 



* John viii. 31 



from tervare, "to preserve," 



' Dim. ix. 
*2?dt iL 10. 





BOOK XIX.] 



07 EQUITABLE RULE. 



32, 



tion does harm to the master. But by nature, as God £rst 
created lis, no one is the slave either of man or of sin. This 
servitude is, however, penal, and is appointed by that law 
which enjoins the preser^'ation of the natural order and for- 
bids its disturbance ; for if nothing had been done in violation 
of that law, there would have been nothing to restrain by 
penal ser\'itude. And therefore the apostle admonishes slaves 
to be subject to their masters, and to sen'e them heartily 
and with good-will, so that, if the}' cannot be freed by their 
masters, they may themselves make their slavery in some sort 
free, by serving not in crafty fear, but in faithful love, until 
all unrighteousness pass away, and all principality and every 
human power be brought to nothing, and God be all in all 

18. 0/ equitable ruU, 

And therefore, although our righteous fathers ^ had slaves, 
and administered their domestic affairs so as to distinguish 
between the condition of elaves and the heirship of sons in 
regard to the blessings of this life, yet in regard to the wor- 
ship of God, in whom we hope for eternal blessings, they took 
an equally loving oversight of all the members of their liouse- 
hold. And this is so much in accordance w*ith the natural 
onler, that the head of the household was called paierfamiiias ; 
and this name has been so generally accepted, that even tliose 
whoso rule is unrighteous are glad to apply it to themselves. 
Eut those who are true fathers of their households desire and 
endeavour tlmt all the members of their household, equally 
with their own cliildren, shoidd worship and win God, and 
sliould come to that heavenly home in which the duty of 
ruling men is no longer necessary, because the duty of caring 
for Uieir everlasting happiness has also ceased ; but, until they 
reach that home, masters ought to feel their position of autho- 
rity a greater burden than servants theii* service. And if any 
member of the family interrupts the domestic peace by dis- 
obedience, he is corrected either by word or blow, or some 
kind of just and legitimate punishment, such as society per- 
mits, that he may himself be the better for it, and be re- 
adjusted to the family harmony from which he had dislocated 
' The patriarclis. 



X 



326 THl!: CTTT OF GOD. [BOOK XEC 



himself. For as it is not benevolent to give a man help at 
the expense of some greater benefit he might receive, so it is 
not innocent to spare a man at the risk of his falling into 
graver sin. To be innocent, we must not only do harm to 
no man, but also restrain him from sin or punish his sin, so 
that, either the man himself who is punished may profit by 
bis expeiience, or others be warned by his example. Since, 
then, the house ouglit to be the beginning or element of the 
city, and every beginning bears reference to some end of its 
own kind, and every element to the integrity of the whole of 
which it is an element, it follows plainly enough that domestic 
peace has a relation to civic ptmce,^in other words, that the 
well-oidered concoi*d of domestic obedience and domestic rule 
has a relfition to the well-ordered concord of civic obedience 
and civic rule. And therefore it follows, fiu-ther, that the 
father of the family ought to frame his domestic rule in ac- 
cordance with the law of the city, so that the household may 
be in harmony with the civic order. 

17. What produces peace^ and what discord, between Oie heavady and 
earthly cUka, 

But the families which do not live by faith seek their 
peace in the earthly advantages of this life ; while the fami- 
lies which live by faith look for those eLerual blessings which 
are promised, and use as pilgrims such advantages of time 
and of earth as do not fascinate and divert them from God, 
but rather aid them to endure with greater ease, and to keep 
down the nimiber of those burdens of the corruptible body 
which weigh upon the soul. Thus the things necessary for 
this mortal life are used by both kinds of men and families 
alike, but each has its own peculiar and widely difFerent aim 
in using them. The earthly city, which does not live by fsuth, 
seeks an earthly peace, and the end it proposes, in the well- 
ordered concord of civic obedience and rule, is the c ombio a- 
tion of men's wills to attain the things which are heljpfnl to, 
this life. The heavenly city, or rather the part of it which 
sojourns on earth and lives by faith, makes use of this peace 
only because it must, until this mortal condition which neces- 
sitates it shall pass away. Consequently, so long as it lives 
like a caj^tive and a stranger in the eaithly city, though it 





BOOK XTX.] 



DI3C0RP OF THE TWO CITIES. 



327 



has already'" i*eceived the promise of redemption, and the gift 
of the Spirit as the earnest of it, it makes do scniple to obey 
the laws of the earthly city, whereby the things necessary for 
the maijitenanoe of this mortal life are administered; and 
thiLS, us tbia life is common to both cities, so there is a har- 
mony between them in reorard to what belongs to it Biit, as 
the earthly city has had some philosophers whose doctrine is 
condemned by the divine teaching, and who, being deceived 
either by their own conjectxires or by demons, supposed that 
many gods must be invited to talce an interest in human 
affairs, and assigned to each a separate function and a sepa- 
mte department,— to one the body, to another the soul ; and 
in the body itself, to one the head, to another the neck, and 
each of the other members to one of the gods ; and in like 
manner, in the soul, to one god the natural capacity was as- 
signed, to another education, to another anger, to another lust ; 
and so the various affiiirs of life were assigned, — cattle to one, 
com to another, wine tti another, oil to another, the woods to 
another, money to another, navigation to another, wars and 
victories to another, man-iages to another, births and fecundity 
to another, and other things to other gods : and as the celes- 
tial city, on the othei hand, knew that one God only was to 
be worshipped, and that to Him alone was due that service 
which the Greeks call Xarpeia, and wliich can be given only 
to a god, it has come to pass that the two cities could not 
have conunon laws of religion, and that the heavenly city has 
been compelled in this matter to dissent, and to become 
obnoxious to those who think dififerently, and to stand the 
brunt of their anger and hatred and persecutions, except in so 
fur as the minds of their enemies have beeu alarmed by the 
multitude of the Christians and qnclled by the manifest pro- 
tection of God accorded to them. This heavenly city, then, 
wliile it sojourns on earth, calls citizens out of all nations, and 
gathers together a society of pilgrims of all languages, not 
scrupling about diversities in the manners, laws, and institu- 
tions whereby earthly peace is secured and maintained, but 
recognising that, however various tliese are, they all tend to 
one and, the same end of cartlily peace. It therefore is so fai" 
from rescinding and abolishing these diversities, that it even 



323 



THE GITY 07 GOD. 



[book XIX. 



preserves and adopts them, so long only as no hindrance to 
the worship of the one supreme and true God is thus intro- 
duced. Even the heavenly city, therefore, while in its stale 
of pilgrimage, avails itself of the peace of earth, and, so far as 
it can without injuring faith and godliness, desires and main- 
tains a common agreement among men regarding the acquisi- 
tion of the necessaries of life, and makes this earthly peace 
bear upon the peace of heaven ; for this alone can be truly 
called and esteemed the peace of the reasonable creatures, con- 
sisting as it does in the perfectly ordered and harmonions en- 
joyment of God and of one another in God. Wlien we shall 
have reached that peace, this mortal life shall give place 
to one that is eternal, and our body shall be no more this 
animal body which by its corruption weighs down the sonl, 
but a spiritual body feeling no want, and in all its members 
subjected to the will. In its pOgrim state the heavenly 
city possesses this peace Ly faith ; and by tliis faith it live* 
righteously when it i-efers to the attainment of that peace 
every good action towards God and man ; for the life of the 
city is a social life. 

18. Ifow iliJerenC (he uncertainty of tJte Xew Academy u fi'om tht certainty <^ 
the Christian faith. 

As regards the uncertainty about everything which Varro 
alleges to be the difi'oi-entiating clmracteristic of the New 
Academy, the city of God thoroughly detests such doubt as 
madness. Regarding matters which it apprehends by the 
mind and reason it 1ms most absolute certainty, although its 
knowledge is limited because of the corruptible body pressing 
down the mindj for, as the apostle says, " We know in part" ' 
It believes also the evidence of the senses which the miud 
uses by aid of the body ; for [if one who trusts Ids senses is 
sometimes deceived], he is more wretchedly deceived who 
fancies he should never trust them. It believes also the 
Holy Script\ires, old and new, which we call canonical, and 
which arc the source of the faith by which the just lives,* and 
by which we walk without doubting whilst we are absent 
from the Lord* So long as this faith remains inviolate and 
firm, we may without blame entertain doubts regai*ding some 

» 1 Cor. xiii. 9. « Hab. ii. 4. ^ 2 Cor. t. «. 





BOOK XIX.] 



HABITS OF THE CHRISTIAKS. 



320 



tluaga which we have neither perceived hy sense nor by 
reason, and which have not been revealed to us by the 
canonical Scriptures, nor come to our knowledge through 
witnesses whom it is absurd to disbelieve. 

19. Of the drut and haUU of the Christian ptopU. 

It is a matter of no moment in tlie city of God whether 

he who adopts the faith that brings men to God adopts it in 
one dress and mamier of life or another, so louj^ only as he 
lives in conformity with the commandments of God. And 
hence, when philosophers themselves become Christians, they 
are compelled, indeed, to abandon their erroneous doctrines, but 
not their dress and mode of living, which are no obstacle to 
reli!][ion. So that we make no account of that distinction of 
sects which VaiTo adduced in connection with the Cynic 
school, provided always nothing indecent or self-indulgent is 
retained. As to these three modes of life, the contemplative, 
the active, and the composite, although, so long as a man's 
faith is preserved, he may clioose any of tliem without detri- 
ment to his eternal intei-eats, yet he must never overlook the 
claims of truth and duty. No man has a right to lead such 
a life of contemplation as to forget in liis own ease the sen'ice 
due to his neighbour ; nor has any man a right to be so im- 
mei-sed in active life as to ne;;lect the contemplation of God. 
The charm of leisure must not be indolent vacancy of mind, 
but the investigation or discovery of truth, that thus every 
man may make aohd attainments without gi-udging that others 
do the same. And, in active life, it is not the honours or 
power of this life we should covet, since all things under the 
sun are vanity, but we should aim at using our position and 
influence, if these have been honoTirably attained, for the wel- 
fare of those who are under us, in the way we have already 
explained.* It is to this the apostle refers when he says, 
" He that desireth the episcopate desireth a good work."^ He 
wished to show that the episcopate is the title of a work, not 
of an honour. It is a Greek word, and signifies tliat he wlio 
governs superintends or takes care of those wliom he governs : 
for iwl means over, and ffKoireiv, to sec; therefore iirKXKOTretv 
» Ch. a. a 1 Tim. iii. 1. 



L 



TiTE cnr or god. 



[book xdl 



means "to oversee."* So tliat he who loves to govern rather 
than to do good is no hishop. Accordingly no one is pro- 
hihited from the search after truth, for in this leisure may 
most laudably be si>ent ; but it is unseemly to covet the high 
position requisite for governing the people, even though, that 
position be held and that government be administered in a 
seeudy manner. And therefore holy leisure is longed for hy 
the love of tnith ; but it is the necessity of love to undertake 
requisite business. If no one imposes this burden upon to, 
we are &ee to sift and contemplate truth ; "but if it be laid 
upon ufi, we are necessitated for love's sake to undertalce it 
And yet not even in this case are we obliged wholly to re- 
linquish the sweets of contemplation ; for were these to be 
wi^d^a^vn, the burden might prove more than we could beat. 

so. ThcU the aaints are in thit life bleated in hope. 

Since, then, the supreme good of the city of God is perfect 
and eternal peace, not such as mortals pass into and out of 
by birth and death, but the peace of freedom from all evil, in 
which the immortals ever abide, who can deny that that 
future life is most blessed, or that, in comparison with it. tliis 
life which now we live is most wretched, be it filled with all 
blessings of body and soul and external things ? And yet, if 
any man uses this life with a reference to that other which 
he ardently loves and confidently hopes for, he may well be 
called even now blessed, though not in reality so much as in 
hope. But the actual possession of the happiness of this 
life, without the hope of what ia beyond, is but a false happi- 
ness and profound misery. For the true blessings ol the soul 
are not now enjoyed ; for that is no true wisdom which does 
not direct all its prudent observations, manly actions, virtuous 
self-restraint, and just arrangements, to that end in which 
God shall be all and all in a secure eternity and perfect 
peace. 

21. Whether there ever tew a Roman repvhlic anmetrlng U> the deJtniGau 
of Scipio in OceTo'ii dialcrj^in. 

This, then, is the place where I should fulfil the promii 

' Augiistine's words are: " !«•<, quippe 'super;' r»*^it, vero, * inte&tio * eit 
iwigH»*utt d velirans, latiue 'auperiiiUudcrc ' poasumua diccre." 





BOOK XDC.] WHETHER HOME "WAS A HEPTTBMC. 



gave in the second book of tliis work,' and explain, as briefly 
and clearly as possible, that if we are to accept the definitions 
laid do>vn by Scipio in Cicero's De Hepublica, there never was 
a Eoman republic ; for he briefly defines a republic as the 
weal of the peo])le. And if this definition he true, there 
never was a Eoman republic, for the jpeojple's weal was never 
attained among the Eomans. For the people, according to 
his definition, is an assemblage associated by a common 
acknowledgment of right and by a community of interests. 
And what he means by a common acknowledgment of right 
he explauis at large, showing that a republic L-uunot be ad- 
ministered without justica ^Vhere^__thereforej there _ is no_ 
true justice there can he no right. For that which is done 
by right is justly done, and what is unjustly done cannot be 
done by right. For the unjust inventions of men are neither 
to be considered nor spoken of as rights ; for even they them- 
selves say that right is tliat whicli flows from the fountain of 
justice, and deny the definition which is commonly given by 
those who misconceive the matter, that right is that which is 
useful to the stronger party. Tlius, wliere there is not true 
justice there can be no assemblage of men associated by a 
common acknowledgment of right, and therefore there can 
be no people, as defined by Scipio or Cicero ; and if no 
people, then no weal of the people, but only of some pro- 
miscuous multitude unworthy of the name of people. Conse- 
quently, if the republic is the weal of the people, and there is 
no people if it be not associated by a common acknowledg- 
ment of right, and if there is no right where there is no justice, 
then most certainly it follows that there is no republic where 
there is no justice. Fui'ther, justice is that 'S'irtue which 
gives every one his due. Where, then, is the justice of man, 
when he deserts the true God and yields liiuiself to impure 
demons ? Is this to give every one his due ? Or is he who 
keeps back a piece of ground from the piu'chaser, and gives it 
to a man who has no right to it, nnjust, while he who keeps 
back himself from the God who made hiu], and serves wicked 
spirits, is just ? 

This same book, De Eepuhlica, advocates the cause of justice 



332 Tire CITY OF GOD. [book XIX. 

against injustice with great force and keenness. The plead- 
ing for injustice against justice was first heard, and it was 
asserted that without injustice a republic could neither in- 
crease nor even subsist^ for it was laid down as an absolutely 
unassailable position that it is unjust for some men to rule 
and some to serve ; and yet the imperial city to which the 
republic belongs cannot rule her provdnces without having 
recourse to this injustice. It was replied in behalf of justice, 
that this ruling of the provinces is just, because servitude may 
be advantageous to the pro^'incials, and is so when righdy 
at! ministered, — that is to say, when lawless men are prevented 
from doing harm. And further, as they became worse and 
worse so long as they were free, they will improve by sub- 
jection. To confirm this reasoning, there is added an enunent 
example drawn from nature : for " why," it is asked, " does 
God rule man, the soul the body, the reason the passions and 
other vicious parts of the soul ? " This example leaves no 
doubt that, to some, servitude is useful ; and, indeed, to serve 
God is useful to all. And it is when the soul serves God 
that it exercises a right control over the body ; and in the 
soul itself the reason must be subject to God if it is to govern 
as it ought the passions and other vices. Hence, when a 
man docs not serve God, what justice can we ascribe to him, 
since in this case his soul cannot exercise a just control over 
the body, nor his reason over his vices ? And if there is no 
justice in such an individual^ certainly there can be none La a 
community composed of such persons. Here, therefore, there 
13 not that common acknowledgment of right which makes 
an assemblage of men a people whose affairs we call a re- 
public. And why need I speak of the advantageousness, the 
common participation in whicli, according to the definition, 
makes a people ? For although, if you choose to regard the 
matter attentively, you will see that there is nothing advan- 
tageous to those wlio live godlessly, as every one lives who 
does not serve God but demons^ whose wickedness you may 
measure by their desire to receive the worship of men though 
they are most impure spirits, yet what I have said of the 
common acknowledgment of right is enough to demonstrate 
tliat, according to the above definition, there can be no people, 




BOOK XIX.] CHUISTIANS WORSHIP THE TRUE GOD. 



333 



and therefore no republic, where there is no justice. For if 
they nssert that in their republic the Iloniana did not serve 
unclean spirits, but good atid holy gods, must we tlierefore 
again reply to this evasion, though already we liave said 
enough, and more than enough, to expose it ? He must be 
an nnconimonly stupid, or a shamelessly couteutious person, 
who has read through the foregoing books to this point, and 
can yet question whether the Eonians served wicked and 
impure demons. But, not to speak of tlieir character, it is 
written in the law of the true God, " He that sacrificeth unto 
any god save unto the Lord only, he shall be utterly de- 
stroyed." ' lie, therefore, who uttered so menacing a com- 
mandment decreed that no worship should be given either to 
good or bad gods. 

£2. Whether Uit God whom the ChrisUaiu serve U the true God to vshom atone 
tacr\fice ought to be -paid. 

But it may be replied, Wixo is this God, or what proof is 
there that He alone is worthy to receive sacrifice from the 
Ilomans ? One must be veiy blind to be still asking who 
this God is. He is the God whose prophets predicted the 
things we see accomplished. He is the God from whom 
Abraham received the assuaunce, " In thy seed shall all nations 
be blessed."' - Tliat this was fulfilled in Christ, who accord- 
ing to the flesh sprang from that seed, is recognised, whether 
they will or no, even by those who liave continued to be the 
enemies of this name. He is the God whose divine Sj)irit 
spake by the men whose predictions I cited in the preceding 
books, and which are fidfilled in the Church which has ex- 
tended over all tho world. This is the God whom Varro, the 
most learned of the liomans, supposed to be Jupiter, though 
ho knows not what he says ; yet I think it right to note the 
ciicumstance that a man of such learning was unable to sup- 
pose that this God liad no existence or was contemptible, btit 
believed Hun to be the some as the supreme God. In fine. 
He is the God whom Porphyry, the most learned of the philo- 
sophers, though the bitterest enemy of the Christians, con- 
fesses to be a great God, even according to the oracles of those 
whom be esteems gods. 

) Elx. xxil 20. > Gen. xxiL 18, 




23. pQi-phifry'a account qftJte responses given bi/ the oracUs qftha gods con^ 
cerning CfirutL 

For in his book called e/c Xoyltov if>i\o<roif>ia^, in which he 
collects and commente upon the responses which he pretends 
were uttered by the gods concerning divine things, he says — 1 
give his own words as they have been translated from the 
Greek : " To one who inquired what god he should pTopitiate 
in order to recall his wife from Christianity, Apollo replied in 
the i'ollowing verses." Then the following words are given as 
those of Apollo: "You ^viU probably find it easier to write 
lasting characters on the water, or lij:;litly fly hke a bin! 
through the air, than to restore right feeling in your impious 
wife once she has polluted herself. Let her remain as she 
pleases in her foolish deception, and sing false laments to her 
dead God, who was condemned by right-minded judges, and 
perished ignominiously by a violent death." Then after theao 
verses of Apollo (which we have given in a Latin vemon that 
does not preserve the metrical fonn), he goes on to say : " In 
these verses Apollo exposed the inciu-able corruption of the 
Chi'istians, 8a}'ing that the Jews, rather than the Christians, 
recognised God." See how he misrepresents Christ, giving 
the Jews the preference to the Christians in the recognition of 
Grod, This was his explanation of Apollo's venues, in which 
he says that Christ was put to death by right-minded or just 
judges, — in other words, that He deserved to die. I leave the 
responsibility of this oracle regai*ding Christ on the lying in- 
terpreter of Apollo, or on this philosopher who believed it or 
possibly himself invented it ; as to its agreement with Por- 
phyry's opinions or with other oracles, we shall in a little 
have something to say. In this passage, liowever, he says 
that the Jews, as the interpreters of God, judged justly in 
pronouncing Christ to be worthy of the most shameful deatL 
He should have listened, then, to this God of the Jews to whom 
ho bears this testimony, when that God says, " He that sacrificeth 
to any other god save to the Lord alone shall be utterly de- 
stroyed." But let us come to still plainer expressions, and 
hear how great a God Porphyry thinks the Grod of the Jews 
is. Apollo, he says, "VNlien asked whether word, i.^. reason, or 
law is the better thing, replied in the following verses. Th« 





BOOK XIX.] ORACLES QUOTED BY PORPHYRY. 



33; 



he gives the veraes of Apollo, from which I select the follow- 
ing as sufficient ; " God, the Generator, and the King prior to 
all tilings, before whom heaven and earth, and the sea, and 
the hidden places of hell tremble, and the deities themselves 
are afraid, for their law is the Father whom the holy Hebrews 
honour" In this oracle of his god AjioUo, Pori»hyry avowed 
that the God of the Hebrews is so great that the deities them- 
selves are afraid before Him. I am surprised, therefore, that 
when God said, He that sacrificeth to other gods shall be 
utterly destroyed, Porphyry himself was not afraid lest he 
should be dcsti*oyed for sacrificing to other gods. 

This philosopher, however, has also some good to say of 
Christ, oblivious, as it were, of that contumely of his of which 
we have just been speaking ; or as if his gods spoke evil of 
Christ only wliile asleep, and recognised Him to be good, and 
gave Him His deserved praise, when they awoke. For, as if 
he were about to proclaim some marvellous thing passing 
belief, he says, " What we are going to say \\'ill certainly take 
some by surprise. For the gods have declared that Christ 
was very pious, and lias become immortal, and that they 
cherish his memory; that the Christians, however, are pol- 
luted, contaminated, and involved in error. And many other 
such things," he says, " do the gods say against the Christians." 
Then he gives specimens of the accusations made, as he sa^'s, 
by the gods against them, and then goes on : " But to some 
who asked Hecate whether Christ were a God, she replied. 
You know the condition of the disembodied immortal soul, 
and that if it has been sevei-ed from wisdom it always errs. 
The soul you refer to is that of a man foremost in piety : they 
worship it because they mistake the truth." To this so-called 
oracular response he adds the following words of his own: 
" Of this very pious man, then, Hecate said that the soul, like 
the souls ot other good men, was after death dowered with im- 
mortality, and that the Christians through ignorance worship 
it. And to those who ask why he was condemned to die, 
tlie oracle of the goddess replied. The body, indeed, is always 
exposed to torments, but the souLs of the pious abide in heaven. 
And the soul you inquire about has been the fatal cause of 
error to other souls which were not fated to receive tlie gifts 



L 



336 THE CITY OV GOD. [BOOK XDC 

of the gods, and to have the knowledge of immortiLl Jore. 
Such souls are therefore hated by the gods; for they who 
were fated not to receive the gifts of the gods, and not to 
know God, were fated to be involved in error by means of 
him you speak of. He himself^ however, was good, and 
heaven has been opened to liini as to other good men. You 
are not, then^ to speak evil of him^ but to pity the folly of 
men : and through him men's danger is imminent/' 

Who is 80 fuoKsIi as not to see that these oracles were 
either composed by a clever man with a strong animus against 
the Christians, or were uttered as responses by impure demons 
with a similar design, — that is to say, in oi*der that their 
praise of Clirist may win credence for their >ntuperatiou of 
Christians ; and tliat thus they may, if possible, close the way 
of eternal salvation, which is identical with Christianity ? 
For they believe that they are by no means counterworking 
their own hurtful craft hy promoting belief in Christ, so long 
as their calumuiaLion of Christians is also accepted ; for they 
thus secure that even the man who thinks well of Christ de- 
clines to become a Christian, and is therefore not delivered 
from their own ride by the Christ he praises. Besides, their 
praise of Christ is so contrived that wliosoover believes in 
Him as thus represented will not be a true Christian but 
a riiotiniiiu heretic, recoj:»nisin^ only the humanity, and not 
also the divinity of Ciuist, and will thus be precluded from 
salvation and from deliverance out of the meshes of these 
devilish lies. For our part, we are no better pleased with 
Hecate's prabes of Christ than with Apollo's calumniation of 
Him. Apollo says that Christ was put to death by right- 
minded judges, implying that He was unrighteous. Hecate 
says that He was a most pious man, but no more. The inten- 
tion of botli 13 the saiue, to prevent men from becoming Chris- 
tians» because if this be secured, men shall never be rescued 
from their power. But it is incumbent on our philosopher, or 
rather on those wlio believe in these pretended oracles against 
the Christians, first of all, if they can, to bring Apollo and 
Hecate to the same mind regarding Christ, so that either both 
may condemn or both praise Him. And even if tliey suc- 
ceeded in this, we for our part would notwitlxstanding repudi- 




TJOOK XTX.1 BISCRCTAXCY O? OBACLES TIEGABBING CHRIST. 



337 



ate the testimony of demons, whether favourable or adverse to 
Clirist. r*iit w'lwn our adverssories find a gcjd and j^nddess of 
their own at variance about Christ, the one praising, the other 
vitupcratin<5 Him, they can certainly give no credence, if they 
have any judgment, to mere men who blaspheme the Chris- 
tians. 

"When Porphyry or Hecate praises Girist, and adds that He 
gave HiTuself to the Christians as a fatal gift, that they might 
be involved in en*or, he exposes, as he thinks, the causes of 
this error. But before I cite his words to that purpose, I 
"vvould ask, If Christ did thus give Himself to the Christians 
10 involve tlieni in error, did He do so wiliiugly, or against 
His will ? If willingly, how is He righteous ? If against 
His will, how is He blessed ? However, let us hear the 
causes of this error. " There are " lie says, " in a certain 
yjlace very small earthly spirits, subject to the power of evil 
demoag. The wise men of the Hebrews, among whom was 
this Jesus, as you have heard from the oracles of Apollo cited 
above, turned religious persons from these very wicked demons 
and minor spirits, and taught them rather to worship the 
celestial gods, and especially to adore Clod the Father. Tliis," 
he said, " the gods enjoin ; and we have already showTi how 
they admoni.sh the soul to turn to God, and comiiuind it to 
worship Iliin. But the ignorant and tlie ungodly, who are 
not destined to receive favours from the gods, nor to know the 
immortal Jupiter, not listening to the gods and their messages, 
h:ivo turned away from all gotls, and have not only refused to 
hatCj but liave venerated the prohibited demons. Professing 
to worsliip God, they refuse to do those things by w^hich alone 
God is worshipped. For God, indeed, being the Father of all, 
is in need of nothing ; but for ua it is good to adore Him by 
means of justice^ chastity, and other virtues, and thus to make 
life itself a pi*ayer to Him, by inquiring into and imitating His 
nature. For inquiry," says he, '* purifies and imitation deifies 
us, by moving us nearer to llinx" He is right in so far as 
be proclaims God the Father, and the conduct by which we 
should woi-ship Him. Of such precepts the prophetic books 
of the Hebrews are full, when they praise or blame the life of 
tbe saints. But in speaking of the Christians he is in error, 
VOL. IL T 



538 



THE CITT or GOD. 



[book xk. 



and calumniates them as much as ifi desired by the demons 
whom he takes for gods, as if it were difficult for any man to 
tecollect the disgraceful and shameful actions which used to 
be done in the theatres and temples to please the gods, and 
to compare with these things what is heard in our churches, 
and what i3 offered to the true God, and from this comparison 
to conclude where character is edified, and where it is ruined 
But who but a diabolical spirit has told or siigfjesteid to this 
man so manifest and vain a lie, as that the Christians reverenced 
rather than hated the demons, whose worship the Hebrews 
prohibited ? But that God, whom the Hebrew sages wor- 
shipped, forbids sacrifice to be ofFerod even to the holy angcb 
of heaven and divine powers, whom we, in this our pilgrimage, 
venerate and love as our most blessed fellow-citizens. For in 
the law which God gave to His Hebrew people He utters 
this menace, as in a voice of thunder : " He that sacrificeth 
unto any god, save unto the Lord only, he shall be utterly 
destroyed."^ And that no oue migliL suppose that this pro- 
hibition extends only to the very wicked demons and earthly 
spirits, M'honi this pliilasopher colls very small and inferior, — 
for even these are in the Scripture ciiUed gotls, not of the 
Hebrews, but of the nations, as the Septuagint translators have 
shown in the psalm where it is said, " For all the gods of the 
nations are demons,"' — that no one might suppose, I say, that 
sacrifice to these demons was prohibited, but that sacrifice 
might be offered to all or some of the celestials, it was im- 
mediately added, "save unto the Lord alone."* The God of 
the Hebrews, then, to whom this renowned philosopher bears 
this signal testimony, gave to His Hebrew people a law, 
composed in the Hebrew language, and not obscure and 
unknown, but published now in every nation, and in this 
law it is written, " He that sacrificeth unto any god, save 
imto the Lord alone, he shall be utterly destroyed." "What 
need is there to seek further proofs in the law or the prophets 
of this same thing ? Scel\ we need not say, for the passages 
are neither few nor difficult to find; but what need to collect 

' Ex. ixit. 20. « Pi, xcvL 6, 

' Augrnstine here warns liis readers against a possible inisunderstandinj of the 
Lfttin word for ** alone " («0J»), which might be rendered "the sun/* 




BOOK XUC] 



DEFINinON or A PEOrLE. 



and apply tx) my argiiirent the proofs which are thickly sown 
and obvious, and by which it appears cleai" as day that saciifice 
may be paid to none but the supreme and true God ? Here 
is one brief but decided, even menacing, and certainly true 
utterance of that God -whom the wisest of our adversaries so 
higldy extoL Let this be listened to, feared, fuliilled, that 
there may be no disobedient soul cut off. "He that sacrifices," 
He says, not because He needs anything, but because it behoves 
U3 to bo His possession. Hence the Psalmist in the Hebrew 
Scriptures sings, " I have said to the Lord, Thou art my Grod, 
for Tliou needest not my good." ^ For wc ourselves, who are 
His own city, are His most noble and worthy sacrifice, and it 
is this mystery we celebrate in our sacrifices, which are well 
known to the faithful, as we have explained in the preceding 
books. For thiough the prophets the oracles of God declared 
that the sacrifices which the Jew^ offered as a shadow of that 
which was to be wquld cease, and that the nations, from the 
rising to the setting of the sun, would offer one sacrifice. 
From these oracles, which we now see accomplished, we have 
made such selections as seemed suitable to our purpose in this 
work. And therefore, where there is not this righteousness 
wherehy the one supreme God rules the obedient city accord- 
ing to His giace, so that it sacrifices to none but Hito, and 
whereby, in all the citizens of this obedient city, the soul con- 
sequently rules the body and reason the vices in the rightful 
order, so that, as the individual just man, so also the com- 
munity and people of the just, live by faith, which works by 
love, that love whereby man loves God as He ought to be 
loved, and his neighbour as himself, — there, I say, there is 
not an assemblage associated by a common acknowledgment 
of right, and by a community of interests. But if there is 
not this, there is not a people, if onr definition be true, i^nd 
therefore there is no republic j for where there is no people 
there can be no republic. 

£4. The d^nition whicJt must he (ptrn of a -pfOpU and a rtpuhHc, %n ordrr to 
vindicate the aswmption 0/ these titieM by (he JiomoMa and by other lingdoms. 

But if we discard this definition of a people, and, assmning 
another, say that a people is an assemblage of reasonable 

*p«. ivL a. 



340 



THE CITY OF GOP. 



[book xnc. 



beings bound together by a common agreement as to the objects 
of tlieir love, then, in order to discover the character of any 
people, we have only to observe what they love. Yet what- 
ever it laves, if only it is an assemblage of reasonable lieings 
and not of beasts, and is bound together by an agreement as 
to the objects of love, it is reasonably called a people ; and 
it will be a supeiior jDeople in proportion as it is bound to- 
gethef by hi^^her interests, inferior in proportion as it is bound 
together by lower. According to this definition of ours, the 
Roman people is a people, and its weal is without doubt a 
commonwealth or republic. But what its tastes were in its 
early and subsequent days, and how it declined into sangui- 
nary seditions and then to social and civil wars, and so burst 
asunder oi lotted off the bond of concord in which the health 
of a people consists, history shows, and in the preceding books 
1 have related at large. And yet I would not on tliis account 
say cithei tliat it was not a people, nr that its administration 
was not a republic, so long as there remains an assemblage of 
reasonable beings bound tngther by a common agreement as 
to the objects of love. Uut what I say of this people and of 
this re])ublic I must he understood to think and say of the 
Athenians or any Greek state, of the Eg^^jtians, of the early 
Assyrian Babylon, and of every other nation, great or small, 
which had a public government. For, in general, the city of 
the ungodly, which did not obey the comninnd of God that 
it shoidd offer no sacrifice save to Him alone, and which, 
therefore, could not give to the soul its proper command over 
the body, nor to the reason its just authority over the nces» 
is void of true justice. 



25. Tfiat vchert Uicrt i$ no true rtligUm there art no trut virtutt. 

For though the soul Dia}' seem to rule the body admirably 
and the reason the vices, if the soul and reason do not them- 
selves obey God, as God has commanded them to sen'e Him, 
they have no proper authority over the body and the vices. For 
what kind of mistress of the body and the vices can that mind 
be which is ignorant of the true God, and which, instead of 
being subject to His anthorit}', is prostituted to the corrupting 
influences of the most vicious demons ? It is fox this reosou 



J 





COOK Xl.X.] THE PEACE OF THE E.VETIILY CITY. 



that the virtues which it seems to itself to possess, and by 
•which it i-estrains the body and the vices that it may obUiii 
and keep what it desires, are rather vices than virtues so lon^ \ 
as there is no reference to God in the matter. For althoygli * 
some suppose that virtues which have a reference only to 
themselves, and are desired only on their own account, are 
yet truo and genuine virtues, tlie fact is that even then they 
are inflated M'ith iirule, and are tliercfore to be reckoned vices 
rather than virtues. Tor as that which gives life to the tlesh 
is not derived from flesh, hub is above it, so that which gives 
blessed life to man is not derived from man, but is something 
above iiim ; and what 1 say of man is true of every celestial 
power and virtue whatsoever. 

20. Of ike jieiite \ph\ch u tnjoyfd by thf pfopte that arc allnmitd ffom God^ and 
the lue made of U bjf the jteopU of God m tKc iime of ila ^Ijpirnag e. - 

Wherefore, as the life of the flesh is the soul, so the blessed 
life of man is God, of whom the saci-ed writings of the Hebrews 
say, " Blessed is the people whose God is the Lord."^ Mise- 
rable, therefore, is the people which is alienated from God. Yet 
even this people has a peace of its own which is not to be 
lightly esteemed, though, indeed, it shall not iu the end enjoy 
it, because it makes no good use of it before the end. But it 
is our interest that it enjoy this peace meanwhile in tliis life ; 
for as long as the two cities are commingled, we also enjoy the 
peace of Babylon. For from Babylon tlie people of God is so 
li'ced that it meanwhOe sqjounis in its company. And there- 
fore the apostle also admonished the Church to pray for kings 
and those in authority, assigning as the reason, " that we may 
live a quiet and tranquil life in all godliness and love." ' 
And the proplud Jeremiah, when predicting tlic captivity that 
was to befall the ancient people of God, and giving them the 
divine command to go obediently to Babylonia, and tlius serve 
tlieir God, counselled tliem also to pray for Babylonia, saying, 
" la the peace thereof shall ye have peace," ° — the temporal 
peace which the good and the wicked together enjoy. 

27. Tftai the peace of those who serve Ood cannot in this mortal life he 
apprehended in Us perfection. 

But the jjcace which is peculiar to ourselves we enjoy now 

* Fs. C3div, 15. ' 1 Tim. ii. 2; var. reading, "purity." ' Jer. xaIx. 7. 



THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XII. 



with God by_ Jaith, and shall hereafter enjoy eternally with 
Him by sight But the peace which we enjoy in this life, 
whether common to all or pectdiar to ourselves, is rather the 
solace of our misery than the positive enjoyment of felidtj. 
Out very righteousness, too, though true in so far as it has 
respect to the true good, is yet in this life of such a kind that 
it consists rather in the remission of sins than in the perfect- 
ing of virtues. Witness the prayer of the whole city of God 
in its pilgrim state, for it cries to God by the mouth of all its 
members, " Forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors." ^ 
And this prayer is efficacions not for those whose faith is 
"without works and dead/'* but for those whose faith "worketh 
by love."' For as reason, though subjected to God, is yefe 
" pressed down by the corruptible body," * 60 long as it is in 
this mortal condition, it has not perfect authority over vice, 
imd therefore this prayer is needed by the righteous. For 
though it exercises authority, the xnces do not submit without 
a stmggle. For however well one maintains the conflict, and 
however thoroughly he has subdued these enemies, there steals 
in some evil thing, which, if it do not find ready expression in 
act, slips out by the lips, or insinuates itself into the thought ; 
and therefore his peace is not full so long as he is at war 
with his vices. For it is a doubtful conflict he wages with 
tliose that resist, and his victory over those that are defeated 
is not secure, but full of anxiety and effort Amidst these 
temptations, therefore, of all which it has been summarily 
said in the divine oracles, " Is not human life upon earth a 
temptation ?"* who but a proud man can presume that he so 
lives that he has no need to say to God, "Forgive us oiu* 
debts ?'* And such a man is not great, but swollen and puffed 
up with vanity, and is justly resisted by Him who abundantly 
gives grace to the humble. Whence it is said, " God I'esisteth 
the proud, but giveth grace to the humble."" In this, then, 
consists the righteousness of a man, that he submit, himself to 
God, his body to his soul, and his vices, even when they rebel, 
to his reason, which either defeats or at least resists them ; 

1 Matt vi. 12. - Jas. u. 17. 

«'Gal. V. 6. * Wisdom ii. 15. 

* Job Tii. 1. « Jasi iv. 6 ; 1 Pet. t. 6. 




XTX.] 



END OP THE EABTHLY CITT. 



343 



and also that he beg from God grace to do his duty,' and the 
pardon of his sins, and that he render to God thanks for all 
tiie blessings he receives. But, in that final peace to which 
all oiir righteousness has reference, and for the sake of which 
it is miiintained, as our nature shidl enjoy a sound immortality 
and iucorruption, and shall have no more vices, and as we 
shall experience no resistance either from ourselves or from 
other3, it will not be necessary that reason should rule "vices 
which no longer exist, but God shall rule tlie man, and the 
soul shall rule the body^ mth a sweetness and facility suitable 
to the felicity of a life which is done with bondage. And 
this condition shall there be eternal, and we shall be assured 
of its eternity ; and thus the peace of this blessedness and 
the blessedness of this peace shall be the supreme good. 

28, TJie end oftit^ mchtd. 

But, on the other hand, they who do not belong to this city 
of Gnd shall inherit eternal misery, which is also called the 
second death, because the soul shall then be separated from 
God its life, and therefore cannot be said to live, and the 
botly shall be subjected to eternal pains. And consequently 
this second death shall be the more severe, because no death 
shall terminate it. But war being contrary to peace, as misery 
to happiness, and life to death, it is not without reason asked 
what kind of war can be found in the end of the wicked 
answering to the peace which is declared to be the end of the 
righteous ? The person who puts this question has only to 
observe what it is in war that is hurtful and destructive, and he 
shall see that it is nothing else than the mutual opposition and 
conflict ol tliing.s. And can he conceive a more gi'ievous and 
bitter war than that in which the will is so opposed to passion, 
and passion to the will, that their hostility can never be ter- 
minated by the \'ictory of either, and in which the violence 
of pain so conflicts -with the nature of the body, that neither 
yields to the other? For in this life, when this conflict has 
arisen, either pain conquers and death expels the feeling of it, 
or nature conquers and health expels the pain. But in the 
world to come the pain continues that it may torment, and 

^ Gratia meritoniui. 



344 THE CITY OF GOD. [DOOK XIX. 

the nature endures that it may be sensible of it ; and neither 
ceases to exist, lest punishment also should cease. Now, as it 
is through the last judgment that men pass to these ends, 
the good to the supreme good, the evil to the supreme evil, 
I will treat of this judgment in the following book. 



•» 



BOOK XX.] 



THE DAY OF nSAt JUDGMEN'T. 



BOOK TWENTIETH. 



ARGUMENT. 

COKCCRNtNO THE LAST Jt*DGME.NT, AND TUB I>F.CLAUATIONS IlZGAJtOlKG IT XIT 

THE OLI> AhD KEW TESTAMCara. 

1. That allhowjh God is always judffimj, it m neverthdesa reaiKmaUt to confiM 
onr alltiidon in this book to His last jadytuciit, 

INTENDING to speak, in dependence on God's gi^ce, of 
the day of His final judgment, and to aflinu it a<;uiust 
tlie iingotlly and incrediilous. we must first of all lay, as it 
were, iu the foviudatlun of the edifice the divine declarations. 
Those persons who do not believe such declarations do their 
best to oppose to tliem false and illusive sophisms of thuir 
own, either contending tliut what is adduced from Scripture 
has anoLlier meaning, or altogether denying that it is an utter- 
ance of God's. For I suppose no man who understantls what 
ia written, ami believes it to be conmiuuicated by tlie supreme 
and ti'ue God tlu-ough holy men, refuses to yield and consent 
to these declarations, whether he ondly confesses his consent, 
or is from some evil intlacncc ashamed or afraid to do so ; or 
even, with an opinionativenoss closely resembling madness, 
makes streniious efforts tn tlefeud wlmt he knows and believes 
to be false against what lie knows nud believes to be true. 

That, therefore, which tlie whole Church of the true God 
holds and professes as it.^ creed, that Christ shall come from 
heaven to judge quick and dead, this we call the last day, or 
last time, of the divine judgment. Tor we do not know how 
nifiny days this judgment may occupy ; but no one who reads 
the Scriptures, however negLgently, need be told that in ibem 
"day" is customarily used for "time." And when we speak 
of the day of God's judgment, we add tlie word last or final 
for this reason, because even now God judges, and has judged 
from the beginning of human history, banishing from paradise, 
and excluding from the tree of life, those first men who per- 
pctuited so great a sin. Yea, He was certaiidy exercising 










judgment also when He did not spare the angels who sinned, 
whose prince, overconie by envy, seduced men after being 
himself seduced. Neither is it without God's profound and 
just judgment that the Kfe of demons and men, the one in 
the air, the other on earth, is filled with misery, calamities, 
and mistakes. And even though no one had sinned, it could 
only have been by the good and right judgment of God that 
the whole rational creation could have been maintained in 
etenial blessedness by a persevering adherence to its Lord. 
He judges, too, not only in the mass, condemning the race of 
devils and the race of men to be miserable on account of the 
original sin of these races, but He also judges the volnntaiy 
and personal acts of individuals. For even the devils pray 
that they may not be tormented/ which proves that without 
injustice they might either be spared or tormented according 
to their deserts. And men are punished by God for their 
sins often visibly, always secretly, either in this life or after 
death, although no man acts rightly save by the assistance of 
divine aid ; and no man or devil acts unrighteously save by 
the permission of the divine and moat just judgment For, as 
the apostle says, "There is no nnrighteousness with God;"* 
and as he elsewhere says, " His judgments are inscnitable, 
and His ways past finding out" ^ In this book, then, I shall 
speak, as God permits, not of those first judgments, nor of 
these intervening judgments of God, but of the last judgment, 
when Clirisfc is to come from heaven to judge the q^uick and 
the dead. For that day is properly called the day of judg- 
ment, because in it there shall be no room, left for the igno- 
i-ant questioning why this wicked person is happy and that 
righteous man unliappy. In that day true and lull happiness 
shall be the lot of none but the good, while deserved and 
supreme misery shall be the portion of the wicked, and of 
them only. 

2. TJuU in the mingUd veh qfh«man afairs Ood^s judgment Ui prtsmt, though 
it eannot be discerned. 

In this present time we leam to hear with equanimity the 

ills to which even good men are subject, and to hold cheap 

the blessings which even the wicked enjoy. And conse- 

> Matt. riii. 29. * Rom. ix. 1 4. » Kom. xi. 33. 





BOOK XX.] 



GOD JUDGES 1TEK NOW. 



347 



quently, even in those conditious of life in which the justice 
of God is not apparent. His teaching is salutaiy. For we do 
not know by what judgment of God this good man is poor 
and that bad man rich ; why he who, in our opinion, ought 
to suffer acutely for his abandoned life enjoys himself, while 
Borrow piirsues him whose praiseworthy lifo leads us to suppose 
he should be happy ; why the innocent man is dismissed from 
the bar not only unavenged, but even condemned, being either 
wronged by the iniquity of the judge, or overwhelmed by 
false evidence, while his guilty adversary, on the other hand, 
is not only discharged with impunity, but even has his claims 
admitted ; why the ungodly enjoys good health, while the godly 
pines in sickness ; why ruftians are of the soundest constitu- 
tion, while they who could not hxirt any one even with a 
word are from infancy afflicted with complicated disorders ; 
why he who is useful to society is cut off by premature death, 
while those who, as it might seem, ought never to have been 
so much as bom have lives of unusual length ; why he who 
is full of crimes is crowned with honours, while the blameless 
man is buried in the darkness of neglect. But who can collect 
or enumerate all the contrasts of this kind ? 15ut if this 
anomalous state of things were uniform in this life, in which, 
as the sacred Psalmist says, " Man is like to vanity, his days 
as a shadow that passeth away," ^ — so uniform that none but 
wicked men won the transitory prosperity of earth, Avliile only 
the good suffered its ills, — this could be referred to the just and 
even benign judgment of God. Wo miglit suppose that they 
who were not destined to obtain those everlasting benefits 
wliich constitute human blessedness w^ere either deluded by 
transitory blessings as the just rewai-d of their wickedness, or 
were, in Crod*s mercy, consoled by them, and that they who 
were not destined to suffer eternal torments were afflicted 
with temporal chastisement for their sins, or were stimulated to 
greater attainment in virtue. But now, as it is, since we not 
only see good men involved in the ills of life, and bad men 
enjoying the good of it, which seems unjust, but also that evil 
often overtakes evil men, and good surprises the good, the 
rather on this account are God's judgments unsearchable, and 

* Ps. cxliv. 4. 



^ 



THE CITV Oy GOI>. FBOOK XX 



His ways past finding out. jVlthough, therefore, we do not 
know by what judgment these tilings are rlone or permittal 
to bo done by God, -^nth whom is the highest virtue, the 
highest wisdom, the highest justice, no infinnity, no rashness, 
no unrighteousness, yet it is salutary for us to learn to hoM 
cheap such things, be they good or evil, as attach indificr- 
ently to good men and bad, and to covet those good things 
which belong only to good men, and flee those evils which 
belong only to evil men. But when we shall have come tu 
that j udgment, the date of which is called pDCidiarly the day 
of judgment, and sometimes the day of the Lord, we shall 
tlien recogiuse tlie justice of all God's judgments, not only of 
such as shall then be pronounced, but of all which take eflect 
from the beginning, or may take effect before that time. And 
in that day we shall also recognise with what justice so many, 
or almost all, the just judgments of God in the present hfe 
defy the scrutiny of liumari sense or insight, though in this 
matter it is not concealed from pious minds that what is con- 
cealed is just 

3. What Sotomoa^ in the book of EccUslasteft tayn rtgarding the thinga wAirA 
hapjKTi atike to good and mcktd men, 

Solomon, the wisest king of Israel, who reigned in Jeru- 
salem, thus commences tbe book called Ecclesiastes, wliich 
the Jews number auiong their canonical Scriptm-es : " Vanity 
of vanities, said Ecclesiastes, vanity of vanities ; all is vanity. 
Wiat profit hath a man of all his labour wliich he hath 
taken under the sun ?"' And after going on to enumerate, 
with this as his text, the calamities and delusions of tlus 
life, and the shifting nature of the present time, in whicli 
there is nothing substantial, notliing lasting, lie beAvails, 
among the other vanities that are under the sun, this also, 
that though wisdom excelletli folly as light excelleth darkness, 
and though the eyes of the wise man are in his head, while 
the fool walketh in darkness,'' yet one event happeneth to 
them all, that is to say, in this life under the sun, unques- 
tionably alluding to those evils which we see befall good and 
bad men alike. He says, further, that the good suffer the ills 
of life as if they were evil-doers, and the bad enjoy the good 

^ Ecclea. l 2, 3. - Eccles. ii. 13, 14. 




BOOK XX] IN Tins tIFE JTTBGMENT XOT APPAKKNT. 



349 



of life as if tliey were good. *' There is a vanity which is 

done upon the earth ; that there be just men unto whom it 
hapi>eneth according to the work of the wicked : y^'ain, there 
be wicked men, to whom it happeueth according to the work 
of the righteous. T said, that this also is vanity.''^ This 
wisest man devoted this whole book to a fail exposure of this 
vanity, evidently with no otlier object than that we might 
long for that life in which there is no vanity itnder the sun, 
but verity under Him who made the sun. Tu this vanity, 
then, was it not by the just and righteous judgment of God 
that man, made like to vanity, was destined to pass away ? 
But in these days of vanity it innkes an impnrtsuit diilerence 
whether he resists or yields to the truth, and whether he is des- 
titute of true piety or a paitaker of it, — important not so far as 
regards the acquirement of the blessings or the evasion of the 
calamities of this transitory and vain life, but in connection 
with the future judgment which shall make over to good men 
good things, and to bad men bad things, in permanent, in- 
alienable possession. In fine, this wise man concludes this 
book of his by saying, " Fear God, and keep Hi-j command- 
ments : for this is every man. For God shall bring every 
work into judgment, with every despised person, whether it 
be good, or whether it be evil." * Wliat truer, terser, more 
salutary enouncement could be made ? " Fear God," he says, 
*' and keep His commandments : for this is every man." For 
whosoever has i*eal existence, is tliis, is a keeper of God's 
commandments ; and he who is not this, is nothing. For so 
long as lie remains in the likeness of vanity, he is not renewed 
in the image of the truth. " For God shall bring into judg- 
ment every work," — ^that Ls, whatever man docs in this lite,— 
•' whether it be good or whether it be evil, with every 
despised person," — -that is, with every man who here seems 
despicable, and is therefore not considered ; for God sees 
even him, and does not despise him nor pass him over in His 
judgment. 

4. 77iaf jtroo/8 of (Jte last judjmtnC will be adducttf, Jtrtl/ivm the New 
Testament^ and ihen/rom the OUL 

The proofs, then, of this last judgment of God which I pro- 

^ £ccl«8. viii. 14. * Eccles. xii. 13, IL 



v. ( 






350 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[BOOKXt 



I 



pose to adduce shall be drawn first from the New Testament, 
and then from the Old. For although the Old Testament is 
prior in point of time, the New ha.*? the precedence in intrinsic 
viilue ; for the Old acts the part of herald to the New, We 
shall therefore first cite passages from the New Testament^ 
and confirm them by quotations from the Old TestamfiDt 
The Old contains the law and the prophets, the New the gospel 
and the apostolic epistles. Now the apostle says, " By the 
law is the knowledge of sin. But now the righteousness o£ 
God without the law is manifested, being ^^'itne8sed by the 
law and the prophets ; now the righteousness of God ia by 
faith of Jesus Christ upon all them that believe." * This 
righteousness of God belongs to the New Testament, and 
evidence for it exists in the old books, that is to say, in 
thti law and the prophets. I sliall first, then, state the case, 
and then call the witnesses. This order Jesus Christ Himself 
directs us to observe., saying, "The scribe instructed in the 
kingdom of God is like a good householder, bringing out of 
his treasure things new and old." ' He did not say " old and 
new," which He certainly would have said had He not wiahed 
to follow the order of merit rather than that of time. 

5. The pcu»agM in which tJie Saviour dechres thit there shall he a divme jwi^ 
ment in tfie end of the world. 

The Saviour Himself, while reproving the cities in which 
He had done great works, but which had not believed, and 
while setting them in unfavourable comparison with foreign 
cities, says, " But I say imto yon. It shall be more tolerable 
for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment than for you.**' 
And a little after He says, "Verily, I say unto you. It shall 
be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judg- 
ment than for thee " * Here He most plainly predicts that a 
day of judgment is to come. And in another place He sap, 
" The men of Nineveh sludl rise in judgment with this gene- 
ration, and shall condemn it : because they repented at the 
preaching of Jonas ; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is hera 
The queen of the south shall rise up in tlie judgment with 
this generatioUj and shall condemn it : for slio came from the 
uttermost parts of the earth to hear the words of Solomon ; 

> Hom. iii. 20-22. * Matt. xiii. 52. ' Matt. xi. 22. *Mjitt. si. 24. 




and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here." ' Two things 
■we learn from this passage, that a judgment is to take place, 
and that it is to take place at the resurrection of the dead. 
For when He spoke of the Ninevites and the queen of the 
south, He certaiidy spoke of dead persons, and yet He said 
that they should rise up in the day of Judgment. He did not 
say, " They shall condemn," as if they themselves were to be 
the judges, but because, in comparison with them^ the others 
flhall be justly condemned. 

AgaiUj in another passage, in which He was speaking of the 
present intermingling and future separation of tlie good and 
badj — the separation which shall be nxade in the day of judg- 
mentj — He adduced a comparison dra^mi from the sown wheat 
and the tares sown among them, and gave this explanation of 
it to His disciples : " He that soweth the good seed is the Son 
of man,"* etc. Here, indeed, He did not name the judgment 
or the day of ju<^^ent, but indicated it much more clearly by 
describing the circumstances, and foretold that it should take 
place in the end of the world. 

In like manner He says to His disciples, " Verily I say 
unto you. That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration, 
when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of His glory, ye 
alao shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes 
of Israel" * Here we learn that Jesus shall judge with His 
disciples. And therefore He said elsewhere to the Jews, 
" If I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your sons 
cast them out ? Therefore they shall be your judges." * 
Neither ought we to suppose that only twelve men shall judge 
along with Him, though He says that they shall sit upon 
twelve thrones; for by the number twelve is signified the 
completeness of the multitude of those who shall judge. "For 
the two parts of the number seven (which commonly symbolizes 
totality), that is to say, four and three, multiplied into one 
another, give twelve. For four times three, or three times 
four, are twelve. There are other meanings, too, in this 
number twelve. Were not this the right interpretation of 
the twelve thrones, then since we read that Matthias was 

* Mfttt. xii. 41, 42. * Aaguatine quotes the whole passage, Matt xiii. 37-43. 
> Mfttt zix. 23. * Matt xii 27. 



I 



352 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XX. 

onlaineJ an apostle in the room of Judas the traitor, the 
Apostle Paul, though he laboured more thiiii theiu all/ should 
have no throne of judgment; but he unmistakeably considers 
himself to be included in the number of the judj^es when he 
says, " Know yc not that we shall judge angels V'' The same 
nde ia to be observed in a^jplying the number twelve to thoae 
who are to be judged. For though it was said, "judging the 
twelve tribes of Israel," the tribe of Levi, which is the 
thirteenth, ^\m\] not on this account be exempt from judg- 
ment, neither shall judgment be passed only on Israel ami 
not on the other nations. And by the woi-ds " in the re- 
generation " He certainly nieajit the resurrection of the dead 
to be understood ; for onr fleali shall be regenerated by io- 
coiTuption, as our soul is regenerated by faith. 

Many passages I omit, because, though they seem to i^er 
to the last judgment, yet on a closer examination they are 
found to be ambiguous, or to allude rather to some other 
event, — whether to that coming of the Saviour which con- 
tinually occurs in His Church, that is, in His members, in 
which He comes little by little, and piece by piece, since the 
■whole Church is His body, or to the destruction of the 
earthly Jerusalem. For when He speaks even of this. He often 
uses language which is applicable to tlve end of the world and 
that lust and great day of judgment, so that these two evenu 
cannot be distinguished unless all the corresponding passages 
bearing on the subject in the three evangelists, ^latthew, 
Mark, and Luke, are compared with one another, — for some 
tilings are put more obscurely by one evangelist and more 
plainly by another, — so that it becomes apparent what things 
arc meant to be referred to one event. It is this which I 
have been at pains to do in a letter which I wrote to Hesy- 
chius of blessed memory, bishop of Salon, and entitled^ * Of 
the End of the World'' » 

I shall now cite from the Gospel accoi-ding to Matthew the 
passage which speaks of the sepamtion of the good from the 
\vicked by the most efficacious and final judgment of Christ: 
"When the Son of man," he says, "shall come in His glory, . . . 
then shall He say also unto them on His left liand, Depart 
1 1 Cor. IT, 10. * I Cor. vi. 3. ' £p, 19?. 





BOOK XX.] THE FIRST AND SEGOXD RESURRECTIOX. 



O^O 



from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the de\il 
and Ills angels." * Then Ho in like manner recounts to tlie 
wicked the things they had not done, but "which He had said 
those on the right hand had done. And when they ask when 
they had seen Him in need of these tilings. He replies that, 
inasmuch aa they had not done it to the least of His brothren, 
they had not done it unto Him, and concludes His address in 
the words, "And these shall go away into everlasting punish- 
ment, but the righteous into life eternal" Moreover, the evan- 
gelist John most distinctly states that He had predicted that tlie 
judgment should he at the resurrection of the dead. For after 
saying, " The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all 
judgment unto the Son ; that all men should honour the Son, 
even as they honour the Father ; he that honoureth not the 
Son, honoureth not tlie Father wliich hath sent Him ;" He im- 
mediately adds, "Verily, verily, 1 say unto you, He that heareth 
my word and believeth on Him that sent me, hath everlasting 
life, ami shall not cunie into judgment; but is passed from death 
to life." ^ Here He said that believers on Him sliould not 
come into judgment. How, then, shall thoy be sepai-ated from 
the wicked by judgment, and be set at His right liand, tmless 
judgment be in this passage used for condemnation I For into 
judgment, in this sense, they shall not come who hear His 
word, and believe on Him that sent Him. 



6. What M tlie/rst reeurrecthn, and tchtU Uu Kcond. 

After that He adds the words, '* Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, The hour is coming, and now is, wlien the dead shall 
Iiear tlie voice of the Son of God ; and they that hear shall 
live. For as the Father hath life in Himself; so hath He 
given to the Son to have life in Himself."^ As yet He does 
jiot speak of the second resurrection, that is, the resurrection 
of the body, wliich shall be in the end, but of the first, which 
now is. It is for the sake of making this distinction that He 
says, " The hour is coming, and now is." Now tliis resuiTec- 
tion regards not the body, but the soul. For souls, too, have a 
death of their own in wickedness and sins, whereby they are 
the dead of whom the same lips say, " Sufier the dead to bury 
» Matt. XXV, 34-41, given in full. « John v. 22-24. ■ John v. 25, 26. 

VOL. IL Z 



354 



THE Cmr OF GOD. 



[300K 3X 



their dead," ' — that is, let those who are dead in soul bury them 
that are dead in body. It is of these dead, then — the dead 
in ungodliness and wickedness — that He saj-s, " The ho^ir is 
comingj and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the 
Son of God; and they that hear shall live." "They that hear," 
that is, they who obey, believe, and persevere to the end. 
Here no difference is made between the good and the bad. 
For it is good for all men to hear His voice and live, by 
passing to the life of godliness from the death of ungodlinesaL 
Of this death the Apostle Paul says, " Therefore all are dead, 
and He died for all, that they wluch live should not henceforth 
live unto themselves, but unto Him which died for them and 
rose again." * ' Thus all, without one exception, were dead in 
sins, whether original or voluntary sins, sins of ignorance, or 
sins committed against knowledge ; and for all the dead there 
died the one only person who lived, that is, who had no sm 
whatever, in order that they who live by the remission of 
their sins slionld live, not to themselves, but to Him who 
died for all, for our sins» and rose again for our justification, 
that we, believing in Him who justifies the ungodly, and 
being justified from ungodliness or quickened from death, 
may be able to attain to the first resurrection which now is. 
For in this first resurrection none have a part save those who 
shall be eternally blessed ; but in the second, of which He 
goes on to speak, all, as we shall learn, have a part^ both the 
blessed and the wretched. The one is the resurrection of 
mercy, the other of judgment And therefore it is written in 
the psalm, " I will sing of mercy and of judgment : unto Thee, 
Lord, will I sing."'' 

And of this judgment He went on to say, " And hath given 
Him authority to execute judgment also, because He is the 
Son of man." Here He shows that He will come to judge in 
tliat flesh in which He had come to be judged. For it is to 
show this He says, " because He is the Son of man." And 
then follow the words for our purpose : " Marvel not at this ; 
for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves 
shall hear His voice, and sLall come forth ; they that have 
done good, unto the resurrection of life ; and they that have 
> 3Iatt. viii. 22. * 2 Cor. r. 14, 15. ■ Pa. cL 1. 





tooK XX.] TriE FIRST iiESTnir.Ecrnox spiritual. 



355 



done evil, unto the resurrection of judgment"^ This judg- 
laent He uses here in tlie saiue sense as a Utile before^ when 
He says, " He that heareth my vrord, and believeth on Him 
that sent me, hath everlastiiiLC life, and shall not come into 
judgment, but is passed from death to life;" t.f., by having a 
part in the first resurrection, by which a transition fiom death 
to life is made in this present time, he shall not come into 
damnation, which He mentions by the name of judgment, as 
also in the place where He says, ** but they that have done evil 
unto the resurrection of judgment," i.€, of damnation. He, 
therefore, who would not be damned in the second resurrection, 
let him rise in the fi\si. For " tlie hour is coming, and now 
is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God ; and 
they that hear shall live," i.c, shall not come into damnation, 
which is called the second death ; into which death, after the 
second or bodily resurrection, they shall be hurled who do not 
rise in the first or spiritual resurrection. For " thii hour is 
coming " (but here He does not sa}^ " and now is," because it 
shall come in the end of the world in the last and greatest 
judgment of God) "when all that are in the graves shall hear 
His voice and sliall come forth." He does not say, as in the 
first resurrection, " And they that hear shall liva" For all 
shall not live, at least with such life as ought alone to be 
called life because it alone is blessed. For some kind of life 
they must have in order to hear, and come forth from tlie 
graves in tlieir rising bodies. And why aU sliall not live He 
teaches in the words that follow ; " They that have done good, 
to the resurrection of life," — these are they who shall live ; 
"but they that have done evil, to the resurrection of judg- 
ment," — these are they who shall not live, for they shall die 
in the second death. They have done evil because their life 
has been e\il ; and tlicir life lias been evil because it lias not 
been renewed in the first or spiritual resurrection which now 
is, or because they have not persevered to the end in their 
renewed life. As, then, there are two regenerations, of which 
I have already made mention,— the one according to faith, and 
wliich takes place in the present life by means of baptism ; 
the other according to the flesh, and which shall be accom- 
1 John T. 28, 29. 



356 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XT. 



plished in its incomiption apd inunortality by means of the 
great and fmal judgment, — so are there also two resurrections, — 
the one the tirat and spiritual resurrection, which has place in 
this life, and preserves us from coming into the second death; 
the other the second, which does not occur now, but in the 
end of the world, aud which is of the body, not of the soul, 
and which by the la.st judf^cnt shall dismiss some into the 
second death, others into that Kfe which has no death. 

7. Whil u wriit^n in tht JlfVflation of John regnrdinrj the. tico resurrfcilons, 
and Me thousand years, aud tahat ma^ reaaonahly ?« hitd on these poinU. 

The evangelist John has spoken of these two resurrections 
in the book which is called the Apocal>7>se, but in such a 
way that some Christians do not understand the first of the 
two, and so construe the passage into ridiculous fancies. For 
the Apostle John says in the foresaid book, "And I saw an 
angel come down from heaven. . . . Blessed and holy is he 
that hnth part in the first resurrection : on such the second 
death hath no power ; but they shall be priests of God and of 
Christ, and shall reign with Hini a thousand years." * Those 
who, on the strength of this passage, have suspected that the 
first resurrection is future and bodily, have been moved, among 
other things, specially by the number of a thousand years, as 
if it were a ht thing that the saints should thus enjoy a kind 
of Sabbath-rest during that period, a holy leisure after the 
labours of the six thousand years since man was created, and 
was on account of his gi*eat sin dismissed from the blessedness 
of pamdise into the woes of this mortal lifcj so that thus, as it 
is written, " One day is with the Lord as a thousand years, 
and a thousand years as one day,"^ there should follow on 
the completion ot six thousand years, as of six days, a kind of 
seventh-day Sabbath in the succeeding thousand years ; and 
that it is for tliis purpose the saints rise, viz. to celebrate 
this Sabbatk And tliis opinion would not be objectioliable, 
if it were believed that the joys of the saints in that Sabbath 
shall be spiritual, and consequent on the presence of God; 
for I myself, too, once held tliis opinion,^ But, as they assert 
that those who then rise again shall enjoy the 161810*6 of im- 

^ Rev. XX. 1-6. The whole pasaoge la quoted. * 2 Pet iiL 8. 

' Serm. 259. 



»v 




BOOK XX.] THE APOCALYPSE AKT> THE LAST THINGS. 357 



moderate carnal bauq_uets, furnished with an amount of meat 
and drink such as Bot only to shock the feeling of the tem- 
perate, but even to surpass the measure of credulity itself, 
such assertions can be believed only by the carnal. They who 
do believe them arc called by the spiritual Chiliasts, which 
w:e may literally reproduce by the name Millenariaus.* It 
were a tedious process to refute these opinions point by point : 
we prefer proceeding to show how that passage of Scripture 
should be imderstood. 

The Lord Jesus Christ Himself says, *' No man can enter 
into a strong man s house, and spoil his goods, except lie first 
bind the strong man,"" — meaning by the strong man the devil, 
because he had power to take captive the human race ; and 
meaning by his goods which he was to take, those who had 
been held by the devil in divers sins and iniquities, but were 
to become believej*s in Himself. It was then for the binding 
of tliis strong one that the apostle saw in the Apncaljrpse " an 
angel coming down from heaven, having the key of the abyss, 
and a chain in his hand. And he laid liold," he says, " on the 
dragon, that old serpent, which is called the devil and Satan, 
and bound him a thousand years," — that is, bridled and re- 
strained his power so that he could not seduce and gain pos- 
session of those who were to be freed. Now the tijousand 
years may be understood in two ways, so far as occm*s to me : 
either because these things happen in the sixth thousand of 
years or sixth millennium (the latter part of whicli is now pass- 
ing), as if during the sixth day, which is to be followed by a 
Sabbath which has no evening, the endless rest of the saints, 
so that, speaking of a part under the name of the whole, he 
calls the last part of the mOlennium — the part, tliat is, wliich 
had yet to expire before the end of the world — a thousand 
years; or he used the thousand years as an equivalent for the 
whole duration of this world, employing the number of per- 
fection to mark the fulness of time, ior a thousand is the 
cube of ten. For ten times ten makes a hxmdred, that is, the 
sqiuire on a plane suiierlicies. Eufc to give this superficies 
height, and make it a cube, the hundred is again multiplied 
by ten, which gives a thousand. Besides, if a hundred is 
I ililliaiii. =" Mmk iii. 27 ; " Vaaa" for "goods." 



353 



THE CITY OP GOD. 



[book 



sometiiues used for totality, as when the Lord said by way of 
promise to him that left all and followed Him, " He sliall re- 
ceive in tlus world oa hundredfold;"^ of which the upostJo gives, 
as it were, an expIaDation when he says, "As having nothing, 
yet possessing all things,"' — for even of old it hud been said, 
Tlje whole world is the wealtli of a believer, — with how much 
greater reaac^n is a thousand put for totality since it is the 
cube, while the other is only the square ? And for the same 
reason we cannot bcUer iiiLerjuut the words of the psalm, 
" He hath been mindhil of His covenant for ever, the word 
which He commanded to a thousand generations," ' tlion by 
understanding it to mean " to all generations." 

"And he cast him into the abyss," — tLe. cast the devil 
into the abyss. By the ah/ss is meant the countless multi- 
tude of the wicked whose hearts are unfathomably deep in 
malignity against the Church of God ; not that the devil was 
not there before, but he is said to be cast in thither, because, 
when prevented from harming believers, he takes more com- 
plete possession of the imgodly. For tliat man is more abun- 
dantly possessed by the de\Tl who is not only alienated from 
God, but also gratmtously hates those who serve God. **And 
shut him up, and set a seal upon liim, that he should deceive 
the nations no more till the thousand years should bo fulfilled." 
" Shut him up,' — ie. prohibited him from going out, from doing 
what was forbidden And the addition of " set a seal upon 
him " seems to me to mean that it was designed to keep it s 
secret who belonged to the devil's paity and who did not 
For in this world this is a secret, for we cannot tell whether 
even the man who seems to stand shall fidl, or whether be 
who seems to lie shall rise again. But by the chain and 
prisonhouse of this interdict the devil is prohibited and re- 
strained from seducing those nations which belong to Christ, 
but which he formerly seduced or held in subjection. For 
before the foundation of the world God cliose to rescue these 
from the power of darkness, and to ti'anslate them into the 
kingdom of the Son of ills love, as the apostle says.* For 
what Christian is not aware that he seduces nations even now, 
and draws tliera with himself to etenial punishment, but not 

» ilatt xix. 29. * 2 Cor. vi. 10. ' Ps. cv. S. * Col i. 13, 




BOOK XX. 



THE MILLENNIUM. 



359 



those predestined to eternal life ? And let no one be dismayed 
by the circumstance that the de\dl often seduces even those 
who have been regenerated in Christ, and begun to wallc in 
God's way. For "the Lord knoweth them that are His/'^ and 
of these the devil seduces none to eternal damnation. For 
it is as God, from whom nothing is hid even of things future, 
that the Lord knows them ; not as a man, who sees a man at 
the present time (if he can be said to see one whose heart he 
does not see), but does not see even hiiuseK so far as to be 
able to know what kind of person he is to be. The devil, 
tlien, is bomid and shut up in tire abyss that he may not 
seduce the nations from which the Church is gathered, and 
wKiah he formerly seduced before the Church existed. For 
it is not said "that he should not seduce any man" but "that 
he should not seduce the nations " — meaning, no doubt, those 
among which the Church exists — "till the thousand years 
should be fulfilled," — i.e. either what remains of the sixth day 
wliich consists of a thousand years, or all the years which are 
to elapse till the end of the world. 

The words, " that he should not seduce the nations till the 
thousand years should be fulfilled," are not to be understood 
as indicating that afterwards he is to seduce only those nations 
from which the predestined Church is composed, and from 
sc'dncing whoTn he is restrained by that chain and imprison- 
ment ; but they are used in confonriity M*ith that usage fre- 
qiiently employed in Scripture and exemplified in tlie psalm, 
" So our eyes wait upon tlie Lord our God, until He have 
mercy upon us,"* — not as if the eyes of His servants would no 
longer wait upon the Lord their God when He had mercy upon 
them. Or the order of the words is unquestionably this, "And 
he shut him up and set a seal upon him, till the thousand 
years hIiouUI be fulfilled;" and the interposed clause, " that he 
should seduce tlie nations no more," is not to be understood 
in the connection in which it stands, but separately, and as if 
added afterwards, so that the whole sentence might be read, 
''And He shut him up and set a seal upon him till the 
thousand years should be fulfilled, that he should seduce the 
nations no more " — ix. he is shut up till the thousand years 

* 2 Tira. it 19. ' 1*3. cxxiii. 2. 



SCO 



THE Cmr OF GOD. 



[book XX. 



"be fuliilled, on this account, that he may no more deceive the 
natioiiB. 



8. 0/ the Unding and looainr; qf the devil. 

" After tliat," says John, " he must be luosed a little season." 
If the binding and shutting up of the devil means liis being 
made unable to seduce the Church, must his loosinf; be the 
recovery of this ability ? By no means. For the Church pre- 
desLiued and elected before the I'oundation of the world, the 
Church of which it is said, '* Tlie Lord knoweth them that are 
His," shall never be seduced by him. And yet thei-e shall bo 
a Church in tliis world even when the devil shall be loosed, 
as there has been since the beginning, and shall be alwa^'S, 
the places of the dying being filled by new believers. For a 
little after John says that the devil, being loosed, shall draw 
the nations whom he has seduced in the whole world to make 
war against the Church, and that the number of these enemies 
shall be as the sand of the sea. "And they went up on the 
breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints 
about, and the beloved city : and fire came down from God 
out of heaven and devoured them. And the devil who seduced 
them was cast into the lake of lire and brimstone, where the 
beast and the false prophet are, and shall be t^Drmented day and 
night for ever and ever."' This relates to the last judgment, 
but I have thought fit to mention it now, lest any one might 
suppose that in that short time during which the devil shall 
be loose there shall be no Church upon earth, whether because 
the devil finds no Church, or destroys it by manifold perse- 
cutions. The devil, then, is not bound during the whole time 
which this book endiraces,^that is, from the hrst coming of 
Clirist to the end of the world, when He shall come the second 
time, — not bound in this sense, that during this interval, which 
goes by the name of a thousand years, he shall not seduce the 
Church, for not even when loosed shall he seduce it. For cer- 
tainly if Ids being bound means tluit he is not able or not per- 
mitted to seduce tlie Church, what can the loosing of him 
mean but his being able or permitted to do so ? But God 
forbid that such should be the case ! But the binding of tlie 

»Ikv. JJL 9, 10. 





BOOK XX.] BINDING AND LOOSING OF THE DEITL. 



361 



devil is his being prevented from the exercise of hia whole 
power to seduce men, either by violently forcing or fraudu- 
lently deceiving them into taking part with hirn. If he were 
during so long a period permitted to assail the weakness of 
men, very many persons, auch as God would not wish to ex- 
pose to such temptation, would have their faith overthrown, or 
would be prevented from believing ; and that this might not 
happen, he is bound. 

But when the short time comes he shall be loosed* For he 
shall rage with the whole force of himself and his angels for 
tiirec years and sL\ months ; and those with whom he makes war 
shall have power to withstand all liis violence and stratagems. 
And if he were never loosed, his mahcioua power would be less 
patent, and less proof would be given of the stedfast fortitude of 
tlie holy city : it would, in short, be less manifest what good 
use the Almighty makes of his great evil For the Almighty 
does not absolutely seclude the saints from his temptation, but 
shelters only their inner man, whci-c faith resides, that by out- 
ward temptation they may grow in grace. And He binds him 
that he may not, in the free and eager exercise of his malice, 
hinder or destroy the faith of those countless weak persons, 
already believing or yet to believe, from whom the Church 
niust be increased and completed ; and he will in the end 
loose him, that tlie city of God uuiy see how mighty an ad- 
versary it has conquered, to the great glory of its liedeemer, 
Helper, Deliverer. And what are we in cornparisau with those 
believers and saints who shall then exist, seeing that they 
shall be tested by the loosing of an enemy with whom we 
make war at the greatest peril even when he is bound ? 
Although it is also certain that even in this inter\'ening period 
there have been and are some soldiers of Christ so wise and 
strong, that if they were to be alive in this mortal condi- 
tion at the time of his loosing, they woidd both most "wisely 
guard against, and most patiently endure, all his snares and 
assaults. 

Now the devil was thus bound not only when the Church 
began to be more and more widely extended aninng the nations 
beyond Judea, but is now and shall be bound till the end of 
the world, M'hen he is to be loosed. Because even now men 



362 



THE CITT OF GOD. 



fBOOK TX 



are, and doubtless to the end of the world shall be, con- 
verted to the faith from the unbelief in which he held them. 
And this strong one is bound in each instance in which he is 
spoiled of one of his goods ; and the abyss in which, he is shut 
up is not at an end when thuae die who were alive when first 
he was shut up in it, but these have been succeeded, and shall 
to the end of the world be succeeded, by others born after 
them with a like hate of the Christians, and in the depth of 
whose blind hearts he is continually shut up as in an abyss^ 
But it is a question whether, during these three years and sis 
months when he shall be loose, and raging with all his force, 
any one who has not previously believed shaU attach himself 
to the faith. For how in tliat case would the words hold 
good, " Who entereth into the house of a strong one to spoil 
his goods, unless lirst he shall have bound the strong one?" 
Consequently this verse seems to compel us to believe that 
during that time, short as it is, no one will be added to the 
Christian community, but that the devil will make war with 
those who have pre^-iously become Christians, and that, thougti 
some of these may be conquered and desert to the devil, tbes« 
do not belong to the predestinated number of the sons of 
Grod. For it is not without reason that John, the same 
apostle as •wrote this Apocalypse, says in his epistle regarding 
certain persons, " They went out from us, but they were not 
of us ; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have 
remained with iis."* But what shall become of the little 
ones ? For it is beyond all lu^licf that in these days there shall 
not be found some Christinn children bom, but not yet baptised, 
and that there shall not also be some bom during that very 
period ; and if tliere be such, we cannot believe that their 
parents shall not find some way of bringing them to the laver 
of regeneration. But if this shall be the case, how shall these 
goods be snatched from the devil wlien he is loose, since into 
his liouse no man enters to spoil his goods unless he has first 
bound him ? On the contrary, we are rather to believe that 
in these days thero shall bo no lack either of those who fall 
away from, or of those who attach themselves to the Church ; 
but there shall be such resoluteness, both in parents to seek 

1 1 JoUu ii. IS. 





BOOK XX.] 



EEIGN OF TWT. SAINTS. 



^63 



baptism for their little ones, and in those who shall then first 
believe, that they shall conquer tliat strong one, even though 
unbound, — that is, shall both ^^gilantIy comprehend, and 
patiently bear up against him, though emplojdng such wiles 
and putting forth such force as ho never before used ; and 
thus they shall be snatched from bim even though unbound. 
And yet the vei*se of the Gospel will not be untrue, " Who 
entereth into the house of the strong one to spoil his goods, 
unless he shall first have bound the strong one ?" For in 
accordance with this true saying that order is observed — the 
sti'ong one first bound, and then his goods spoiled ; for the 
Church is so increased by the weak and strong from all 
nations far and near, that by its most robust faith in things 
divinely predicted and accomplished, it shall be ablo to spoil 
the goods of even the unbound devil. For as we must own 
tliat, " when iniquity abounds, the love of many waxes cold,"* 
and that those who have not been written in the book of life 
gliall in large niimbers yield to the severe and unprecedented 
persecutions and stratagems of the devil now loosed, so we 
cannot but think thnt not only those whom that time sliall 
find sound in the faith, but also some who till then shall be 
without, shall become firm in the faith they have hitherto 
rejected, and mighty to conquer the devil even though im- 
bouiid, God's grace aiding them to imderstand the Scriptures, 
in which, among other things, there is foretold that very end 
which they themselves see to be arriving. And if this shall 
be so, his binding is to be spoken of as preceding, that there 
might follow a spoiling of him both boimd and loosed ; for it 
is of this it is said, " Who shall enter into the house of the 
strong one to spoil his goods, tinless he shall first have bound 
the strong one ?" 

fl. }Vhat tlie reign of the Mxintu vnth CJirhtfor a tJioiuand yeare is, and how it 
difen/rom the eternal kingdom. 

But while the devil is boimd, the saints reign with Christ 
during the same thousfind years, understood in the same way, 
that is, of the time of Ilis fii*st coming.^ For, leaving out of 
account that kingdom concerning which He shall say in the 
end, " Come, ye blessed of my Father, take j^ossession of the 
* Matt xxiv. 12, ' Between His first and second corains. 



364 



[E axy OF GOD. 



[book XX. 



kingdi.iia prepared for you/** the Church could not now be 
called His kingdom or the kinii^dom of heaven unless His 
saints were even now reigning with Hiiu, though in another 
and far different way ; for to His saints He says, " Lo, I am 
with you always, even to the end of the world." ' Certainly 
it is in tliis present tinie that the scribe well instructed in the 
kingdom of God, and of whom we have already spoken, brings 
fortli from his treasure things new and old. And from the 
Church those reapers shall gather out the tares which He 
suffered to grow with the wheat till the harvest, as He ex- 
plains in the words, " The harvest is the end of the world ; and 
the reapers are the angels. As therefore the tares ai-e gathered 
together and burned with fire, so shall it be in the end of the 
world. The Son of man shall send His angels, and they shall 
gather out of His kingdom all offences." * Can He mean out 
of that kingdom in which ai'e no offences ? Then it must ht 
out of His present kingdom, the Church, that they are gathered. 
So He says, " He that breaketh one of the least of these com- 
mandments, and tcachcth men so, shall he called least in the 
kingdom of heaven : bnt he that doeth and teacheth thus 
shall be called gv^at in the kingdom of heaven." * He sjtcaks 
of both as being in the kingdom of heaven, botli the man who 
does not perform the commandments which He teaches, — for 
" to break " means not to keep, not to perform, — and the mau 
who does and teaches as He did ; but the one He calls least, 
the other great And He immediately adds, " For I say unto 
you, that except your righteousness exceed that of the scribes 
and Pharisees/* — that is, the righteousness of those who break 
what they teach ; for of tlie scribes and Pharisees He else- 
where says, 'Tor they say and do not;"* — unless, therefore, 
your righteousness exceed theirs, that is, so tliat you do noi 
break but rather do what you teach, " ye shall not enter the 
kingdom of heaven." * AVe must uuderstund in one sense the 
kingdom of heaven in which exist together both he who breaks 
what he teaches and he mIio does it, the one being least, the 
other great, and in another sense the kingdom of heaven into 
which only he who does what he teaches shall enter. Con- 



> Matt XXV. 3J. 
* ilatt. V. 1». 



- Jtfitt. xxviii. 20. 
• Uatt. Txiii. &. 



' Mfttt. xiii. 39-41. 
Matt. T. 20. 




BOOK XX.l 



OF THE SATKTS. 



3G5 



sequently, where both classes exist, it is the Church as it now 
is, but where only the one shall exist, it is the Church as it 
is destined to lie when no wicked person shall be in her. 
Tlierefore the Church even now is the kingdom of Christ, ajid 
the kingdom of heaven. Accoi-din^ly, even now His saints 
Tci'jjn with Him, though otherwise than hs they shall reij^ii 
hereafter; and yet, though the tares grow in the Church 
ulon^ with the wlieat, they do not reign with Hira, For they 
reign with Him who do what the apostle says, " If ye he risen 
with Christ, mind the things which are above, where Christ 
sitteth at the right hand of God. Seek those things which 
are above, not the things which are on the earth." ^ Of such 
persons he also says that their conversation is in heaven.' 
In fine, they reign Avith Him who are so in His kingdom that 
they themselves are His kingdom. But in Mdiat sense are 



those the kingdom of Christ who, to say no more, 



though 



they are in it until all offences are gathered out of it nt the 
end of the world, yet seek their own things in it, and not the 
things that arc Christ's ?' 

It is then of this kingdom militant, in which conflict M'ith 
the enemy h still maintained, and war carried on with war- 
ring lusts, or government laid upon them as they yield, until 
we come to that most peaceful kingdom in which we shall 
reign Avithout an enemy, and it is of this first resurrection in 
the present life, that the Apocalypse speaks in the words just 
quoted. For, after saying that the devil is bound a thousand 
years and is afterwards loosed for a short setison, it goes on 
to give a sketch of what the Church does or of what is done 
in the Church in those days, in the words, " And I saw seats 
and them that sat upon them, and jmlgment was given." It 
is not to be supposed that this refei*s to the last judgment, but 
to the seats of the rulers and to the rulers themselves by whom 
the Church is now governed. And no better interpretation of 
judgment being given can be produced than that which we 
have in the words, " What ye bind on earth shall be bound 
in heaven; and what ye loose on earth shall be loosed in 
heaven." * Whence the apostle says, " "Wliat have I to do 



J Cal. iii. 1, 2. 
' PhiL ii 21. 



» Phil iii. 2D. 
* iUtt xviii 18. 



366 ^ THB CITY OP GOD. [BOOK XX. 

with judgiog them that are without ? do not ye judge them 
that are within ?*' ' " And the souls," says John, " of those 
who were slain for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of 
God/' — understanding what he afterwaids says, " reigned -with 
Christ a thousand years/* ' — that is, tlie souls of the raartris 
not yet restored to their bodies. For the souls of tlie pious 
dead are not separated from the Church, which even now is 
the kingdom of Christ; otherwise there would be no remem* 
brance made of Uiem at tlie altar of God in the pattaldng 
of the body of Christ, nor would it do any good in danger 
to run to His baptism, that we might not pass from this life 
without it ; nor to reconciliation, if by penitence or a bod 
conscience any one may be severed from His body. For why 
are these things practised, if not because the foitlifiil, even 
though dead, are His members ? Therefore, while these thousand 
years run on, their souls reign with Him, though not as yet in 
conjunction with their bodies. And tlierefore in another part 
of this same book we read, " Blessed are the dead who die in 
the Loixl from henceforth : and now, saith the Spirit, that they 
may rest from their labours ; for their works do follow tliem." * 
The Churcbj then, begins its reign with Christ now in the 
living and in the dead. For, as the apostle says, " Christ died 
that He might be Lord both of the living and of the dead-^* 
But he mentioned the souls of the martyrs only, because they 
who have contended even to death for the truth, themselves 
principally reign after death ; but, taking the part for the 
whole, we imderstand the words of all others who belong to 
the Church, which is the kingdom of Christ 

As to the words following, "And if any have not wor- 
shipped the beast nor his image, nor have received his in- 
scription on then- forehead, or on their hand/' we must take 
them of both the living and the dead. And what this beast is, 
though it requires a more careful investigation, yet it is not 
inconsistent with the true faith to understand it of the un- 
godly city itself, and the community of unbelievers set in 
opposition to the faithfid people and the city of God. " His 
image " seems to me to mean his simulation, to witj in those 

» 1 Cor. V. 12. « Rtv. XX. 4. 

' &ev. xiv. 13. * Bom. sir. 8. 



EOOK XX.] TIIE HRST AND SECOND HESURRECTION. 



67 



men who profess to believe, but live as unbelievers. For they 
pretend to be what they are not, and are called Christians, 
not from a true likeness, but from a deceitful image. For to 
this beast belong not only the avowed enemies of the name 
of Christ and His most glorious city, but also tlie tares which 
are to be gathered out of Ilia kingdom, the Church, in the end 
of the world. And who are they who do not worship the 
beast and his image, if not those who do what the apostle 
says, " Be not yoked with unbelievers ? " * For sucli do not 
worship, i,e. do not consent, are not subjected ; neither do 
they receive the inBcription, the brand of crime, on their fore- 
head by their profession, on their hand by their practice. 
They, then, who are free from these pollutions, whether they 
still live in tliis mortal flesh, or are dead, reign with Christ 
even now, through tliia whole interval which is indicated by 
tlie tliousand years, in a fashion suited to this time. 

" The rest of them," he says, " did not live." For now is 
the hour when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of 
God, and they that hear shall Hve ; and tlie rest of them 
shall not live. The words added, " until the tliousand years 
are finished," mean that they did not live in the time in which 
they ought to have lived by passing from death to life. And 
therefore, when the day of the bodily resurrection arrives, they 
shall come out of their graves, not to life, hut to judgment, 
namely, to damnation, which is called the second death. For 
whosoever has not lived until the thousand years be finished, 
i.e. during this whole time in which the first resurrection is 
going on, — whosoever has not heard the voice of the Son of 
God, and passed from death to life, — that man shall certainly in 
the second resurrection, the resurrection of the iiesh, pass with 
Ids flesh into the second death. For he goes on to say, " This 
is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is ho that hath 
part in the first resurrection," or who experiences it Now 
he experiences it who not only revives from the death of sin, 
but continues in this renewed life. " In these tlie second 
death hath no power." Therefore it has poM-er in the rest, of 
whom he said above, " The rest of them did not live imtil the 
thousand years were finished ;" for in this whole intervening 
1 2 Cor. Ti. U. 




3C3 



TnZ CITY OF GOD. 



[nooK XX. 



tiuie, called a thousand yeavs, however lustily they lived in 
the body, they M-ere not quickened to life out of tliat death in 
which their wickedness held them, so that by this revived 
life they should become partakers of the first resurrection, and 
so the second death shoidd have no power over them. 

10. WhtU U tobe rtplied to thone who think that reaurrtetloti pertaina only te 

bodies and not Co souls. 

There are some who suppose that resurrection can be pre- 
dicated only of the body, and therefore they contend that this 
first resurrection (of the Apocalypse) is a bodily resurrection. 
For, say tliey, " to rise again " can only be said of things that 
falL Kow, bodies fall in deatlx^ There cannot, therefore, be 
a resurrectinn of souls, Imt of bodies. Eut what do they say 
to the apostle who speaks of a resurrection of souls ? Tor 
certainly it was in the inner and not the outer man that those 
had risen again to whom he says, " If ye have risen with 
Christ, mind the things that are above."^ The same sense he 
elsewhere conveyed in other words, saying, " That as Chrisc 
has risen from the dead by the glory of the Father, so wo also 
may walk in newness of life."^ vSo, too, " Awake tliou that 
sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee 
light"* As to what they say about nothing being able to 
rise again bub what falls, whence they conclude that resur- 
rection pertains to bodies only, and not to souls, because 
bodies fall, why do they make noLhin;:^ of the words, " Ye that 
fear the Lord, wait for His mercy ; and go not aside lest 
ye fall;"* and "To his own Master he stands or falls;"* 
and " He that thinketh he standeth, let Idra take heed lest 
he fall?"^ For I laucy tliis lull that we are to take heed 
against is a toll of the soul, not of the body. If, then, rising 
again belongs to tilings that fall, and souls fall, it must be 
owned that souls also rise again. To the words, " In them 
the second death hath no power," are added the words, " but 
they shall be priests of God imd Christ, and shall reign with 
Him a thousand years ; " and this refers not to the bishops 

^ And, as Augustine rem&iks, are therefore called cadavera^ from codtrt, 
"tofftU." 
* CoL iii. ]. 5 Tlom. vi. 4. * Eph. t. 11. 



' Ecclos. ii. 



* Koni. xiv. 4. 



T 1 Cor. X. li 




BOOK XX.] 



GOO AND MAGOG. 



369 



alone, and presbyters, who are now specially called priests in 
the Church ; but as we caD all beUevei's Cliristians on account 
of the mystical chrism, so we call all priests because they are 
members of the one Priest. Of them the Apostle Peter says, 
" A holy people, a royal priesthood." ^ Certainly he implied, 
though in a passing and incidental way, that Christ is God. 
saying priests of God and Christ, that ia, of the Pather and 
the Son, though it was iu His servant-form and as Son of nmn 
that Clii'ist was made a Priest for ever after the order of Mcl- 
chisedec. But this we have already explained more than 
once. 

11. Of GoQ and Magog, who arc to he roused by ilie devil to persecute the 
Churchy when fie is loosed in the end oj the tcorld. 

"And when the thousand years are finished, Satan shall 
be loosed from his prison, and shall go out to seduce the 
nations which ore in the four comers of the earth, Gog and 
Magog, and shall draw them to battle, whose nujuber is as 
the sand of the sea." This, then, is his purpose in seducing 
them, to draw them to this battle. For even before this he 
was wont to use as many and vaiious seductions as ho could 
continue. And the words " he shall go out" mean, he shall 
burst forth from lurking hatred into open persecution. For 
this persecution, occurring while the final judgment is immi- 
nent, shall be the last wdiich shall be endured by the holy 
Churcli throughout the world, the wliole city of Clirist being 
assailed by tlie whole city of the devil, as each exists on 
earth. For these nations which he names Gog and Magog 
ore not to be understood of some barbarous nations in some 
part of the world, whether the GetiC and Maasagetrp, as some 
conclude from the initial letters, or some otlier foreign nations 
not under the Eoman government. For John marks that 
they are spread over the whole earth, when he says, " The 
nations wliich are in the four cornera of the earth," and he 
added that these are Gog and Magog. The meaning of these 
names we find to be, Gog, " a roof," Magog, " from a roof," — a 
house, as it were, and he who comes out of the liouse. They 
are therefore the nations in which we found that the devil 
was shut up as in an abyss, and the dcv-il himself coming out 

1 1 Ptter ii, fi. 

VOL. n. 2 A 



370 



TWR CITY OF GOD. 



[book XX. 



from them and going forth^ bo that they are the roof, he from 
the roof. Or if we refer both "words to the nations, not one 
to them and one to the devil, then they are both the roo^ 
because in them the old enemy is at present shut up, and as 
it "were roofed in ; and they shall be from the roof when they 
break forth from concealed to open hatred. The words, " And 
they went up on the breadth of the earth, and encompassed 
the camp of the saints and the beloved city," do not meftn 
that they have come, or shall come, to one place, oa if the 
camp of the saints and the beloved city should be in some 
one place ; for this camp is nothing else than the Church of 
Christ extending over the whole world. And consequently 
wherever the Church shall be, — and it shall be in all nations, 
as is signified by " the breadth of the earth," — there also shall 
be the camp of the saints and the beloved city, and thera it 
shall be encompassed by the savage persecution of all its 
enem.ies ; for they too shall exist along with it in all nations, 
— that is, it shall be straitened, and hard pressed, and shut 
up in the straits of tribulation, but shall not desert its mili- 
tary dutj', which is signified by the word " camp." 

12. Whether the fire that came down out of heaven and devoured them r^en to 
the laal pfMighinent qf the wicked. 

The wordSj "And iire caine down out of heaven and de- 
voured them," are not to be understood of the final punish- 
ment which shall be inllicted when it ia said, " Depart from 
me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire ;"^ for then they shall be 
cast into the fii-e, not fire come down out of heaven upon 
them. In this place " fire out of heaven " is well understood 
of the firmness of the saints, wherewith they refuse to jrield 
obedience to those who rage against them. For the firma- 
ment is " heaven," by whose firmness these assailants shall be 
pained with blazing zeal, for they shall be impotent to draw 
away the saints to the party of Antichrist. This is the fire 
which shall devour them, and this is " from God ; " for it 
is by Grod's grace the saints become unconquerable, and so 
tonncnt their enemies. For as in a good sense it is said, 
" The zeal of Thine house hath consumed me/'' so in a bad 
sense it is said, " Zeal bath possessed the uninstructed people, 
^ Malt xxT. 41. ' Fs. Ixix. 9. 




BOOK XX.] 



ANTICHMST'S PERSECtTTIOK. 



and now fire shall consume tlie enemies." ' " And now," that 
is to say, not the fire of the last judgment Or if by this fire 
coming down out of heaven and consuming them, John me^mt 
that blow wherewith Christ in Hia coming is to strike those 
pei*secutor8 of the Church whom He shall then find alive ujwn 
earth, when He shall kill Antichrist -with the breath of His 
mouth,^ then even this is not the last judgment of the wicked ; 
but the last judgment is that which they shall suffer when 
the bodily resurrection has taken place. 

13. WkeiAer t^ thu qftfte persecution t^Antichrvsi ahovld he reckoned in the 

thousand yeart. 

This last persecution by Antichrist shall last for three years 
and BIX months, as we have already said^ and as is affirmed 
both in the book of Revelation and by Daniel the prophet. 
Though this time is brief, yet not without reason is it ques- 
tioned whether it is comprehended in the thousand years in. 
which the devil is bound and the saints reign with Christ, 
or whether this little season should be added n%'er and alxive 
to these years. For if we say that they are included in the 
thousand years, then the saints reign with Christ during a 
more protracted period than the devil is bo^md. For they 
shall reign with their King and Conqueror mightily even in 
that crowning persecution when the devil shall now be un- 
bound and shall rage against them with all hia miglit How 
then does Scriptxire define both the binding of tlie devil and 
the reign of the saints by the same thousand years, if the 
binding of the devil ceases three years and six months before 
this reign of the saints with Christ 'I On the other hand, if 
we say that the brief space of this persecution is not to be 
reckoned as a part of the thousand years, but rather as an 
additional period, we shall indeed be able to interpret the 
woixis, "The priests of God and of Christ shall reign with 
Him a thousand years ; and when the thousand years shall be 
finished, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison ;** for thus they 
signify tliat the reign of the saints and the bondage of the 
devil shall cease simultaneously, so that the time of the per- 
secution we speak of should be contempora-neous neither with 
the reign of the saints nor with the imprisonment of Satan, 



Im. zxri. 11. 



* S Tfaeaa. ii 6. 



372 THE CITY OF GOD. [ BOOK XX 

but should be reckoned over and above as a superadded portion 
of time. Rut then in this case wc are forced to adiuic that 
the saints shall not reign with Christ during that persecution. 
But who can dare to say that His members shall not reign 
with Him at that very juncture when they sliall most of all, 
and viith the greatest fortitude, cleave to Him, and when the 
glory of resistance and the crown of martyrdom shall be more 
conspicuous iu proportion to the hotness of the battle ? Or 
if it is suggested that they may be said not to reign, because 
of the tribulations which tliey shall suffer, it will follow that 
all the saints who liave formerly, during the thousand yeare, 
sulfei*ed tribulation, shall not be said to have reigned with 
Christ during the period of their tribulation, and consequently 
even those whose souls the author of this book says that 
he saw, and who were slain for the testimony of Jesus and 
the word of God, did not reign with Christ when they were 
suffering persecution, and they were not themselves the king- 
dom of Cluistj though Christ was then pre-eminently possess* 
ing them. This is indeed perfectly absurd, and to be scouted. 
But assuredly the victorious souls of the glorious martyrs, 
having overcoine and iinished all griefs and toils, and having 
laid down their mortal members, have reigned, and do reign, 
with Christ till the thousand years are finished, that they 
may afterwards reign with Him when tliey have received 
their immortal bodies. And therefore during these three 
years and a half the souls of those who were slain for His 
testimony, both those which formerly passed from the body 
and those which shall pass in that last persecution, shall 
reign with Him till the mortal world come to an end, and 
pass into that kingdom in which there shall be no death. 
And thus the reign of the saints with Christ shall last longer 
than the bonds and imprisonment of the devil, because they 
shall reigu with their King the Son of God for these three 
years and a half during which the devil is no longer bound. 
It remains, therefore, that when we read that " the priests of 
Clod and of Christ shall reign with Him a thousand years; 
and when tlie thousand years are finished, the devil shall be 
loosed from his imprisonment," that we understand either 
that the thousand years of the reigu of the saints does sot 





BOOK XX.] 



OF Tin: DFATTi. 



373 



terminate, though the mprisomnent of tlie devil does, — so that 
both parties have their thousand years, that is, their complete 
time, yet each with a different actual duration appropriate to 
itself, tlie kingdom of the saints being longer, the imprison- 
ment of the devil shorter,- — or at least that^ as three years and 
six months is a very short time, it is not reckoned as either 
deducted from the whole time of Satan's imprisonment, or as 
ndded to the whole duration of the reign of the saints, as we 
have shown above in the sixteenth book^ regarding the round 
number of four hundred years, wliich were specified as four 
hundred, though actually somewhat more ; and similar ex- 
pressions are often found in the sacred "Nvritings, if one wiU 
mark them. 

14. Of the damnation o/lhe devil and his ndJifrenis ; and a stctch of the hodUy 
raurrection of aU the dead, and of the final rtlributtve judgintnt. 

After this mention of the closini; persecution, he summarily 

indicates all that the devil, and the city of which he is the 

prince, shall suffer m the last judj^^ment. For lie says, " And 

the devil who seduced them is cast into the lake of fire and 

brimstone, in which are tlic beast and the false prophet, and 

they shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever." 

We have already said that by the beast is well understood 

the wicked city. HLs false prophet is either Antichrist or 

that image or figment of wliich we have spoken in the same 

placa After this he gives a brief narrative of the last judg- 

]uent itself, which shall take place at the second or bodily 

resurrection of the dead, as it had been revealed to him: "1 

saw a throne great and wliite, and One sitting on it from 

whose face the heaven and the earth fled away, and their 

place was not found." He does not say, " I saw a throne 

f^reat and white, and One sitting on it, and from His face the 

heaven and the earth fled away," for it had not happened 

then, ix. before the living and the dead were judged ; but he 

says that he saw Him sitting on the throne from whose face 

heaven and earth fled away, but afterwards. For when the 

judgment is linished, this heaven and earth shall cease to be, 

and there will be a new heaven and a new earth. For this 

world shall pass away by transmutation, not by absolute de- 

1 Ch. 24. 



374 



THE CTTT OF GOD. 



[book tx: 



figure 



T 



struction. And therefore the apostle saysj " For the 
of this world passeth away, I would have you be without 
anxiety." * The figure, therefore, passes away, not the nature. 
After John had said that he hud seen One sitting on the 
throne from whose face heaven and earth fled, though not till 
after^^'arda, he said, " And 1 saw the dead, great and small : 
and the books were opened ; and another book was opened, 
which is the book of the life of each man: and the dead were 
judged out of those things which were written in the boo^ 
according to their deeds." He said that the books were 
opened, and a book ; but he left us at a loss as to the nature 
of this book, " which is," he says, " the book of the life of each 
man." By those books, then, which he first mentioned, we 
are to understand the sacred books old and new, that out of 
them it might be shown what commandments God had en- 
joined ; and that book of the life of each man is to show what 
commandments ouch man has done or omitted to do. If this 
book be materially considered, who can reckon its size or 
length, or the time it would take to read a book in which 
the whole life of every man is recorded ? Shall there be pre- 
sent as many angels as men, and shall each man hear his life 
recited by the angel assigned to him ? In tliat case there 
will be not one book containing all the lives, hut a separate 
book for every lite. But oui- passage requires us to think of 
one only. " And another book was opened," it says. We must 
therefore understand it of a certain divine power, by which it 
shall be brought about that every one shall recall to memory 
all his own works, whether good or evil, and shall mentally 
survey them with a marvellous mpidity, so that this know- 
ledge will either accuse or excuse conscience, and thus all and 
each shall be simultantjously judged. And this divine power 
is called a book, because in it we shall as it were read all that 
it causes us to remember. That he may show who the de-ad, 
small and great, are who are to be judged, he recurs to this 
which he had omitted or rather deferred, and says, " And the 
sea presented the dead which were in it ; and death and hell 
gave up the dead which were in them." This of course took 
place before the dead were judged, yet it is mentioned after. 

I ] Cor. vii. 31. 32. 



^ 




BOOK XX.] 



THE SEA GIVING UP ITS DEAD. 



J/. 5 



And so, I say, he returns again to whsi he Imcl onutted. But 
now he jireserves the order of events, and for the sake of 
exhibiting it repeats in its own proper place what he liad 
already said regarding tlie dead who were judged. For after 
he had said, " And the sea presented the dead which were in 
it, and death and hell gave up the dead which were in them/ 
he immediately subjoined what he had already said, " and 
they were judged every man according to their works." For 
this is just wliat he had said before, " And the dead were 
judged according to their works." 

15. Who tlix dead are who art given vp topidQmtnt hy the tea, and fry deatk 

and helL 

But who are the dead wliich were in the sea, and which the 
sea presented ? For we cannot suppose that those who die in 
the sea are not in hell, nor that their bodies are preserved in 
the sea ; nor yet, which is still more absurd, that the seu re- 
tained the good, while hell received the had. Who could 
beUeve this ? But some very sensibly suppose that in this 
place the sea is put for this world. When John tlien wished 
to signify that those whom Clu-isfc should find still alive in the 
body were to be judged along with those wlio should rise 
again, he called them dead, both the good to whom it ia said, 
" For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God,'*^ 
and the wicked of whom it is said, " Let the dead buiy their 
dead."^ They may also bo called dead, because they wear 
mortal bodies, as the apostle says, " The body indeed is dead 
because of sin ; but the spirit id life because of righteousness;"^ 
proving that in a living man in the body there is both a body 
which is dead, and a spirit which is life. Yet he did not say 
that the body was mortal, but dead, although immediately 
after he speaks in the more usual way of mortal bodies. 
These, then, are the dead which were in the sea, and which 
the sea presented, to wit, the men who were in this world, 
because they had not yet died, and whom the world presented 
for judgment "And death and hell," he says, "gave up the 
dead which were in them." The sea prescjikd them because 
they had merely to be found in the place where they were ; 
but death and hell gave thrm up or restored them, because they 
J Col. iih 3. « iUtt viii. 22. » Horn. viii. 10. 



376 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[dock XX. 






called them back to life, wliich they had already quitted. 
And perhaps it was not without reason that neither deafJi nor 
hrU were judged suflicient alone, and both were mentioned, — 
death to indicate the good, who have sulTered only death and 
not hell ; hell to indicate the wicked, who suffer also the 
punishment of hell. For if it does not seem absurd to believe 
that the ancient saints who believed in Christ and His then 
future coming, were kept in places far removed indeed from 
the torments of the wicked, but yet in hell/ until Christ's 
blood and His descent into these places delivered them, cer- 
tainly good Christians, redeemed by that precious price already 
jmid, are quite unacquainted with liell while they wait for 
their restoration to the body, and the reception of their re- 
wanL After saying, "They were judged every man acconling 
to their works." he briefly added what the judgment was: 
" Death and hell were cast into the lake of fire;" by theae 
names designating the devil and the Avhole company of his 
angelSf for he is the author of death and the pains of hell. 
For this is what he liad already, by anticipation, said in clearer 
laugujij^e : " The devil who seduced them was cast into a lake 
of fire and brimstone." The obscure addition he had made 
in the words, " in wliich were also the beast and the false 
prophet;' he here explains, *' They who were not found written 
in the book of life were cast into the lake of lire." This book 
is not for reminding God, as if things might escape Him by 
forgetfulness, but it symbolizes His predestination of those to 
whom eternal life shall be given. For it is not that God is 
iijTiarant, and reads in the book to inform Hiiiiself, but rather 
His infallible prescience is the book of life in which they are 
WTitten, that is to say, known beforehand, 

10. 0/ the new heaven and the new earth. 

Having finished the prophecy of judgment, so far as the 
wicked are concerned, it remains that he speak also of the 
good. Hanng briefly explained tlie Loitl's woixls, '* These will 
go away into everhiating punishment," it remains that he ex- 
plain the connected woixls, " but the righteous into life eternal'** 

' " Apud iuferos," i.e. in liell, ut the soDse in wliicli the word is used in. the 
Psalms mnl in tlie Creod. 



- ilatt. XXV. 48. 





BOOK XX. 



THE NEW HEAVENS MfolffEW EARTn. 



377 



And I saw," he says, " a new Leaven and a new earth : for 

the firet heaven and the first earth have passed away ; and 
there is no more sea."' This will take place in the order 
■which he has by anticipation declared in the words, " I saw 
One sitting on the throne, from whose face heaven and earth 
fled." For as soon as those who are not ^vritten in the book 
of life have been judged and cast into eternal fire, — the nature 
of which fire, or its position in the world or nniverse, I sup- 
pose is known to no man, unless perhaps the divine Spirit 
reveal it to some one, — then shall the figure of this world pass 
away in a conflagration of universal fire, as once before the 
world was flooded with a deluge of universal water. And by 
this universal confiagration the quaHties of the corruptible 
elements which suited our comiptible bodies shall utterly 
perish, and our substance shall receive such qualities as sliall. 
by a wonderful transmutation, harmonize with our immortal 
bodies, so that, as the world itself is renewed to some better 
thing, it is fitly accommodated to men, tliemselves renewed in 
their flesh to some better thing. As for the statement, " And 
there shall be no more sea," I would not lightly say whether 
it is dried up with that excessive heat, or is itself also turned 
into some better thing. For we read that there shall be a 
now heaven and a new earth, but I do not remember to have 
anywhere read anything of a new sea, unless what I find in 
this same book, "As it were a sea of glass like crystal/'^ Cut 
he was not then speaking of this end of the world, neither 
does he seem to speak of a literal sea, but " as it were a sea." 
It is possible that, as prophetic diction delights in mingling 
figurative and real language, and thus in some sort veiling the 
sense, so the words " And there is no more sea " may be taken 
in the same sense as the previous phrase, " And the sea pre- 
sented the dead wliich were in it." For then there shall be 
no moi*e of this world, no more of the aurgings and restless- 
ness of human life, and it is this which is symboHzed by the 
sea, 

3 ". 0/ the endlfss glory qf (Ac Church. 
" And I saw," he says, " a great city, new Jerusalem, coming 
down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned 

* Rer. xxl 1. » Bey. xv. 2. 



f.v. 



THE CITT OF GOD. IBObK XX 



for her husband And I heard a great voice from the throne, 
sajang, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He 
will dwell with them, and they sliail be His people, and God 
Himself shall be with them. And God shall wipe away all 
tears from their eyes , and there shall be no more deatli, 
neither sorrow, nor cr}'iag, but neither shall there be any 
more pain : because the former things have passed away. And 
He that sat upon the throne said. Behold, I make all things 
new."* This city is said to come down out of heaven, be- 
cause the grace with which God formed it is of heaven. 
Wherefore He says to it by Isaiah, " I am the Lord that 
formed thee,"^ It is ind^LMl descended from heaven from its 
commencement, since its citizens during the course of this 
world grow hy the grace of God, which comnth down from 
above through the laver of regeneration in the Holy Ghost 
sent down from heaven. But by God's final judgment, which 
shall be administered by His Son Jesus Christ, there shall by 
God's grace be manifested a glory so pervading and so new, 
that no vestige of what is old shall remain ; for even our 
bodies shall pass from their old corruption and mortality to 
new incomiption and immortality. For to refer tlus promise 
to the present time, in which the saints are reigning with their 
King a thousand years, seems to me excessively barefaced, 
when it is most distinctly said, " God shall wipe away all 
tears from their eyes ; and thei'e shall be no more death, 
neither sorrow, nor crying, but there shall be no more piiin." 
And who is so absurd, and blinded by contentious opinion- 
ativeness, as to be audacious enough to affirm that in the 
midst of the calamities of this mortal state, God's people, or 
even one single saint, does live, or has ever lived, or shall ever 
live, without tern's or pain, — the fact being that the holier a 
man is, and the fuller of holy desire, so much the more abun- 
dant is the tearfulness of his supplication ? Are not these 
the utterances of a citizen of the heavenly Jenisalem : " My 
tears have been my meat day and night ; " ' and " Every night 
shall I malce my bed to awim ; with my tears shall I water 
my couch ; '"* and *' My groaning is not hid from Thee ; "* and 

^ Pwcv. xxi. 2-5. * Im. xlr. 8. > Ps. xliL 3L 

* P». Ti. a. » Pa. xxiviii. 0. 



k 




■nOOK XX.] PETElfS PREDICTION OF THE LAST THINGS. 



379 



" My sorrow was renewed ? " ^ Or are not those God's children 
who groan, being burdened, not that they wish to be nn- 
clothed, but clothed upon, that mortality may be swallowed 
up of life?* Do not they even who have the first-fruits of 
the Spirit groan within themselves, waiting for the adoption, 
the redemption of their body ?' "Was not the Apostle Paul 
himself a citizen of the lieavenly Jerusalem, and was he not 
80 all the more when he had heaviness and continual sorrow 
of heart for his Israelitish brethren ?* But whcm aholl there be 
no more death in that city, except when it shall be said, " 
death, where is thy contention ?* O death, where is thy sting ? 
The sting of death is sin.'** Obviously there shall be no sin 
wlien it can be said, " AVhere is " — But as for the present 
it is not some poor weak citizen of this city, but this same 
Apostle John himself who .says, " If we say that we have no 
sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us."' No 
doubt, though this book is called the Apocalypse, there are in 
it many obscure passages to exercise the mind of the reader, 
and there are few passages so plain as to assist us in tlie 
interpretation of the others, even though we take pains ; and 
this difB-Culty is increased by the repetition of tlie same things, 
in forms so different, that the things referred to seem to be 
difftirent, although in fact they are only differently stated. 
But in the words, " God shall wipe away all tears from their 
eyes ; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor 
crying, but there shall be no more pain/' there is so manifest 
a reference to the future world and the immortality and 
eternity of the saints, — for only then and only there shall 
such a condition be realized, — that if we tlxink this obscure, 
we need not expect to Mud anything plain in any part of 
Scripture, 

18. Wtal the Apostle Pettr predictfd regarding thf. last judgment 

Let US now see what the Apostle Peter predicted concern- 
ing this judgment. "Tliere shall come," he says, "in the last 
days scoffers. . . . Nevertheless we, according to His promise. 



/ 
X 



' Fs. xixix. 2- "2 Cor. v. 4. 

» Rom. viii. 23. * Rom. ix. 2. 

1^ Augustine therefore read vuxif, and not ^^th the Vulgate, tUn, 
■ 1 Cor. IV. 55. ' 1 John L 8. 



380 



THE Cmr OF GOD. 



[book XX 



look for new heaveus and a new oartb, wherein dwelletL 
righteousneas." * There is nothing said here about the resur- 
rection of the dead, but enough certainly regarding the de- 
struction of this world. And by his reference to the deluge 
he seems as it were to suggest to us how far we should be- 
lieve the ruin of the uorld ^vill extend in the end of llie 
world. For lie says that the world which then was perished, 
and not only the earth itself, but also the heavens, by which 
wc understand the air, the place and room of which waa 
occupied by the water. Therefore the whole, or almost the 
whole, of the gusty atmosphere (which he calls heaven, or 
rather the heavens, meaning the earth's atmosphere, and not 
the upper air in which sun, moon, and stars are set) ms 
turned into moisture, and in this way perished together with 
the earth, whose former appeanuict! liail been destroyed by the 
deluge. " But the heavens and the earth which ar€ now, by 
the same word aie kept in store, reserved unto fire against the 
day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men." Therefore 
the heavens and the earth, or the world which was preserved 
from the water to stand in place of that world which perished 
in the flood, is itself reser\'ed to fire at last in the day of the 
judgment and perdition of ungodly men. He does not hesitate 
to alfirm that in this great change men also shall perish : their 
nature, however, shall notwitkstandiug continue, though in 
eternal punishments. Some one will perhaps put the question, 
If after judgment is pronounced the world itself is to bum, 
where shall the saints be during the coniiagration, and before 
it ia replaced by a new heavens and a new earth, since some- 
where they must be, because tliey liave material bodies ? We 
may reply that they shall be in the upper regions into which 
the flame of that conflc^ration shall not ascend, as neither did 
the water of the flood ; for they shall have such bodies that 
they shall be wherever they wish. Moreover, when they have 
become immortal and incorrnptible, they shall not greatly dread 
the blaze of that conflagration, as the coiTuptible and mortal 
bodies of the three men were able to live unhurt in the blazing 
furnace. 

' 3 Pet. iU. S-18. The whole passage is quoted by Augustine. 




BOOK XX.] PAUL'S PREDICTION OF THE LAST THINGS. 



381 



19. WItat the Apostle Paul irrofe to ike T^AeHnfontaiu about the man'/egtatton 
of Anlichrist irAiVA shall pntede the datj of Die Lord. 

I see that I must oniit many of the statements of the" 
gospels and epistles about this last judgment, that this volume 
may not become unduly long ; but I can on no account omit 
■what the Apostle Paid says, in writing to the Thessalonians, 
" We beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus 
Clirist " * etc. 

No one can doubt that he ^vrote this of Antichrist and of 
the day of judgment, which he here calls the day of the Lord, 
nor that he declared that this day should not come unless he 
first came who is called the apostate — apostate, to wit, from 
the Lord Goi And if this may justly be said of all the un- 
godly, how much more of him ? But it is uncertain in what 
temple he shall sit^ whether in that niin of the temple which 
"was biiOt by Solomon, or in the Church ; for the apostle 
would not call the temple of any idol or demon the temple of 
God. And on this accoimt some think that in tliis passage 
Antichrist means not the prince himself alone, but his whole 
body, that is, the mass of men who adhere to him, along with 
him their prince ; and they also think that we shoidd render 
the Greek more exactly were we to read, not " in the temple 
of God," but " for " or " as the temple of God," as if he him- 
self were the temple of God, the Church,- Then as for the 
words, " And now ye know what withholdeth," i.e. ye know 
what hindrance or cause of delay there is, " that he might be 
revealed in his own time;" they show that he was unwilling 
to make an explicit statement, because he said that they knew. 
And thus we who have not their knowledge wish and are 
not able even with pains to understand what the apostle re- 
ferred to, especially as his meaning is made still more obscure 
by what he adds. For what does he mean by *' For the 
mystery of iniq^uity doth already work : only he who now 
holdeth, let him hold until he be taken out of the way : and 
then shall the wicked be revealed ? " I frankly confess I do 

' 2 Thess. ii. I-ll. "Whole passage given in the Latin, In ver. 3 rtfuga is 
used instead of the Vulgate's ducestio. 

' Angustinc udds the wonls, "Sicut dioimns, Sodet in amicnm, id ei^ rdnt 
omicns ; vel bI i^tiid aliud isto tocutiouis genere did solet" 



382 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XL 

not know what he means. 1 wiU nevertheless mention such 
conjectures as I have heard or read. 

Some tliink that the Apostle Paul referred to the Soman 
empire, and that he was unwiDing to use huiguage mone ex- 
plicit, lest he should inciu* the calumnious choice of wishing 
ill to the empire which it was hoped would be eternal; so 
that in saving, " For the mystery of iniquity doth already 
work," he alluded to Nero, whose deeds already seemed to be 
as the deeds of Antichnst And hence some suppose that he 
shall rise again and be Antichnst. Others, again, suppose that 
he is not even dead, hut that he was concealed that he might 
be supposed to have been killed, and that he now lives in 
conceahnent in the vigour of that same age wliich he had 
reached when he was believed to have perished, and will live 
until he is revealed in his own time and restored to his king- 
dom.^ But I wonder that men can be so audacious in their 
conjectures. However, it is not absurd to beHeve that these 
words of the apostle, " Only he who now boldeth, let h)m hold 
until he be taken out of the way." refer to the Eoman empire, 
as if it were said, " Oidy he who now reigneth, let him reign 
until he be taken out of the way." "And then shall the 
wicked be revealed :"' no one doubts that this means Anti* 
christ. But others think that the words, " Ye know what 
withholdeth," and " The mystery of iniquity worketh," refer 
only to the wicked and the hypocrites who are in the Church, 
until they reach a number so great as to furnish Antichrist 
with a great people, and that this is the inystery of iniquity, 
because it seems hiddt-u ; also that the apostle is exhorting 
the faithful tenaciously to hold the faith they hold when he 
says, " Only he who now holdeth, let him hold until he he 
taken out of the way," that is, until the mystery of iniquity 
which now is liidden depaits from the Church. For they 
suppose that it is to this same mystery John alludes when in 
Ilia epistle he saya, " Littla children, it ig the last time : and 
as ye have heard that Antichrist shall come, even now aie 
there many antichrists ; whereby we know that it is the last 
time. They went out from us, but they were not of us ; for 
if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued 
^Suetonins' Nvro, o. 57. 





BOOK XX.] VARIOUS lUTERPKETATIONS OF PAUL'S WOBDS. 383 



with U3."* As therefore there went out from the Chiirch 
many heretics, whom John calls " many anticliriats," at that 
time prior to the end, and which John calls " the last time " 
so in the end they shall go out who do not belong to Christ, 
but to that last Antichrist, and then he shall be revealed. 

Thus variouSj then, are the conjectui-al explanations of the 
obscure words of the apostle. That which there is no doubt 
he said is this, that Christ will not come to judge quick and 
dead unless Antichrist, His adversary, first come to seduce 
those who are dead in aoul ; although their seduction is a re- 
sult of God's secret judgment already passed. For, as it is 
said, " his presence shall be after the working of Satan, with 
all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and witli all seduction 
of unrighteousness in them that perish." For then shall 
Satan be loosed, and by means of that Antichrist shall work 
with all power in a lying though a wonderful manner. It is 
commonly questioned whether these works are called "signs 
and lying wonders " because he is to deceive men's senses by 
false appearances, or because the things he does, though they 
be true prodigies, shall be a lie to those who shall believe 
that such things could be done only by God, being ignorant 
of the devil's power, and especially of such unexampled power 
as he shall then for the iirst time put forth. For when he 
fell from heaven as fire, and at a stroke swept away from the 
holy Job his numerous household and his vast flocks, and 
then as a whirlwind nished upon and smote the house and 
killed his children, these were not deceitful appearances^ and 
yet they were the works of Satan to whom God had given 
this power. Wliy they are called signs and lying wonders 
we shall then be more likely to know when the tinie itself 
arrives. But whatever be the reason of the name, they shall 
be such signs and wonders as shall seduce those who shall 
deserve to be seduced, " because they received not the love of 
the truth that they might be saved." Neither did the apostle 
scruple to go on to say, " For this cause God shall send upon 
them the working of eiTor that they should believe a lie." 
For God shall seiid, because God shall permit the devil to do 
these things, the permission being by His own jast judgment, 
> 1 John iL IS, 19. 



384 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XJL 

though the doirj^ of them is in pursuance of the devil s un- 
righteous and malignant purpose, " that they all might be 
judged who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in ua- 
righteousness." Therefore, being judged, they shall be seduced, 
and, being seduced, they shall be judged. But, being judged, 
they shall be seduced by those secretly just and justly secitt 
judgments of God, with which He has never ceased to judge 
since the first sin of the rational creatures ; and, being seduced, 
they shall be judged in that last and nmnifest judgment ad- 
ministered by Jesus Christ, who was Himself most unjustly 
judged and shall most justly judga 

SO. What the same aposth taught in thejirat SpUtle to the The»9aloniaaM 
TtQard'mg the resurrection o/tlie dead. 

But the apostle has said nothing here regarding the resur- 
rection of the dead ; but in hw first Epistle to the Thessa- 
lonians he says, "We would not have you to be ignorant, 
brethren, concerning them which are askep," ^ etc. These 
woa*d3 of the apostle most distinctly proclaim the future re- 
surrection of tlie dead, when the Lord Christ shall come to 
judge the quick and the dead. 

But it is commonly nsked whether those whom our Lori 
shall iind alive upon earth, personated in this passage by the 
apostle and those who were alive with him, shall never die 
at all, or shall pass with incomprehensible swiftness through 
death to inmiortality in the veiy moment during which they 
shall be caught up along with those who rise again to meet 
the Lord in the air 1 For we cannot say tliat it is impossible 
that they should both die and revive again while they are 
carried aloft through the air. For the words, " And so shall 
we ever be with the Lord," are not to be understood as if he 
meant that we shall always remain in the air with the Lord ; 
for He Himself shall not remain there, but shall only pass 
thi'ough it as He comes. For we shall go to meet Him as 
He comes, not where He remains ; but " so shall we be with 
the Loi-d/' that is, wo shall be with Him possessed of im- 
mortal bodies wherever we shall be with Him. We seem 
compelled to take the words in this sense, and to suppose that 
those whom the Lord shall find alive upon earth shall in that 

1 1 TLesfl. IT. 13-16. 




BOOK XX.] RIGHT INTERPRETATION OF PAUL's WORDS. 



;S5 



brief sjjace botli sufTer death and receive immortality ; for tliis 
same apostle says, " In Christ shall all be made alive ; "^ while, 
speaking of the same resurrection of the body, he elsewhere 
says, " TRat which thou sowest is not quickened, except it 
die."' How, then, shall those whom Christ shall find alive 
upon earth be made alive to immortality in Him if they die 
not, since on this very account it is said, " That which thou 
sowest is not quickened, except it die?" Or if we cannot 
properly speak of human bodies as sown, unless in so far as 
by dying they do in some sort return to the earth, as also the, 
sentence pronounced by God against the sinning fatlier of the 
human race runs, " Earth thou art, and unto earth .shalt thou 
return," ^ we must acknowledge that those whom Christ at 
His coming shall find still in the body are not included in 
these words of the apostle nor in those of Genesis ; for, being 
caught up into tlie clouds, they are certainly not sown, neitlier 
going nor returning to the earth, whether they experience no 
death at all or die for a moment in the air. 

But, on the other hand, there meets us the saying of the 
same apoatle when he was speaking to tlie Corinthians about 
the resurrection of the body, ''We shall all rise," or, as other 
MSS. read, "We shall all sleep."* Since, then, there can be 
no resurrection unless death has preceded, and since we can 
in tlus pas.sage understand by sleep nothing else tlaan death, 
how shall all either sleep or rise agaiin if so many persons 
whom Christ shall find in the body shall neither sleep nor 
rise again ? If, then, we believe that the saints who shall 
be found alive at Christ's coming, and shall be c«ught up to 
meet Him, shall in that same ascent pass from mortal to im- 
mortal bodies, we shall find no diHiculty in the words of the 
apostle, either when he says, " That which thou sowest is 
not quickened, except it die," or when he says, " We shall all 
rise/' or " all sleep," for not even the saints shall be quick- 
ened to immortality unless they first die, however biiefly - 
and consequently they shall not be exempt from resurrection 
which is preceded by sleep, however brief. And why should 
it seem to ua incredible that that multitude of bodies should 



" 1 Cor. IV. 22. 
•Gen. iii. 19. 



• 1 Cor. XT. 36. 
< 1 Cor, XV. 61. 



VOL. IL 



SB 



386 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XX 



be, as it w(ire, rdwii in the air, and should in the air forUiwitL 
revive immortal and incorruptible, when we believe, on tbe 
testimony of the same apostle, that the resurrection shall taka 
place in the twinkling of an eye, and that the dust of bodies 
loug dead shall return with incomprehensible facility and 
swiftness to those members that are now to live endlessly 1 
Neither do we suppose that in the cose of these saints tLe 
sentence. " Earth thou art, and unto earth shalt thou return,* 
is null, though their bodies do not, on dying, fall to earth, bot 
both die and rise again at once while caught up into the air. 
For " Thou ahalt return to earth " means, Thou shalt at deatli 
return to that which thou wert before life began. Th<m 
shalt, when exanimate, be that which thou wert before thou 
wast animate. For it was into a face of earth that God 
breathed the breath of life when man was made a living 
soul ; as if it were said. Thou art earth with a soul, which 
thou wast not ; thou shalt be eaith without a soul, as thoa 
wast. And this ia what all bodies of the dead are before 
they rot ; and what the bodies of those saints shall be if they 
die, no matter where they die, as soon as they shall give np 
tliat life which they are immediately to receive back again. 
In this way, then, they retiirn or go to earth, inasmuch u 
from being living men they shall be earth, as that wbich he- 
comes cinder is said to go to cinder ; that which decays, to 
go to decay; and so of six. hundred other things. But the 
manner in which tixis shall take place we can now only feebly 
conjecture, and shall understand it only when it conies to 
pasa For tluit there shall be a bodily resurrection of the 
dead when Christ comes to judge quick and dead, we moat 
believe if we would be Christiana But if we are unable 
perfectly to comprehend the maimer in which it shall take 
place, our faith is not on tliis account vain. Now, however, 
we ought, as we formerly promised, to show, as far as seems 
necessary, what the ancient prophetic books predicted con- 
cerning this final judgment of God ; and I fancy no great 
time need be spent in discussing and explaining these predic- 
tions, if the reader has been careful to avail himself of the 
help we have already furnished. 




BOOK XX.] OLD TE3TA>raXT PREDICTIOXS OF JUDGMENT. 38? 



21. UUeraiuxa <^ the propttfl laaiah regardhiff the n^mrrwtion qf tfie dead and 
Uu rariiiuHw judgment. 

The prophet Isaiah says, " Tho dead shall rise again, and 
all who were in the graves shall rise again ; and all who are 
in the earth shall rejoice : for the dew which is from Thee is 
their health, and the earth of the wicked shall falL"^ All 
the former part of this passage relates to the resurrection of 
the blessed ; but the words, " the earth of the -svicked shall 
fall/' is rightly understood as meaning that the bodies of the 
■wicked shall fall into the ruin of damnation. And if we 
would more exactly and carefully scrutinize the words which 
refer to the resurrection of the good, we may refer to the first 
resurrection the words, " the dead shall rise again/' and to 
the second the following words, "and all who were in the 
graves shall rise again." Aud if we ask what relate to those 
saints whom the Lord at His coming shall find alive upon 
earth, the following clause may suitably be referred to them : 
" All who are in the earth shall rejoice : for the dew which is 
from Thee is their healtL" By "health" in this place it is 
best to understand immortality. For thfit is the most perfect 
healtli which is not repaired by nourishment as by a daily 
remedy. In like manner the same prophet, affording hope to 
the good and tenifying the wicked regaidiDg the day of judg- 
ment, says, " Thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will flow, down 
upon them as a river of peace, and upon the glory of the 
Gentiles as a rushing ton*ent : their sons shaD be carried on 
the shoTjiders, and shall be comforted on the knees. As one 
whom his mother comforteth, so shall I comfort you ; and ye 
shall be comforted in Jerusalem. And ye shall see, and your 
heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall rise up like a herb ; 
and the hand of the Lord shall be known by His worshippera, 
and He shall threaten the contumacious. For, behold, the 
Lord shall come as a fire, and as a whirlwind His chariots, to 
execute vengeance with indignation, and wasting with a flame 
of fire. For with fire of the Lord shall all the earth be 
judged, and all flesh with His sword : many shall be wounded 
by the Lord."' In His promise to the good he says that He 
will flow down as a river of peace, tliat is to say, in the 
> In. xxTL 19. * hu. UtL 12-16. 



388 



THE CITY OF COD. 



[book XX 



greatest possible abundance of peace. Willi this peace we 
shall in the end be refreshed ; but of this we have spoken 
abundantly in tlie prccedinj^ book. It is tliis river in which 
he says He shall How down upon those to whom He pro- 
mises 80 great happiness, that we may understand that in the 
region of that felicity, which is in heaven, all things are 
satisfied from this river. But because there shall thence flov, 
even upon earthly bodies, the peace of incorruption and im- 
mortality, therefore he says that He shall fiow down as this 
river, that He may as it were pour Himself from things abon 
to things beneath, and make men the equals of the angck 
By " Jerusaleni/' too, we should understand not that which 
serves with her children, but that which, according to the 
apostle, is our free mother, eternal in the heavens.' In her 
we shall be comforted as we pass toilworu from earth's cores 
and calamities, and be taken up as her children on her knees 
and shoulders. Inexpenenced and new to such blandLdi- 
ments, we sludl be received into unwonted bliss. There we 
shall see, and our heart shall rejoice. He does not say what 
we shall see; but wliat but Cod, that the promise in the 
Gospel may be fulfilled in us, " Blessed are the pure in heart. 
for they sliall see God ?"^ What shall we see but all those 
things whicli now we see not, but believe in, and of which 
the idea we form, according to our feeble capacity, is incom- 
parably less than the reality ? " And ye shall see," he sayj. 
" and your heart shall rejoice," Here ye believe, theie ye 
shall see. 

But because he said, " Your heart shall rejoice," lest we 
should suppose that the blessings of that Jerusalem are only 
spirilnaljhti adds, " And your bones shall rise up like a herb," 
alluding to the resurrection of the body, and as it were sup- 
plying an omission he had made. For it will not tike place 
when we have seen ; but we sliall see when it has takai 
place. For he liad already s])okcu of the new heavens and 
the new earth, speaking repeatedly, and under many figures, 
of the things promised to the saints, and saying, " There sliall 
be new heavens, and a new earth : and the former shall not be 
remembered nor come into mind ; but they shall find in ifc 
1 GaL iv. 26, ' Matt. v. 8. 





BOOK XX.] TSATAH^S PREDICTION OF THE LAST THINGS. 389 



gladness and exultation. Behold, T will make Jerusalem an 
exultation, and iiiy people a joy. And I will exult in Jeni- 
salcm, and joy in my people ; and the voice of weepinj^ shall 
be no more heard in her ; " * and other promises, which some 
endeavour to refer to carnal enjoyment during the thousand 
yeiirs. For, in the manner of prophecy, figurative and literal 
expressions are mingled, so that a serious mind may, by useful 
and salutary effort, reach the spiritual sense ; Init carnal 
sluggishness, or the slowness of an uneducated and undisci- 
plined mind, rests in the superficial letter, and thinks there is 
nothing beneath to be looked for. But let this be enough 
regarding the stylo of those prophetic expressions just quoted. 
And now, to return to their interpretation. When he had said. 
" And your bones shall rise up like a herb," in order to show 
that it was the resurrection of the good, though a bodily 
resurrection, to which he alluded, he added, " And the hand 
of the Lord shall be known by His worshippers," What is 
this but the hand of Him who distinguishes those who wor- 
ship firom those who despise Him ? Regarding these the 
context immediately adds, " And He shall threaten the con- 
tumacious," or, as another translator has it, " the unbeHeving." 
He shall not actually threaten then, but the threats which 
are now uttered shall then be fulfilled in effect '* For be- 
hold," he says, " the Lord shall come as a fire, and as a whirl- 
wind His chariots, to execute vengeance with indignation, and 
wasting with a flame of fiiu For with fire of the Lord shall 
all the earth be judged, and all flesh with His sword : many 
shall be wounded by the Lord." By firt^ tchirlnnnd, sward, 
he means the judicial punishment of God. For he says that 
the Lord Himself shall coiue as a fire, to those, that is to say, 
to whom His coming sliall be penal By His eJiariots (for the 
word is plural) we suitably understand the ministration of 
angels. And when he says that all flesh and all the earth 
shall be judged with His fire and sword, we do not under- 
stand the spiritual and holy to be included, but tlie earthly 
and carnal, of whom it is said that they " mind earthly 
things/'* and " to be carnally minded is death," ^ and whom 
the Lord calls simply flesh when lie says, " My Spirit shall 
• X». Uv. 17-19. ■ Phil, iii 19. > Rom. yiu. 6. 



390 



THE CITY OP CM)D. 



[book 3X 



not always remain in these men, for they are flesh."* As 

to the worda, " Many shall "be wounded by the Lord " this 
wounding shall produce the second death. It ia possible, 
indeed, to understand fire, sword, and wouTid in a good sassft 
For the Lord said that He wibhed to send fire on the eartL' 
And the cloven tongues appeai*ed to them as fire when the 
Holy Spirit cama' And our Lord says, " I am not come to 
send peace on earth, hut a sword."* And Scripture says that 
the word of God is a doubly shoi-p sword,* on account of ti>e 
two edges, the two Testaments. And in the Song of 6ongs 

the holy Churcli sa}a thut she is wounded with love/ pierced, 

as it were, with the arrow of love. But here, where we read 
or hear that the Lord shall come to execute vengeance, it is 
ob\'ious in what sense we are to understand these expressions. 
After briefly mentioning those who shall be consumed in 
this judgment, speaking of the wicked and sinners under the 
figure of the meats forbidden by the old law, from which they 
had not abetaincd, he summarily recounts the grace of the 
new testament, from the first coming of the Saviour to the 
last judgment, of which we now speak ; and herewith he con- 
cludes his prophecy. For he relates that the Lord declara 
that He is coining to gather all nations, that they may come 
and witness His glory.' For, as the ajiostle says, " All have 
sinned and are in want of the glory of God."* And he saya 
that He will do wonders among them, at which they shaD 
marvel and believe in Him ; and tliat from tliem He will send 
forth those that are saved into various nations, and distant 
islands which have not heard His name nor seen His gloiy, 
and that they shall declare His glory among the nations, and 
shall bring the brethren of those to whom the prophet was 
speaking, ic. shall bring to the faith under God the Father 
the brethren of the elect Israelites ; and that they shall bring 
from all nations an oflering to the Lord on beasts of burden 
and waggons (which are understood to mean the aids fumisfaed 
by God in the shape of angelic or human ministry), to the 
holy city Jerusalem, which at present is scattered over the 



* Gen. vi. 3. 

* Matt. X. 34. 
r laa. Ixvi. 18. 



■ Lnke xiL 49. 
*Heb. ix. 12. 
* Hum. iii 23. 



■ Acta ii 3. 

* Song of Sol. ii. & 



k. 




r BOOK XX.] 



is.viAHs PREDicnoy. 



391 



eartb, in the faithful saints. For where divine aid is given, 
men believe, and where they believe, they come. And the 
Lord compared them. in. a figure, to the children of Israel 
offering sacrifice to Him in His house with psalms, which is 
already everywhere done by the Church ; and He promised 
that from among them He would choose for Himself priests 
and Levites, which also we see already accomplished. For 
we see that priests and Levites are now chosen, not from a 
certain family and blood, as was originally the rule in the 
priesthood according to the order of Aaron, but as befits the 
new testament, under which Christ is the High Priest after 
the order of Melchisedec, in consideration of the merit which 
is bestowed upon each man by divine grace. And these priests 
are not to be judged by their mere title, which is often borne 
"by unworthy men, but by that holiness which is not conamon 
to good men and bad. 

After having thus spoken of this mercy of God which is 
now experienced by the Chiirch, and is very e^'ident and 
familiar to ns, he foretells also the ends to which men shall 
come when the last judji^nent has separated the good and the 
bad, saying by the prophet, or the prophet himself speaking 
for God, " For as the new heavens and the new earth shall 
remain before me, said the Lord, so shaU your seed and your 
name remain, and there shaU be to them month after month, 
and Sabbath after Sabbath. All flesh shall come to worship 
before me in Jerusalem, said the Lord. And they shall go 
out, and shall see the members of the men who have sinned 
against me : their worm shall not die, neither shall their 
fire be quenchGd ; and they shall be for a spectacle to all 
Hesh." ^ At this point the prophet closed his book, as at 
this point the world shall come to an end. Some, indeed, 
have translated "carcases"* instead of "members of the men," 
meaning by carcases the manifest punishment of the body, 
although carcase is commonly used only of .dead flesh, while 
tLe bodies here spoken of shall be animated, else they could 
not be sensible of any pain ; but perhaps they may, without 
absurdity, he called carcases, as beiug the bodies of those who 
are to fall into the second deatL And for the same reason 

^ Ilia. Ixvi. 22-21 * As the Vulgate : cadavera 



392 



THE CITY OF GOD. 



[book XX. 



it is said, as I have already quoted, by this same prophet, 
" The earth of the wicked shall fall" * It is obvious that 
those translators who use a different word for wi^m do not 
mean to include only males, for no one will saj that the 
women who sinned shall not appear in that judgment; but 
the male sex^ being the more worthy, and that from which 
the woman was derived, is intended to include both sexes. 
But that which is especially pertinent to our subject is this, 
that since the words "All tlesli shall eonie" apply to the good, 
for the people of God shall be composed of every race of men, 
— for all men f^liall not be present, since the greater pan 
shall be in punLshnient, — but, as I was saving, since Jl<^ if 
used of the good, and members or carcases of the bad, certainly 
it is thus put beyond a doubt that that judgment in which 
the good and tbe bad shall he allotted to tlieir destinies shall 
take place after the resurrection of the body, our faith ia 
which is thoroughly established by the use of these words. 

22. What iff meani by lite good gving out to m« the punishmeHt of the idcJbed. 

But in what way shall the good go out to see the punish- 
ment of the wicked ? Ai*e they to leave their happy abodes 
by a bodily movement, and proceed to the places of punish- 
ment, so as to witness the torments of the wicked in their 
bodily pi*esence ? Certainly not ; but they shall go out by 
Icnowledge. For this expression, 170 out, signifies tliat those 
who shall be punished shall be without. And thus the Loid 
also calls these places " tlie outer darkness,"' to which is 
opposed that entrance concerning which it is said to the 
good servant, "Enter into the joy of thy Lord," that it may 
not be supposed that tbe wicked can enter thither and be 
known, but rather that the good by their knowledge go out 
to thera, because the good are to know that which is without* 
For those who shall be in torment aliall not know what is 
going on witliin in the joy of the Lord ; but they who shall 
enter into that joy shall know what is going on outside in 
the outer darkness. Therefore it is said, " They shall go 

' H«re Angustine inst^rta the remarlc, " Who docs not see that etidavtra (aif> 

) are so caUed from cadendo (falling) !" 
> liott xxT, so. 





BOOK XX. 



DAXTEL 8 PREDICTION. 



393 



out " because they shall know what is done by those "who are 
without. For if the prophets were able to know things tliat 
had not yet happened, by means of that indwelling of God in 
their minds, limited though it was, shall not the immarbal 
saints know tilings that have already happened, when God 
Bhidl be all in all ? ^ Tlie seed, then, and the name of the 
saints shall remain in that blessedness, — the seed, to wit, of 
which John says, " And his seed reniaineth in him ;"' and the 
name, of which it was said through Isaiah himself, '* I will 
give them an everlasting name,"* "And there shall be to 
them month after month, and Sabbath after Sabbath," as if it 
were said, Moon after moon, and rest upon i*eat, both of which 
they shall themselves he when they shall pass from the old 
shaJowa of time into the new lights of eternity. Tlie worm 
that dieth not, and the lire that is not quenched, which con- 
stitute the punishment of the wicked* are differently inter- 
preted by different people. For some refer both to the body, 
others refer both to the soul ; while others again refer the fire 
literally to the body, and the worm figuratively to the soul, 
which seems the more credible idea. But the present is not 
the time to discuss this difference, for we have undertaken to 
occupy this book with the last judgment, in which the good 
and the bad are separated : their rewards and punislmients we 
shall more carefully discuss elsewhere. 

23. What Daniel predicted rtganllntf the pcraeeution of Antichrist, rA* \ X 
judgment of God, atid the k'inr/tlam of the saints. / 

Daniel propliesies of the last judgment in such a way as to 
indicate that Antichrist shall first come, and to cany on his 
description to the eternal reign of the saints. For when in 
prophetic vision he had seen four beasts, signifying four king- 
doms, and the fourth conquered by a certain king, who ia 
i-ecognised as Antichrist, and after this tlie eternal kingdom 
of the Son of man, that is to say, of Christ, he says, " My 
spirit was teixified, I Daniel in the midst of my body, and 
the visions of my head troubled me," * etc. Some have inter- 
preted these four kingdoms as signifying those of the Asf^yrians, 
Persians, Macedonians, and Romans. They who desire to 



ITT'; 



1 1 Cor. XV. 28. 
' Jso. Ivl. 5. 



• 1 John iii. 9. 
*Dan. vii. 15-28. 



Fassftge cited at length. 



<594 



THi: CITY OP GOD. 



[book xr 



understand the fitness of this interpretation may read Jerome's 
book on Daniel, which is written with a sufficiency of care 
and erudition. But he who reads this passage, even half- 
asleep, cannot fail to see that the kingdom of Antichrist shaD 
fiercely, though for a short timo, assaO the Church before the 
last judgment of God shall introduce the eternal reign of tte 
saints. For it is patent from the context that the tim^, timm^ 
arid half a tivie, means a year, and two years, and half a yetf, 
that is to say, three years and a half Sometimes in Scriptnir 
the same thing is indicated by months. For though the word 
times seems to be used here in the Latin indefinitely, that is 
only because the Latins have no dual, as the Greeks hare^ 
and as the Hebrews also are said to have. Times, therefore, ii 
used for two times. As for the ten kings, whom, as it seems, 
Antichrist is to find in the person of ten individuals when be 
comes, I own I am afraid we may be deceived in this, and 
that he may come unexpectedly while there are not ten kings 
living in the Roman world. For what if this number ten 
signifies the whole number of kings who are to precede his 
coming, as totality is frequently symbolized by a thousand, 
or a hundred, or seven, or other nimibers, which it is not 
necessary to recount ? 

In another place the same Daniel says, " And there shall 
be a time of trouble, such as was not since there was bom a 
nation upon earth until that time : and in that time all Thy 
people which shall be found written in the book shall be de- 
livered. And many of them thiit sleep in the mound of 
earth shall arise, some to everlasting life, and some to shame 
and everlasting confusion. And they that be wise shall shine 
as the brightness of the firmament ; and many of the just aa 
the stars for ever."* ThiB passage is very sinular to the one 
we have quoted from the Gospel,* at least so far as regards the 
resurrection of dead bodies. For those who are there said to 
be " in the graves " are here spoken of as " sleeping in the 
mound of earth," or, as others translate, "in the dmi of 
earth," There it is said, " They shall come forth ;" so here, 
" They shall arise." There, " They that have done good, to the 
resurrection of life ; and they that have done evil, to the re- 
^ Don. jcii. 1-3. * John r. 3& 





BOOK XX.] 



PREDICTIONS IN THE PSALMS. 



395 



stirrection of judgment;" here, "Some to everlasting life, and 
some to shame and everlasting confusion." Neither is it to 
be supposed a difference, though in place of the expression 
in the Gospel, " All who are in their graves," the prophet does 
rot say " all," but " many of them that sleep in the mound of 
eortL" For many is sometimes used in Scripture for all. 
Thus it was said to Abraham, " I have set thee as the father 
of many nations/' though in another place it was said to him^ 
" In thy seed shall all nations be blessed." * Of such a re- 
en rrection it is said a little afterwards to the prophet him- 
self, " And come thou and rest : for there is yet a day till the 
completion of the consummation ; and thou ahalt rest, and 
rise in thy lot in the end of the dajV * 

S4. Patsoffa/rom the PmtiM of David which predict the end qfihe vorld and 
the loot judgment. 

There are many allusions to the last judgment in the 
Psalms, but for the most part only casual and slight I can- 
not, however, omit to mention what is said there in express 
terms of the end of this world : " In the beginning hast Thou 
laid the foundations of the earth, O Lord ; and the heavens 
are the work of Thy hands. They shu.II perish, but Thou 
shalt endure ; yea> all of them shall wax old like a garment ; 
and aq a vesture Thou shalt change them, and they shall be 
changed : but Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not 
fail."^ Why is it that Porphyry, while he lauds the piety of 
the Hebrews in worshipping a God great and true, and terrible 
to the gods themselves, follows the oracles of these gods in 
accusing the Christians of extreme folly because they say that 
this world shall perish ? For here we find it said in the 
sacred books of the Hebrews, to that God whom this great 
philosopher acknowlerigas to be teirible even to the gods 
themselves, "The heavens are the work of Thy hands: they 
shall perisL" "VVlien the heavens, the higher and more secure 
part of the world, perish, shall the world itself be preserved ? 
If this idea is not relished by Jupiter, whose oracle is quoted 
by this philosopher as an unquestionable authority in rebuke 
of the credulity of the Christians, why does he not similarly 
rebuke the "vvisdom of the Hebrews as folly, seeing that the 

> Ocn. xvii. 6, and xxiL 18. ■ Dan. xu. 13. » Pi, ciL 26-27. 



THE CITY or GOD, 



[book 3X 



prediction is found iu their most holy books ? But if this 
Hebrew wisdoiiij with which Porphyry is so captivated that 
he extols it through the utterances of his own gods, pixicLiims 
that the heavens are to perish, how ia he so infatuated as to 
detest the faith of the Christians partly, if not chiefly^ on tlui 
account, that they believe the world is to perish 1 — though bow 
the heavens are to perish if the world does not is not eosj to 
see. And, indeed, in the sacred writing wliich are peculia; 
to ourselves, and not common to the Hebrews and us, — 1 
mean the evangelic and apostolic books, — the following ex- 
pressions are used : " The figure of this world passeth away;'*' 
"The world pji^seth awayj"' "Heaven and earth shall paa 
away,"* — expressions which are, I fancy, somewhat milder tluu 
"They shaM pansh." In the Epistle of the Apostle Peter, loo, 
where the world which then was is said to have perished, 
being overflowed with water, it is sufficiently obvious what 
part of the world is signified by the whole, and in what sense 
the woi*d perished is to be taken, and what heavens were kept 
in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and 
perdition of ungodly men.* And wlu'.u he says a little after- 
wards, *' The day of the Lord will come as a thief ; in ibe 
which the heavens shall pass away with a great rush, and the 
elements shall melt with burning heat, and the earth and ibc 
works whiuh are in it aliall be burned up;" and then odds, 
" Seeing, then, that all these things shall be dissolved, what 
manner of persons ought ye to be?"*^ — these heavens whidi 
are to perish may be understood to be the same which he said 
were kept in store reserved for fire ; and the elements which 
ai'e to be burned are those which ai-e full of storm and dis- 
turbance in this lowest part of the world in which he said 
that these heavens were kept in store ; for the higher heavens 
in whose firmament are set the stars are safe, and remain in 
their integrity. For even the expression of Scripture, that 
" the stars shall fall from heaven,"^ not to mention tliat a 
different interpretation is much preferable, rather shows 
that Uie heavens themselves shall remaiuj if the stars are to 
foil from them. This expression, then, is either figurative, « 



> 1 Cor. vii. 31. 
« 2 Pet. iiL 6. 



» 1 John ii. 17. 
»2Pet iii. 10, 11. 



' Mftlt. XTL\y, 35. 
* Matt. xzir. 3d. 





BOOK XX] 



ntEDICTIOKS IN THE PSAUIS. 



397 



is more credible, or this phenomenon will take place in this 
lowest heaven, like that menLioned by Vir^l, — 

" A meteor with a train of light 
Athwart the sky gleamed doizling bright, 
Then in Idean wooils was losL'*^ 

But the passage I have quoted from the psalm seems to 
except none of the heavens from the destiny of destruction; 
for he says, " The heavens are the works of Thy hands : they 
shall perish ; " so that, as none of them are excepted from the 
category of God's works, none of them are excepted from 
destruction. For oiir opponents will not condescend to defend 
the Hebrew piety, which has won the approbation of their 
gods, by the words of tlie Apostle Peter, whom they vehe- 
mently detest ; nor will they argue that, as the apostle in Ids 
epistle imderstands a part when lie speaks of the whole world 
perishing in the flood, thongh only tlie lowest part of it, and 
the corresponding heavens were destroyed, so in the psalm the 
whole is used for a part, and it is said " They shall perish," 
though only the lowest heavens are to perish. But since, as 
I said, ihey will not condescend to reason tlms, lest they 
should seem to approve of Peter's meaning, or ascribe as 
much importance to the final conflagration as we ascribe to 
the deluge, whereas they contend that no waters or flames 
could destroy the whole human race, it only remains to them 
to maintain that tlieir gods lauded the wisdom of the Hebrews 
because they had not read this psalm. 

It is the last judgment of Gud which is referred to also in 
the 50th Psalm in the words, " God shall come manifestly, 
our God, and shall not keep silence : fire shall devour before 
Him, and it shall bo veiy tempestuous round about Him. Ho 
shall call the heaven above, and the earth, to judge His 
people. Gather His saints together to Him ; they wlio make 
a covenant with Him over sacrifices."^ This we underetand 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, whom we look for from licaven to 
judge the quick and the dead. For He shall come manifestly 
to judge justly the just and the unjust, who before came 
hiddenly to be unjustly judged by the unjust. He, I say, 
shall come manifestly, and shall not keep silence, that is, shall 
> j£neid, ii. 694. « Pa. 1. 3-6. 



398 THE CITY OF GOD. [BOOK XI 

make Himself known by His voice of judgment, -who before, 
when Ho came liiddenly, was silent before His judge "wboi 
He was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and, as a lajnb befon 
the shearer, opened not His mouth, as we read that it was 
prophesied of Him by Isaiah/ and as we see it fulfilled in the 
Gospel"'' As for the fire, and tanpest, we have already said 
how these are to be interpreted when we were explaining t 
similar passage in Isaiah.^ As to the expression, " He shall 
call the heaven above," as the saints and the righteous an 
rightly called heaven, no doubt this means what the aposUe 
says, " We shall be caught up together with them in the 
clouds, to meet the Lord in the air."* For if we take the 
bare literal sense, how is it possible to call the heaven abovie, 
as if the heaven could he anywhere else than above ? And 
the following expression, " And the earth to judge His people," 
if we supply only the words, " He shall call," that is to say, 
" He shall call the earth also," and do not supply " above." 
seems to give us a meaning in accordance with sound doctrine, 
the heaven symbolizing those who will judge along with 
Christ, and the earth those who shall be judged ; and thus 
the words, " He shall call the heaven above,** would nrt 
mean, " He shall catcli up into the air," but " He shall lift np 
to seats of judgment." Possibly, too, " He shall call the 
heaven," may mean. He shall call the angels in the high and 
lofty places, that He may descend with them to do judgment; 
and " He shall call the eai-th also " would then mean, He shall 
call the men on the earth to judgment. But if with the words 
"and the earth " we understand not only " Ho shall call," but 
also " above," so as to make the full sense be. He shall call 
the heaven above, and He shall call the earth above, then I 
think it is best understood of the men who shall be cauffhc 
up to meet Christ in the air, and that they are called du 
Juavtn with reference to their soula, and the earth vdih reter- 
ence to their bodies. Then what is " to judge His people," 
but to separate by judgment the good from the bad, as the 
sheep from the goats ? Then he turns to address the angels : 
" Gather His saints together unto Him." For certainly a 



' Isa. Uii. 7. ' Matt. xxtI 63. 

• CJi. 21. * 1 TtcM. iv. 17. 



In 



matter so important must be accomplished by the ministry of 
angels. And if we ask who the saints are who are gathered 
unto Him by the angels, we are told, " They who make a 
covenant with Him over sacrifices." This is the whole life of 
the saints, to make a covenant with God over sacrifices. For 
*' over sacrifices " either refers to works of mercy, which are 
preferable to sacrifices in the judgment of God, who says, 
"I desire mercy more than sacrifices;"* or if "over sacri- 
fices " means in sacrifices, then these very works of mercy are 
the sacrifices with which God is pleased, as I remember to 
have stated in the tenth book of this work ; * and in these 
works the saints make a covenant with God, because they do 
them for the sake of the promises which are contained in His 
new testament or covenant And hence, when His saints 
have been gathered to Him and set at His right hand in the 
last judgment, Christ shall sny, " Come, ye blessed of my 
Pather, take possession of the kingdom prepared for you from 
the foundation of the world. For I was hun^'ry, and ye gave 
me to eat,"^ and so on, mentioning the good works of the 
good, and their eternal rewards assigned by the last sentence 
of the Judge. 

25. Of MalacliVa prophecy t in wWcR he tptaka of the Uut Judgment, and of a 
eUansing which some are to undertjo by purifying punishments. 

The prophet Malachi or Malachias, who is also called Angel, 
and is by some (for Jerome * tells us that this is the opinion 
of the Hebrews) identified with Ezra the priest," others of 
whose writings have been received into the canon, predicts 
the last judgment, saying, " Beliuld, He conmth, saith the Lord 
Almighty ; and who shall abide the day of His entrance ? . . . 
for I am the Lord your Godj and I cliange not." * From 
these words it more evidently appears that some shall in the 
last judgment suffer some kind of purgatorial piinishments ; 
for what else can be understood by the word, " Wlio shall 
abide the day of His entrance, or who shall be able to look 
upo